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f X E PAGE, 0 H., LITT D 

t E. CAPPS, PHD, LLD f W, H. D. ROUSE, litt.d 

L. A. POST, m.a. E. H. VARMUSTGTON, m a , p.r.histsoc. 






H. D. P. LEE, M.A. 







Printed m Great Bntam 


This translation was begun shortly before the war, 
laid aside in 1940, and finally completed in August 
1948. I have added, m proof stage, some references 
to publications since that date, but have not been 
able to use them in detail. I have acknowledged in 
the appropriate places help that has generously been 
given to me, but I should like to record here in 
particular my gratitude to Professor Fobes for per- 
mission to use his text and index, and my sense of 
indebtedness to E. W Webster’s version m the 
Oxford Translation. 

H. D. P. L. 

Clifton College 
September 1951 






Introduction — 

A. Books I-III 


B. Book IV 


C. Date 


D. Conclusion 






Text and Translation — 

Book I 


Book II 


Book III 


Book IV 


Index of Names and Topics 


Greek Index 




The Meteorologica falls into two well-defined parts, 
Books I-III and Book IV. The first three books form 
a complete work by themselves. The programme set 
out in Book I ch 1 contains nothing that can plausibly 
be saic^to look forward to Book IV and appears to have 
been completed by the end of Book III, 6 and the last 
chapter of Book III looks forward to a treatment of 
metals and minerals, which Book IV does not contain. 
Book IV is in fact a separate treatise, as had already 
been noticed by the Greek commentators. 0 The two 
parts of the work may therefore be treated separately 
m this Introduction. 

A. Books I-III 

1. Authenticity and 'place. The authenticity of these 
books has not been seriously questioned, and there 
seems no reason to doubt that they are by Aristotle/ 

a I am grateful to Pi of. Hackforth for reading this Intro- 
duction m manuscript and foi his comments. 

b See mtioductoiy note to Book I. ch. I cf. W. Capelle, 
“ Das Proomium der Meteorologie,” Hermes xlvii (1913), pp. 

c Alex. 179. 3, Olymp. 373. 91. 

d W. Capelle, loc. cit , argues cogently for the authenticity 
of Book I. ch 1, and, by implication, of Books I-III. Cf. 
also Ideler i pp. vi If., St.-Hilane pp. lxv IF. 



Their place in the series of his physical works is de- 
fined m the opening chapter of Book I. There Aris- 
totle gives, in effect, the following arrangement : (1) 
The Physics , dealing with first causes and natural 
movement in general ; (2) the De Caelo i and ii, deal- 
ing with astronomy ; (3) De Caelo iii and iv and De 
Generatione et Con uptio?ie 9 dealing with the four 
elements, their mutual transformations and the 
general principles of the consequent processes of 
generation and destruction ; (4) the Meteorologica ; 
(5) the works on biology. 

2. Contents . The subjects dealt with in Books I-III 
appear to us very miscellaneous. They ar£ sum- 
marized by Aristotle in Book I. clr. 1, but can perhaps 
best be seen at a glance in chapter headings. 

Book I. Ch. I. Introduction . the place of 
Meteorology in the Natural 
Sciences and summary of 
matters to be dealt with. 

Chs. 2-3 Preliminaries. Ch. 2 . Recapitu- 
lation of the conclusions 
reached on the four elements 
m De Caelo m, iv and De Gen . 
et Corr . 

Ch. 3. The re- 
lative dispositions of air and 
fire m the terrestrial sphere. 

Ch. 4. Shooting stars. 

Ch. 5. The Aurora Borealis. 

Chs. 6-7. Comets. 

Ch. 8. The Milky Way. 

Ch. 9- Rain, cloud and mist. 

Ch. 10. Dew and hoar-frost. 

Ch. 11. Snow. 



Ch 12. Hail. 

Ch. 13. Winds, rivers and springs. 

Ch. 1 1. Climatic changes, coast erosion 
and silting. 

Book II. Chs. 1-3. The sea ; its origin, place and 

Chs. 4-6. Winds. 

Chs. 7-8. Earthquakes. 

Ch. 9. Thunder and lightning. 

Book III. Ch. 1. Hurricanes, typhoons, firewinds 
and thunderbolts. 

Chs. 2-3. Haloes. 

Chs. 4-5. Rainbows. 

Ch. 6 Rods and mock suns: concluding 

It will be seen at once that we have here subjects 
dealt with to-day by several sciences, by astronomy, 
geography , geology and seismology, as well as meteoro- 
logy m its modern connotation But this is typical 
of a stage in the development of the natuial sciences 
in which they had not yet fully differentiated out 
from an all-embracing Natural Philosophy. The 
process of differentiation was largely started by Aris- 
totle, and Book I. ch. 1 shows us how far he had taken 
it. He places the Meteor ologica, whose subject he 
himself seems to feel to be somewhat ill-defined, after 
the De Caelo iii and iv and De Gen. et Corr. In the 
De Caelo Books I-II he deals with astronomy and 
cosmology. He believes the universe to be spherical 
in form, and accepts the system of Eudoxus which 
accounts for the movements of the stars and planets 
by a system of concentric spheres, fitting inside each 
other, whose combined motions produce the apparent 
movements of the heavenly bodies. This system of 



spheres is not described in detail in the De Caelo , 
though it is apparently assumed (Book II. oh. 12, 
293 a 5 ff.) ; the only description of it which we lia\ e 
is that m Met A. ch. 8. The spheres are made of a 
fifth element (cf Meteor . 1 . 2) and the innermost set 
of spheres is that of the moon. The region below the 
moon, the “ terrestrial ” or “ sublunar ” sphere, is 
filled by the four elements, earth, air, fire and water. 
They form four further concentric spheres, each 
element having its own natural place, but there is 
a constant process of intermixture between them 
which produces all the phenomena of the terrestrial 
world as we know it (cf. note at end of Book I. ch. 3). 
De Caelo Books III-IV outline the general doctrine 
of the four elements, and of their four natural places ; 
the De Gen. et Corr. deals with the general principles 
which govern their intermixture and the consequent 
processes of generation and destruction which con- 
stitute the natural world. In the Meteorologica Aris- 
totle comes to deal with these processes in detail. 
The first, and in a sense the most obvious group of 
them, is the meteorological group (including those 
astronomical phenomena which Aristotle regarded 
as meteorological) : shooting-stars, meteors, comets 
and the milky way, rain, hail, snow, frost, thunder 
and lightning, winds of all sorts, haloes and rainbows. 
But though the opening words of the description in 
Book I. ch. 1 of the scope of the work a indicate that 
these phenomena will be its main concern, Aristotle 
cannot confine it within these bounds. So m Book I 
we have an account of rivers and springs and of coast 

a 338 b 21 7T€pl tov yzirvLcovra (idXiora tottov rfj <f>op$ rfj rcbv 
aarpmv : it is concerned with phenomena “in the region 
which borders most nearly on the movements of the stais,” 


erosion and silting, and in Book II of the sea and of 
earthquakes, topics which can hardly be classed as 
//ereo/ja, though they are not unrelated to the re- 
maining topics m these books and their inclusion is 
therefore not altogether surprising. But whereas 
Book I. ch. 1 a indicates that the Meteorologica will be 
followed immediately by the biological works, Book 
III, 378 a 15 if., promises a treatise on metals and 
minerals, on the grounds that these also are pro- 
ducts of the two exhalations studied earlier in the 

The fact is that in the Meteorologica Aristotle em- 
barks «on an account of the processes of change m the 
four elements whose general principles have been 
laid down m De Gen . et Corr He starts with meteoro- 
logical processes and includes with them certain 
allied topics But these two groups between them 
clearly do not exhaust the processes and products 
of the transformation and mixture of elements : there 
is a vast field of physical and chemical changes and 
substances left unaccounted for, and even Aristotle 
with his strong bias towards biology cannot have been 
unaware of them. Hence the promise (never fulfilled 
in the extant works) at the end of Book III, and hence 
also the inclusion of Book IV in its present position, 
for it is just those processes of chemical change, inter- 
preted in terms of Aristotle’s doctiine of the four 
elements, and certain physical properties of materials 
that are its subject. 

, B. Book IV 

1. Authenticity. The authenticity of Book IV has 

* 339 a 5. 



been doubted, and Ross a says that it is “ pretty cer- 
tainly not genuine,” while Jaeger & refers to it as 
“ spurious.” On the other hand, Joachim c treats it 
as genuine. The only attempt to argue the case 
against its authenticity is that by I. Hammer- J ensen, cZ 
who has in turn been criticized by Dr. V. C. B. 
Coutant. e 

As Dr. Coutant remarks, H.-JJs argument turns 
mainly on “an analysis of the natural philosophy 
behind the book ” ; or, more precisely, on an attempt 
to show that certain ideas m the book are un-Aris- 
totelian, for, “ asserting the character of the book to 
be very mechanical and atomistic in its explanation 
of certain phenomena, she ventures to ascribe the 
work to Strato of Lamps acus, on the ground that 
Strato was the most atomistic of the Peripatetics.” f 
Such arguments from the ideas expressed in a par- 
ticular book and their consistency or inconsistency 
with the main tenets of a philosopher expressed in 
the main body of his work are bound to be, to some 
extent, subjective : but I agree with Dr. Coutant 
that H.-J. has failed to make a convincing case, and 

a Aristotle (3id ed.), p 11. 

6 Aristotle (Eng. trans.), p. 386. 

* Aristotle on Coming-to-be and Passing-aicay and article 
on “ Aristotle’s Conception of Chemical Combination,” J.Ph . 
xxix 11903). 

d “ Das sogennante IV. Buch der Meteorologie des Ans- 
toteles,” Hermes , 1 (1915), pp. 113-136. 

* In a dissertation for the degree of D.Ph. at Columbia 
Univeisity entitled Alexander of Aphrodisias . Commentary 
on Book IV of Aristotle's Meteorological piivately printed, 
1936. I am grateful to Mr. D. J. Allan of Balliol College for 
lending me his copy of this work (reviewed by him in C.R. h 
(Nov. 1937)), of which copies are deposited at Columbia Uni- 
versity but which is not generally available. 

1 Op . cit. p, 8. 


it is surprising that her arguments have remained 
unanswered so long. a 

H.-J.’s two main arguments are (1) that the ex- 
planations of natural processes given in the book are 
of a very “ mechanistic ” kind, the characteristic 
Aristotelian insistence on the final cause being 
absent ; (2) that the use made of the ideas of iropoi 
and oyKoi in chs. 3, 8 and 9 is un- Aristotelian and 
indicates a connexion with Atomism. 

(1) The answer to the first of these objections is 
supplied by Aristotle himself in ch. 12 and overlooked 
by H.-J. Briefly, it is to be found in the words rb yap 
o$ eVf/cc TjK terra kvravda 8/jXov f otrov 8rj irXeicrTOV r?/? 
vXijs ” (39& a 3). “ The final cause is least obvious 
where matter predominates." Throughout the book 
Aristotle is dealing with changes that arise from the 
mutual relations of the four “ prime contraries ” and 
the four elements through which they operate, which 
are the material basis of the universe. The formal 
and final causes are not entirely overlooked 6 : but, 
as Aristotle is careful to point out in the final chapter, 
they are in the nature of things less obvious when one 
is dealing with matter and material processes in the 
more elementary stages ; they become obvious only 
when we get higher m the scale of creation, in par- 
ticular when we reach plants and animals It is true c 
that in ch. 12 Aristotle speaks of the homoeomerous 
substances as being formed “ by hot and cold and 
the motions set up by them ” ( i.e . by material and 
efficient causes only), while in De Gen . An, ii. 1 , 734 b 
29 ff. he speaks as if a final-formal cause were also 

a W. Capelle in Pauly- Wissowa, Supp, Bd. vi (1935), pp. 
339-342, is unconvinced by them but does not give his reasons. 

& Of. 379 b 25, 381 a 1, 388 a 20. 

c H.-J. p. 127. 



necessary for then* formation But, as Dr. Co u hint 
points out, he is not consistent elsewhere on this point 
in De Gen. An itself a *, and what he says m ch. 12 is 
not that a final cause is ever entirely absent, but that 
in material processes of the kind dealt with 111 Book 
IV it is difficult to perceive, and can therefore, it is 
implied, be ignored The homoeomerous bodies are, 
clearly, a borderline case and can be spoken of in 
either way. 

There is therefore nothing inconsistent with Aris- 
totle’s philosophy of nature in the comparative 
absence of the final-formal cause from Book IV. The 
subject matter is, on Aristotle’s own showing ,<isuch as 
to make that absence likely ; and it is perhaps worth 
adding that the same is true of the first three books, 
which are undoubtedly genuine, and which could with 
equal plausibility be argued to be “mechanical.” b 
Nor is H.-J.’s contention c that Aristotle was hardly 
aware of the problems of mechanical causation and 
the antithesis oft ere/ccc — a my m/s till the} T were 
brought to his attention by Strato as authoi of Meteor. 
IV in the least plausible. Aristotle was acutely aware 
of these problems, both in Physics B and in De Part. 
An. (cf. Book I. ch 1 in particular) and De Gen. An. ; 
and Physics B and the main groundwork of his bio- 
logical w T ork were certainly completed before the end 
of his residence in the Troad and Lesbos. 

a 743 a 7 states the same view as Meteor, iv. 19 and clearly 
refers to it. 

6 Of. Coutant, op. clt. p. 10. 

c P. 196. 

d For the Physics cf. the Introduction to Ross’s edition. 
H.-J. makes no refeience to the Physics and erroneously 
assumes (p 199), with Jaeger, that the biological works are 
late * cf. my paper in C.Q . (July-Oct. 1948). There is no 


(2; H.-J. finds traces of atomistic doctrine in the 
references to dy/cot and 7ro/)ot in chs. 3, 8 and Q. a But 
there is no evidence that a belief m iropoi w as char- 
acteristic of the Atomists. For if Democritus used 
the word m connexion with sense perception, so also 
did a number of other early philosophers 6 ; and 
the use of the idea of ? rapoi as part of the theory of 
the constitution of matter is characteristic not of the 
atomists but of Empedocles. It is true that in De 
Gen. et Corr. i. 8 Aristotle associates the theory of 
“ pores ” with the doctrine of the Atomists on the 
grounds that the empty spaces between the atoms 
are analogous to the “ pores ” of Empedocles, 0 but 
it is clear that the two doctrines are different, that 
the association is made by Aristotle himself for pui- 
poses of criticism, and that the theory of pores is not 
part of atomist doctrine d The case is little better 
with oyKQL. The word is used by the Atomists and 
may mean “ atoms,” but the use is very occasional 0 
and the meaning uncertain, and in Epicurus at any 
rate it seems to mean little more than “ particle ” 
without any specific reference to atoms f 

evidence that Strato attended the Lyceum during the life- 
time of Anstotle. He is said to have been a pupil of Theo- 
phrastus, whom he succeeded as head of the Lyceum, dying 
circa 270-268 bc He cannot have been moie than a child 
m the decade 350-340 b c. and can theiefoie hardly be re- 
sponsible for having diawn Anslotle’s attention to difficulties 
of which he was at that time well awaie. Cf. Zeller, Aristotle 
and the Earlier Peripatetics , n. p. 451, note 1 
° P. 122. b Cf. Diels, Vors. Index, s v. 

c 6y. 325 b 5-11. 

d Cf. Joachim’s notes on this chapter (A ristotle on Coming- 
to-be and Passmg-au'ay , pp. 156 if.) ; and Bailey, Greek 
Atomists , chs 2 and 3. 

e Diels, Vors. Index, s v . ; Bailey, op, at, p 156, note 1. 
f Bailey, op. at. pp. 577-579. 



The general meaning “ particle,” in fact, suits the 
two ° contexts m which the word occurs in Book IV 
very well. In both Aristotle is speaking of 'water 
penetrating and melting or softening other bodies, 
and it is natural enough to talk of particles of water 
penetrating into other materials Similarly it is not 
unnatural m these contexts to speak, 'without using 
the words in any technical sense, of “ pores ” into 
which the particles of water penetrate. The obvious 
example which presents itself is that of a sponge : and 
this is, in fact, used by Aristotle when speaking of 
pores in 386 b 5, 7 and 17. It is easy to extend the 
idea to penetration by fire (387 a 19, 21) and, with 
the analogy of the sponge in mind (386 b 5), to com- 
pressibility (386 b 2 ff.). In all these cases the body 
concerned can be called “ porous ” without stretching 
the ordinary meaning of the word far. Nor need it 
be stretched much farther to make it cover the break- 
ing or splitting of materials (386 a 15, 387 a 2) : the 
grain of wood (387 a 2), for example, is a kind of path 
(another meaning of 7rdpo$) along which it splits b 

The references to irapot and ojkoi are thus best 
explained by taking the words m their non-technical 
ordinary meaning * and Olympiodorus’ explanation c 
that by rropoi ; Aristotle means rot tviraOecrrepa popm is 
not far wrong. There is no reason whatever to see 
any reference to atomism.^ But even if the refer- 

0 385 a 30, b 20. 

6 The passages in which nopot are mentioned may be 
grouped as follows : penetration by moisture 381 b 1, 3, 
385 a 29, b 20, 24, 25 ; penetration by fire 387 a 19, 21 ; 
compressibility 386 b 2, 4, 5, 6, 9 ; breakability 386 a 15; 
fissibility 387 a 2 c 313. 18. 

d H.-J.’s case is not improved by an attempt (p. 122) to 
read atomism mto 387 a 12 if., wheie there is no conceivable 
reference to it. 



ences to atomism \\ ere proved, this would not neces- 
sarily indicate Strato as author. For though Strato 
is said to have abandoned the Aristotelian teleology, 
to have regarded heat and cold as ultimate causes, 
and to have adopted the atomists* conception of the 
void, he is also said to have refused to accept the 
atomic theory itself on the grounds that the possi- 
bility of infinite division made the existence of a 
minimum physical body impossible. 

H.-J.’s two mam arguments thus seem to be ill 
founded Without them the others can hardly carry 
much weight and in themselves are lacking in cogency. 
Most gf them turn on discrepancies between state- 
ments in Book IV and statements made elsewhere 
by Aristotle. But as Dr. Coutant points out (p. 10, 
note 18), Aristotle is frequently inconsistent on minor 
matters ; and the search for minor inconsistencies 
in his works really throws little light on their authen- 
ticity. Thus if Aristotle in this book (ch. 4, 381 b 24, 
and 382 a 4) says that all bodies are compounded of 
earth and water, while in De Gen. et Corr. 334 b 31 ff. 
he says that all bodies are composed of all four 
elements, the difference is one of point of view rather 
than of fundamental doctrine. For in this book all 
four elements are still involved in the composition 
of bodies ; but two are regarded as active, and there- 
fore as efficient cause, two as passive, and therefore 
as material cause. In ch. 4, 382 a 3, water is called 
the element most characterized by moisture, in De 

a Zellei, Phil, der Gnechen n 3 . 2, pp. 901 ff. : Eng. trans. 
Aristotle and the Earlier Peripatetics , pp. 456-460. H.-J.’s 
statement (p. 125), “ Von Straton wissen wir, dass er Peri- 
patitiker war, und doch der atomischen Lehie, die er aus- 
baute, seme Zustimmnng gab,” seems to contradict what 
Zeller, to whom she xefers, in fact says. 



Gen. et Corr 331 a t< it is said to be characterized by 
cold rather than moisture 1 but Anslotle is not con- 
sistent on this point m De Gen et Corr. itself and at 
38 1 1) 31 implies that water is characteristically moist, 
which agrees with what, is said here in ch. k n Again, 
there is no radical inconsistency between what Ans- 
totle says about olive oil in ch. 7, 383 b 20 flf , and what 
he says in De Gen. An. 735 b 12 if., and 1 agree with 
Dr. Coutant, that there is no conflict between what 
Aristotle says at 379 a 26 about y oIkCkk and 

what he says in Book II, 355 b 9? about the 
Oepfioryfit But further detailed argument may be 
omitted here. 

Finally, there are certain positive indications that 
the book is by Aristotle. There are three fairly clear 
references to it m the biological works (with w T hich 
ch. 12 deliberately links it) : De Part. An. ii 2, 649 a 
33 ff. refers to chs. 6-8 and 10, De Gen. An. ii. 6, 743 a 
3-7 refers to chs. 4-7, and v. 4, 784 b 8 refers to ch 1, 
379 a 16. The doctrine of ch. 12 is, as has been in- 
dicated above, thoroughly Aristotelian, and indeed 
an important passage for Aristotle’s view’s on teleo- 
logy m organic and inorganic nature The use of the 
parallel between r<syn/ and (cf ch. 2, note a 

on p 298 and ch. 3, note b on p 308) is typically 
Aristotelian, and can be found, for example, running 
through Physics B and De Part An. i. 1. The treat- 
ment of hard and soft as the primary qualities in chs. 
4 ff is, as H.-J. herself points out (p. 120), consistent 
with what Aristotle says elsew T here on the subject 
(De Gen. et Corr. ii. 2, 329 b 32 ff., De Anima ii 11, 
423 b 27 ff., iii. 13, 435 a 21 ff.), and w r hat is said about 


the four prime contraries and the four elements in 
general is m complete accord with De Caelo in and iv 
and De Gen. et Corr. (which is peihaps why Alexander 
grouped the book with the De Gen. et Corr.). Lastly, 
m the latter part of the book the homoeomerous sub- 
stances are given a place in the constitution of the 
physical world similar to that given to them in De 
Part. An. ii. 1, 616 a 12 if. 

I conclude that the case against the authenticity 
of Book IV has not been made out, that what indica- 
tions there are point to it being genuine, and that 
it should be accepted as such until a far stronger case 
is madoout against it than hitherto. 

2. Contents. Book IV, as has been remarked, 0 is 
concerned with chemical change and various pro- 
perties of matter. ^ In it Aristotle deals m detail 
with processes of what we should to-day call chemical 
change, whose general principles he has laid down in 
the De Gen. et Corr. : he deals also with various 
secondary properties of matter, secondary, that is, to 
the four “ prime contraries,” which have also been 
dealt with m De Gen. et Corr. The sequence of 
thought in the book is by no means easy to follow, 
and can best be seen in a brief analysis of its contents. 

A Chs. 1-3. The effects of heat and cold. 

Ch. 1. Summary of the doctrine 
of four prime contraries (hot, 
cold, moist, dry) and four 
elements (fire, air, water, 
earth). Heat and cold as 
active factors are responsible 
for generation and destruc- 

a P. xiii above. b Of. Joachim, loc. at., J.Ph. xxix (1903). 



Chs. 2-3. The effects of heat and 
cold on natural bodies. These 
are assimilated to the two 
easily observable processes 
of cooking food and ripening 
fruit (cf. chapter analysis to 
chs. 2-3 and p 298, note a). 

B. Chs. 4-9. Qualities arising from the primary 
factors moist and dry, which 
enter into the constitution of all 
physical bodies. 

Ch. 4. Moist and dry imply 
hard and soft, which are m 
this sense primary qualities. 
Ch . 5 . H ard and s oft imply solidi- 
fication and liquefaction, 
which are due to heat and 
.cold. Drying as a form of 

Chs. 6-7. Solidification and 
liquefaction proper. 

(3) In watery liquids, which 
are solidified by cold, 
liquefied by heat. 

(2) In mixtures of earth and 
water (which may also 
thicken instead of solidi- 

(a) In which earth pre- 

(b) In which water pre- 

Ch. 7, 383 b 20-end. Discussion 
of particular examples. Any- 



thing that will either solidify 
or thicken contains earth. 
Chs. 8-9- Eighteen pairs of fur- 
ther qualities arising from 
the four primary factors are 
defined and discussed. 

C. Chs. 10-11. The homoeomerous bodies ( cf \ chap. 

8, introductory note). These are 
classified according to the pre- 
dominance m them of dry and 
moist (ch 10) or hot and cold 
(ch. 11). 

D. Ch^l2. Conclusion. Looks forward to a treat- 

ment of the homoeomerous bodies 
in detail (presumably m the bio- 
logical works, e.g. De Part An.) 
and points out the importance 
of the final-formal cause in 
nature, even though it is not 
always apparent. 

C. Date 

The evidence for the date of the composition of the 
Meteorologica is inconclusive. Positive indications in 
the work are as follows : 

I. 7, 345 a 1 , mentions a comet which appeared in 
the archonship of Nicomachus 341/0 b.c. 

At III. 1, 371 a 31, the burning of the temple at 
Ephesus (356 b c ) is referred to as having taken place 
vvv, which would seem to mark it as a recent event. 

At III. 2,372 a 28, Aristotle, speaking of the appear- 
ance of a rainbow at night, says “ we have only met 
with two instances of it over a period of more than 




fifty years ” ; and it may be argued that this indicates, 
though not conclusively, that Aristotle was not a 
young man at the time he wrote it a 

These indications are not conclusive, and are mutu- 
ally inconsistent. For the first and third indicate 
a date after 340 : the second a date not far from 356. 

Two further arguments are used by Ideler (1. p. ix) : 

(1) That Aristotle’s references to the Caspian and 
Aral Seas (Book I. ch. 13, 351 a 8, Book II. ch. 1, 
354 a 3) argue a date prior to Alexander’s expedition, 
on the grounds that after Alexander the two seas 
were supposed to be one and to be a gulf of the Ocean 
(cf. Ideler ’s notes ad i 13, 1. 29, and li. 1,1. IQ). But 
this argument is invalidated by Tarn’s discussion. 6 

(2) That the observations on the position of the 
constellation of the Crown in Book II. ch. 5, 362 b 9, 
appear to be made as from the latitude of Athens. 
But the passage is of doubtful authenticity (cf. O.T. 
note ad loc .) and in any case would only indicate a 
date after 335 or before 347. 

It cannot therefore be said that internal evidence 
gives any conclusive evidence of date. On other 
general grounds Ross c and Jaeger followed by 
Dr. Coutant, e favour a later date But they base 
themselves on Jaeger’s conclusion that the biological 
works, with their attention to detail, are the products 
of Aristotle’s later years, and that other works, show- 
ing a similar attention to detail, must be referred to 
the same period. Jaeger’s view of the date of the 
biological works is ill founded, and all indications 

a Cf. Jaeger, Aristotle (Eng. trans.), p. 307, note 1. 

b Alexander the Great , u. pp. 6 ff. Cf. Note on Aristotle’s 
Geography, Bk. I. ch. 13. 

c Anstotle t p. 19. d Loc . cit. 

6 Op. cit. p. 18. 


point to an early origin for them a ; and this argu- 
ment for a later date for the Meteorologica therefore 
fails But there is undoubtedly some connexion 
between it and the biological works. The introduc- 
tion (Book I. ch. 1) looks forward to them in a way 
which suggests that Aristotle may have started vork 
on them ; and the conclusion of Book IV. ch. 12 again 
deliberately links itself with them. In addition, the 
only clear references to the Meteorologica elsewhere 
are in the biological works . b 

The evidence, therefore, if inconclusive, would 
seem to indicate that the Meteorologica was started 
not latfcr than Aristotle's period of residence in the 
Troad and Lesbos, when so much of his biological 
work was done. The connexion with the biological 
works and the reference to the temple of Ephesus 
both point to this. At the same time Aristotle with- 
out doubt continued to revise and bring up to date 
his work on the subject, and this accounts, for instance, 
for the reference to the archonship of Nicomachus, 
which must certainly be later than 340 b.c. We know 
that Aristotle's extant works are either lecture-notes 
or connected closely with his teaching work ; and 
the one thing any lecturer is constantly doing is to 
revise and bring his notes up to date. 

D. Conclusion 

That the Meteorologica is a little-read work is no 
doubt due to the intrinsic lack of interest of its con- 
tents. Aristotle is so far wrong in nearly all his con- 
clusions that they can, it may with justice be said, 

a Qf. above, p. xvi, note d. 

Of. above, p. xx, and Bonitz, Index , p. 102 b 49. 



have little more than a passing antiquarian interest. 
Certain passages there are which have an interest of 
their own, and vhich are less well known than they 
otherwise might be because of their context. Such 
are Book I. ch. 1, with its review of the physical 
sciences, perhaps the best-known passage in the work 
and the basis for the accepted arrangement of Aris- 
totle’s works ; Book I. ch. 13, 350 a 14 ff. and Book 
II. ch 5, 362 b 12 if , from which we learn Aristotle’s 
view of the nature and extent of the habitable world 
and the extent of his geographical knowledge ; pas- 
sages in Book I of considerable interest for the histoiy 
of Greek astronomy, for instance, those whfch give 
the views of Aristotle and of his piedecessors on 
comets and the Milky Way (chs. 6-7, and 8 ; Aris- 
totle’s view of the former was to hold the field until 
Newton®) ; Book IV. ch. 12, which adds considerably 
to our understanding of Aristotle’s views on the place 
of the final-formal cause in nature. 

But, apart from these passages of special interest, 
the main interest of the work is to be found not so 
much in any particular conclusions which Aristotle 
reaches, as m the fact that all his conclusions are so 
far wrong and in his lack of a method which could 
lead him to right ones. In this he is typical of Greek 
science. The comparative failure of the Greeks to 
develop experimental science was due to many causes, 
which cannot be considered here They lacked in- 
struments of precision — there were, for instance, no 
accurate clocks until Galileo discovered the pendulum. 
They did not produce until a comparatively late date 
any glass suitable for chemical experiment or lens- 
making. Their iron-making technique was elemen- 

a Heath, Aristarchus of Samos , p. 247. 



tary, which precluded the development of the machine. 
Their mathematical notation was clumsy and unsuited 
to scientific calculation. All these things would have 
severely limited the development of an experimental 
science had the Greeks fully grasped its method. 
Rut the experimental method eluded them. They 
observed but they did not experiment, and between 
observation and experiment there is a fundamental 
difference, which it is essential to recognize if the 
history of Greek thought is to be understood.® This 
difference can be clearly seen in the Meteorologies 
There is plenty of observation : Books I-III are full 
of it, and Book IV shows a keen observation of the 
processes of the kitchen and garden in terms of which 
Aristotle tries to explain chemical change in general. 
But there is practically no experiment, and m those 
experiments which Aristotle does quote the results 
given are wrong (cf. Book II. ch. 3, note b on p 156 
and note a on p. 158). A good example of his attitude 
and method is the theory of exhalations, which plays 
so prominent a part in Books I and II. 6 It has a 
basis in observation : Aristotle had obviously ob- 
served the phenomena of evaporation. Yet not only 
has it no basis in experiment but it is not designed to 
be verified experimentally, nor is it easy to conceive 
any experiment which could either confirm or invali- 
date it. It is this absence of the awareness for the 
necessity of an experimental test that is the mark of 
thought that is rational but not yet scientific, of the 
natural philosopher rather than the natural scientist. 
And of Aristotle’s natural philosophy and of Greek 
natural philosophy in general it is true that it re- 

0 Bui net, E G.P 4 , p 27, for instance, fails to recognize it. 
b Cf. note at the end of Book I. ch. 3. 



mained rational without being scientific, that it never 
passed from natural philosophy to natural science. 
There are, of course, exceptions both in Aristotle and 
elsewhere m Greek thought. Greek medicine comes 
very near to being scientific,' ® so also do Aristotle’s 
biological works ; and the Greeks made further 
progress in astronomy than in any of the other 
physical sciences, though this was just because their 
astronomy involved no experiment, but only observa- 
tion and mathematical calculation. But these are 
exceptions. Of the more general tendency the 
Meleorologica is typical ; it is a product of the natural 
philosopher, not the natural scientist, and iPis in this 
that its main interest lies. 


The text printed in this edition is that of Professor 
Fobes, to whom I wish to express my thanks and 
gratitude for his permission to use it. I have occa- 
sionally and with great diffidence adopted a different 
reading from that given in his text, m an attempt 
to produce a version that would give better sense 
I have noted these variations, and also in some places 
where the text is obscure some of the alternative 
readings given in his apparatus. 


The following are the works to which most frequent 
reference is made and the abbreviations used in 
referring to them. 

a Of W. H. S. Jones, The Medical Writings of A nonymus 
Londtniensis , Excursus I, pp. 148 if., and Philosophy and 
Medicine in Ancient Greece , p. 32. 


I L. Ideler, Aristotehs Meteor olog i- 
corum Libn IV, Lipsiae, 1836. 

F. H. Fobes, Aristotehs Meteorologi- 
contm Libn Quaituor , Harvard, 

J. Barthelemy-Saint-Hilaire, Meteoro- 
logie d'Anstote, Paris, 1863 

The Works of Aristotle , translated into 
English , vol. iii containing Me- 
teor ologica, by E. W. Webster, 
Oxford, 1931 (the “ Oxford trans- 
lation ”). 

F. C. E.^Thurot, “ Observations cri- 
tiques sur les Meteorologica 
d’Aiistote,” Revue Archeologique 
xx (1869)j pp- 415-420, xxi 
(1870), pp 87-93, 249-255, 339- 
346, 396-407. 



St -Hilaire. 


Alexandri m Aristotehs Meteorologi- Alex, or A 
corum lib? os Commentana , ed. M. 

Hayduck, Berlin, 1 899- 

Olympiodori in Aristotehs Meteora Com - Olymp. or O. 
mentaria, ed. Guil. Stuve, Berlin, 


loannis Philoponi m Aristotehs Meteoro- Philop. or P. 
logicorum hbrum primum Commen - 
tarium , ed. M. Hayduck, Berlin, 


In the notes on the text I have added, following 
Fobes, to the initial letter of the commentator the 
letters c, 1, or p to indicate whatever the reading 
referred to is to be found in a citation, in a lemma, or 
in the paraphrase and commentary. 



A fuller bibliography, concerned primarily with 
more recent publications, will be found in Fobes 
pp. xlii-xliii. To it may be added : 

D’Arcy Thompson, “ The Greek Winds,” Classical 
Review, xxxii (1918), pp. 49-56. 

D E. Eichholz, “ Aristotle’s Theory of the Formation 
of Metals and Minerals,” Classical Quarterly , xliii 
(July-October, 1949)^ p 11 * 1 . 

V. C. B. Coutant, Alexander of Apkrodisias : Commen- 
tary on Book IV of Aristotle's Meteorologica : dis- 
sertation submitted to Columbia University, 
privately printed, 1986. 

Sir T. L Heath, Aristarchus of Samos : a History of 
Greek Astronomy to Aristarchus, Oxford, 1918. 

Sir W. Napier Shaw, Manual of Meteorology , vol. 1 : 
Meteorology in History, Cambridge, 1982. 

Of the older commentators, who fall outside the 
scope of Fobes’ bibliography, the most noteworthy 
(apart from Ideler) is : 

F. Vicomercatus, In quatuor hbros Aristbtelis meteoro- 
logicorum Commentarii, Paris, 1556, and Venice, 

To these should be added : 

Ingemar During, Aristotle s' s Chemical Treatise 
Meteorologica Book IV, Goteborg, 1914? 
which did not come into my hands until this book 
was in proof. During ’s chief object is to prove 
Meteorologica IV to be “a genuine work from the 
hand of Aristotle by a thorough-going comparison of 
the contents and the language of this treatise with 
the treatises of undisputed Aristotelian origin ” 
(p. 20). His arguments supplement those given in 
my Introduction, 








The scope and subject-matter of Meteorology and its place in 
the system of Natural Philosophy. Natural Philosophy com- 
prises (1) Physics, which deals with first principles and the 
various kinds of natural motion ( the Physics) ; (2) Astronomy 
(the De Caelo) ; (3) the general theory of the elements and 
their transformation (De Caelo m, iv, De Generatione et 
Corruptione) ; (4) Meteorology , the subject of the present 
work ; (5) Zoology and Botany. 

Note . — In section (4), 338 a 26 — 339 a 5, Aristotle gives a 
summary of the subjects to be treated m the first three books. 
It is a preliminary survey , not a table of contents, and we 
must not look for too precise a correspondence between it and 
the contents of the work and the order of treatment : thus the 
milky way, comets and meteors are mentioned here in the 
reverse order to that in which they are in fact treated, and no 
specific mention is made of the contents of Book I. ch. 5. But 
broadly speaking the contents of the first three books do corre- 
spond to the summary here given. There are only three pas- 
sages which cause difficulty . 

(1) 338 b 24 ocra re defajpev av a epos etvat /coiva 7rd6rj /cat, 





argument ( continued ) 

vSaros. These words most naturally refer to Book I. chs . 9-12 
( which are summed up as a unit at the end of ch. 12) .• hut they 
may refer to Book III. chs. 2-6 as the commentators suppose. 

(2) 338 b 25 m 8e yrjs oaa pepT) kcli etSij sal iraQ-i) tcov pepwv. 
These words describe not very exactly the contents of Book 
1 . ch. 13 -Book II. ch. 3, and it seems best to suppose with the 
O.T. that it is to them that reference is intended , and to take 
e£ cov 338 b 25 as marking sequence only and not causal 

(3) 339 a 4 Kal t&v clXXojv rtov iyKVKXlcov, oaa. 8ia it r}£i,v avpu- 

fiaivet, rradr} rwv avraiv awpaTcov rovrcov rwv avrcov . . tovtojv 

can hardly refer to thunderbolts , etc., and must therefore 
presumably be taken to refer to air and water , the two elements 
most recently mentioned (338 b 24, cf. Alex. 3. 25), iyt a>- 
xrAtos- is used of any recurrent phenomenon , and though it 
might more easily be used to describe ram , hail, etc., x.e. 
Book I. chs. 9-12, it is not impossible to interpret it to refer 
to haloes , rainbows , etc., described m Book III. chs. 2-6. These 
are all due to condensation , which is what irrjgis seems to mean 
here. Cf. W. Capelle, “ Das Proomium der Meteorologies 
Hermes oelvii, pp. 514-535. 



38 a 20 EU/H fJL€V oSv TCOV rpCOTCOV olrlcOV TTjs <j)VOe<OS 
Kal 7 repl rdorjs Kivfjaecos <f>voLKrjSy ert Se repl rcov 
Kara rrjv a vco <f>opdv SiaKeKooprjpevcov aarpcov Kal 
repl tcov aroix^wv T( &v acopariKcov , roaa re Kal 
7706a, Kal rrjs els aXXrjXa perafioXrjs, Kal repl 
25 yeveaecos Kal <j> 0 opas rrjs KOivrjs elpr^rai rporepov . 
Xoirov 8’ earl pepos rrjs peOoSov ravrrjs en deco- 
prjreov, o ravres oi tt pore pot perecopoXoylav €/ca- 

338 b Xovv ravra S 9 early oaa avpftalvee Kara cf>vaiv pev, 

araKTorepav pevroi rtfs rod rpcdrov aroexelov tcov 
acoparcov, repl rov yetrvccovra paXeara royov rfj 
cf>opa rfj rcov aarpcov, olov ire pi re yaXaKros Kal 
Koprjrcov Kal rcov eKrvpovpevcov Kal Kivovpevwv 
<j>aapdr<ov, oaa re Belypev av a epos elvat kolvgl 
25 7 rddrj Kal vSaros, en Se yrjs oaa pepy] Kal elSrj Kal 
ra 6 r) rcov pepcdv , et; &v repl re rvevpdrcov Kal 

339 a aeiapcdv decoprjaatpev av ras air las Kal repl 

rdvrcov rcov yeyvopevcov Kara ras Kcvrjaeis ras 
rovrcov' ev ots rd pev aropovpev, rcov Se e<f>arr6- 
peda nva rporov' en Se repl Kepavvcov rrcoaecos 
Kal rvcjxdviov Kal rprjarfjpcov Kal rcov aXXcov rcov 
5 eyKVKXlcov , oaa Sea rrj£tv avpfiaivei raOr) rcov 
avrcov acoparcov rovrcov . 

AieA dovres Se repl rovrcov , Oecopfjacopev el n 
SvvapeO a Kara rov vcfyrjyrjpevov rporov aroSovvac 

a Physics . 

b Physics , esp. Books V-VIII. 
c Pe Caelo i and ii. 

4 Pe Caelo lii and iv, De Gen. et Corr . 

* The fifth element of which the heavenly bodies and then 
spheres are made. 



(1) We have already dealt with the first causes of 
nature a and with all natural motion 6 ; (2) we have 
dealt also with the ordered movements of the stars 
in the heavens/ (S) and with the number, kinds and 
mutual transformations of the four elements, and 
growth and decay in general.* (4) It remains to con- 
sider a subdivision of the present inquiry which all 
our predecessors have called Meteorology. Its pro- 
vince is everything which happens naturally, but 
with a regularity less than that of the primary 
element e of material things, and which takes place 
in the region which borders most nearly on the move- 
ments # of the stars. For instance the milky way/ 
comets/ shooting stars and meteors/ all phenomena 
that may be regarded as common to air and water/ 
and the various kinds and parts of the earth and their 
characteristics. 5 There follows the investigation of 
the causes of winds k and earthquakes 1 * 3 and all occur- 
rences associated with their motions. Of all these 
phenomena, some we find inexplicable, others we 
can to some extent understand. We shall also be 
concerned with the fall of thunderbolts, 571 with whirl- 
winds/ with fire winds/ and with all other recurrent 
conditions which affect these same bodies owing to 
condensation. 0 

(5) After wc have dealt with all these subjects let 
us then see if we can give some account, on the lines 

1 i. 8. 9 i. 6-7. h i. 4. 

1 l. 9-12, and perhaps ni. 2-6, 378 a 14. 

3 l. 13-ii. 3, though it is difficult to find a precise leference 
for this phrase. It can hardly, however, refer to Book IV. 

* li. 4-6. 1 u. 7-8. 

m li. 9, lii. 1. n m. 1. 

0 “ Same bodies ” . not thunderbolts, etc., but presumably 
air and water, in. 2-6, 378 a 14, or i. 9-12. 



389 a 

7T€pl '£>(1 \<OV KCLl (j>VT(OV, KadoXoV T€ Kal 

o’yeSoi' yap r ovrcov prjdevrojv reXos av elrj yeyovos 
rrjs ££ Q'PX'*) 5 v)l& v rrpoaipkaecos Trdarjs. 

10 *X 2 S 9 oSv ap£ap€voi Xdycopev rrepl avrcbv rrpcdrov. 

a The zoological works, with which should be included the 
De Anima . 

b A reference to the lost work On Plants . cfi Bonitz, 
Index 104 b 38. 



There is one element in the celestial region , in the terrestrial 
there are four , earthy air , fire and water . These four are the 

339 a u 9 E 7 mSi 7 yap hicopiarai irporepov rjptv pi a pkv 
dpxt) rcov acoparcov, ££ rjs 1 avvearrjKev rj rcov ey- 
kvkXIws (f)€pofJL€vcjv acoparcov <f>vcn$, aXXa Se tct- 
rapa ad) para 8ia rds rerrapas apxds, d>v StrrXrjv 
15 elval <f>apev rrjv Kiurjaiv, rrjv pkv a rro rod peaov 
rrjv 8’ £ttI to peaov rerrdpcov 8 9 ovrcov r ovrcov, 
nrvpos Kal aepos Kal vSaros Kal yrjs> to pkv tovtols 
rraaiv imrroXdlov elvai irvp, to S 9 v<f>iardpevov yrjv 
8 vo Se <x rrpos av ra tovtois avaXoyov (drjp pkv 
yap mpos iyyvrdro) rcdv aXXcov, v8c op Se yrjs)‘ 6 
20 817 rrepl tt)v yrjv oXos Koapos Ik r ovrcov avvearrjKe 
rcov acoparcov the pi oS ra ovpfiaivovra Tradr] c/>apkv 
1 ££ fjs Vieomercatus O.T. ££ Sv codd. 

* Hot, cold, dry, moist which combine to form the four 
elements, here called “ bodies.” Earth is a combination of 

METEQRO LO GI C A , I. 1-11 

we have laid down, of animals a and plants, 6 both in 
general and in particular ; for when we have done 
this we may peihaps claim that the whole investiga- 
tion which we set before ourselves at the outset has 
been completed. 

With this introduction let us begin our discussion 
of the subject in hand. 

argument ( continued ) 

material cause , the eternal motion of the celestial region the 
efficient cause of all that happens in the terrestrial region . 

We have previously laid down that there is one 
element from which the natural bodies in circular 
motion are made up, and four other physical bodies 
produced by the primary qualities,® the motion of 
these bodies being twofold, either away from or 
towards the centre. These four bodies are fire, air, 
water and earth : of them fire always rises to the 
top, earth always sinks to the bottom, while the other 
two bear to each other a mutual relation similar to 
that of fire and earth — for air is the nearest of all to 
fire, water to earth. The whole terrestrial 6 region, 
then, is composed of these four bodies, and it is the 
conditions which affect them which, we have said, 

cold and dry ; air of hot and wet ; fire of hot and dry ; water 
of wet and cold. De Gen . et Corr. n. 3. Of. Book IV. ch. 1, 
note a on p. 290. 

b i.e. below the sphere of the moon *, c/. 339 b 5. 



339 a 

etvai XrjTrreov. eanv S’ dvdyKrjs avvexrjs oSros 
rats avco cfropats, dxrre rtdaav avrov rrjv 8vva puv 
Kvfiepvaadai eKetdev* 89 ev yap rj rrjs Kivrjoecos 
apXV rraatVy eKelvrjv air Lav vopucrreov 'irpcorrjv. 
25 7 Tpos 8e tovtols rj piev aL8 ios Kal reXos ovk e^oucra 
rep romp rrjs Kivrjoecos } aXX 9 del iv reXer ravra 
Se ra crebpara rravra rrerrepaopievovs SieorrjKe 
rorrovs dXXrjXoov. cbore rd>v ovpipaivovrcov rrepl 
avrov rrvp piev Kal yrjv Kal ra avyyevrj rovrois 
cos iv vXrjs ei8et rcbv yiyi'opievwv atria XPV vopL^eiv 
30 (to yap vrroKelpievov Kal iraoxov rovrov rrpooayo- 
pevopiev rov rporrov ), ro S’ oiSraos a tnov &S 1 89 ev 
rj rrjs Kivrjoecos dpxrj > r-rjv rcbv del Kivovpevcov 
alnareov 8vvapnv. 

1 a )s om. Fobes : habent E2£F <0 ,i Ap. 

° I have translated Svvafjus “ capacity for movement ” 
because it is the capacity of the elements for movement, and 
so for change and combination, which Aristotle seems to have 
m mind. 

6 The chaiacteristics of cncular motion 
c Each of the four elements has its “ natural place ” to 
which it has a natural tendency to move m a straight line 
(c/. a 16-19 above). I have taken 7 Tpos Se tovtois a . . . 
oAAtJAcov a 27 as a parenthesis in which the circular motion 



The argument of tlm chapter is somewhat involved because 
Aristotle approaches the solution of its mam problem — the 
disposition of earth and fire m the terrestrial region — in- 



are the subject of our inquiry. This region must be 
continuous with the motions of the heavens, which 
therefore regulate its whole capacity for movement a * 
for the celestial element as source of all motion must 
be regarded as first cause. (Besides, the celestial ele- 
ment is eternal and moves in a path that is spatially 
endless but always complete, 5 while the terrestrial 
bodies have each their distinct and limited regions). 0 
Fire, earth and the kindred elements must therefore 
be regarded as the material cause of all sublunar 
events (for we call the passive subject of change the 
material cause) ; while the driving power of the 
eternalfy moving bodies must be their cause in the 
sense of the ultimate source of their motion. 

of the celestial region is contrasted with the lmeai motion of 
the terrestrial, linear motion lacking, according to Aristotle, 
the perfection of circular. The parenthesis may perhaps 
have a further implication. Left to themselves the four 
elements would each move to its natural place and come to 
rest ; they have not done so because the celestial motion 
keeps them stirred up, as it were, to form the world that we 
know. Thus the celestial motion is apxq Kivyoc&s of the pro- 
cesses in the terrestrial region. The reference to natural 
places m the parenthesis may be intended to recall this and 
so to enforce the previous statement of the dependence of the 
terrestrial on the celestial region. 

argument (continued) 

directly , by discussing certain other, though closely related, 
problems . It may be analysed as follows : 

1 . There are four elements . Earth is comparatively small 
in bulk and lies , with water (seas, rivers, etc.), at the centre 
of the universe . What is the position of air 9 And, more 



generally , what is the nature of the substance or substances 
that occupy the space between the earth and the farthest stars 
(339 a 33-b 16) * 

2. The celestial region is composed of a divine fifth element 
which we may identify with the traditional “ aether ” (339 b 
16-30). So (a) the stars are not made of fire nor set in fire 
(339 b 30 — 340 a 3) ; (b) nor are the intervals between them 
full of air (340 a 3-17). 

3. We are left with two problems * (a) the disposition of 
air and fire below this fifth element ; (b) how heat reaches us 
from the stars (340 a 17-22). (A discussion of (b) is necessary 
now the stars have been shown not to be made of fire and so 
not to be hot.) 

3 (a). Let us first deal with air, and approach the solution 
of our main problem by means of a discussion of the\uestion, 
why do not clouds form in the upper air as one might on the 
face of it expect (340 a 22-32) ? 

33 'AvaXafiovres ovv ras dpxfs 8 € ere is Kal roirs 
elpr]{Jl€VOVS 7TpOT€pOV 8 lOplOpLOVS, XeyCOfieV 7T€pl T€ 
35 rfjs rov yaXaKTos (j>avraolas Kal rrepl Koprqrdov kcll 
too v aXXoov oaa rvyyavei rovrois opt a orvyyevfj. 

(Da pep 8f) 7 rvp kcll aepa Kal v8 wp KCLi yfjv yiyve- 
b crdcLL ef aXXfjXcov, Kal e Kadrov iv eKadrco vrrdpx^iv 
rovroov Svvdfiei, oodTrep Kal rdov aXXoov ots ev n 
Kal ravrov vrroKeira i, els o 8rj dvaXvovrai eax arov • 

Tlpcbrov piev odv drropf)d€iev dv ns rrepl top k<x- 
Xovpevov aepa, rlva re xp^J XafSeiv avrov rrjv <j>vaw 
6 ev rep rrepiexov n Koopup ttjp yfjv , Kal ttcos 
rfj rd^ei rrpos rdXXa ra Xeyopeva oTotp^ta ru>v 
dcoparoov. 6 pev yap 8fj rfjs yfjs oyKos rrrjXiKos dv 
ns etrj rrpos ra rrepiexovra peyedrj, ovtc dBrjXov 
7)8 rj yap d) 7 rrai Sea rcbv darpoXoyiKcbv Oeooprjpdrwv 

a i.e. m the £>e Caelo and De Gen . et Corr to which re- 
ference Has been made above. 



(i) Introduction * any solution which implied that the 
whole region was full of air , or air-cum -vapour , would upset 
the balance of the elements unduly (340 a 32-b 3). 

(ii) Aristotle's own solution : 

a. The motion of the celestial sphere generates heat (which 
prevents clouds ) m the part of the terrestrial nearest to it 
(340 b 4-14). jS. There are in fact two strata in this region , 
an upper one of fire, a lower one of air . So clouds will not 
form in it because it contains fire as well as air (340 b 14-32). 
y. The whole mass, fire and air , must move round with the 
motion of the celstial sphere ; and this would prevent cloud 
formation (340 b 32 — 341 a 12) 

3 (b). a. The sun generates heat by its motion , like a 
projectile^ This alone is enough to account for all the heat 
m the terrestrial region (341 a 12-30). 

/?. The fire that surrounds the terrestrial sphere is some- 
times driven inwards by the motion of the heavens (341 a 

Let us then recall our initial assumptions and the l Tte pr<> 
definitions given earlier,® and then proceed to discuss occ^eTthe 
the milky way, comets, and other similar phenomena, f^eii to 

We maintain that fire, air, water and earth are earth and 
transformable one into another, and that each is g|^ a ? thest 
potentially latent in the others, as is true of all other 
things that have a single common substratum under- 
lying them into which they can in the last resort be 
resolved. 5 

Our first difficulty concerns w r hat we call the air. 

What are we to suppose its nature to be in the ter- 
restrial region ? And what is its position in relation 
to the other so called elements of physical things ? 

(For there is no doubt about the relative size of 
the earth and of the masses which surround it, as 
astronomical researches have now made it clear that 

6 Be Gen . et Corr • ii. 1,4; Be Caelo ni. 6, 7. 




10 vSaros Se cjtvcriv avveorrj Kviav Kal droopier pevrjv 
olid* OptapLCV OVT evhixerdL K€X<*>plGpeVrjV €LVai TOV 
7 T€pl rrjv yrjv iSpvpevov ocoparos, otov rcov re 
<f>avepdov, daXarrrjs Kal rrorapdov, Kav el n Kara 
fcadovs aSrjXov fjplv eonv , to Se Srj pera£v rrj$ 
yrj$ re Kal rcov ecr^a rcov aorpcov rrorepov ev ri 
15 vopicrreov elvai odopa rrjv cj)vcriv rj rrXeico, Kav el 
ttX elco, rroaa, Kal pexpt* ttou Sicbpiorai roZs rorrois; 

'l&piv pev odv elprjr ai rrporepov rrepl rov rrpcorov 
aroLxelov, rroZov n rrjv eonv, Kal Sion 
rras 6 rrepl ras avco (j>opas Kocrpos eKetvov rov 
acbparos rrXrjprjs earl, Kal ravrrjv rrjv So£av ov 
20 povov rjpeZs rvyyavopev exovres, <f>alverai Se a p- 
^ata ns vrroXrjifjis a vrrj Kal rcov rrporepov dvdpcb- 
7TO)v’ 6 yap Xeyopevos aWrjp rraXaiav eiX rj<joe rrjv 
rrpoorjyopiav, rjv 5 Ava£ayopas pev rep rrvpl ravrov 
rjyfjaac9ai poi SoKeZ crjpalveiv* rd re yap avco 
rrXrjprj rrvpos elvai, KaKelvovs 1 rrjv £k€i Svvapiv 
25 alOepa KaXeiv evopiaev, rovro pev opOcbs voplaas * 
to yap del ocbpa 6eov a pa Kal del ov n rrjv <f>vonv 
eoiKaoiv vrroXafSeZv, Kal Sab pier av ovopa^eiv aide pa 
to roiovrov cos ov ovSevl rcov rrap' rjpZv ro a vro* 
ov yap Srj <f>rj(jopev arrai; ov Se Sis oz>8* oXiyaKis 
ras avras So£a$ avaKVKXeiv yiyvopevas ev roZs 
30 avdpibrrois , aAA 9 arreipaKis. oaoi Se rrvp Kadapov 
1 KaKelvovs Cl. Thurot : koksivos codd. 

a Of. Be Caelo n. 14, 297 b 30 ff., Heath, Jnstarchvs , p. 
236. b Be Caelo l. 2, 3. 

c Cf. below li. 9, 369 b 14 and v. Diels 56 A 43, 73, 84. 
d As if aldvp were derived from ad and Betv, with a play 
on Oeios as well. For this etymology cf. Plato, Gratylus 410 b, 
[Aristotle], Be Mundo 2, 392 a 5. 



the earth is far smaller even than some of the stars a : 
while water we never see existing as a separate and 
distinct physical substance, nor can it so exist apart 
from the mass of it situated round the earth, by which 
I mean both that which we can see, for instance sea 
and rivers, and any that may be hidden from us 
underground.) But to return — are we to consider 
that one physical substance occupies the space be- 
tween the earth and the farthest stars, or more than 
one 5 And if more than one, then how many are 
there and what are the limits of the various regions 
which they occupy ? 

Now *we have already discussed the primary 2. The 
element and its properties, and explained why the re^oiTcom- 
whole region of the celestial motions is filled by that gged of the 
body. 6 This opinion moreover is one that we are not element, 
alone in holding, for it appears to be an ancient belief 
and one held by men in former times ; for what is 
called the aether was given this name in antiquity. 
Anaxagoras seems to think that the name means the 
same as fire, c since he considered that the upper 
regions are full of fire and that the ancients meant 
by “ aether ” the substance which fills them. In the 
latter belief he w T as right. For men seem to have 
supposed that the body that was in eternal motion was 
also in some way divine in nature, and decided to call 
a body of this kind aether , d as it is different from all 
terrestrial things. For we maintain that the same 
opinions recur m rotation among men, not once or 

twice or occasionally, but infinitely often/ (a) On the Two other 



e For the doctrine of a recurrent cycle of knowledge cf. 

De Caelo 1 . 3, 270 b 16, Met. A 8, 1074 b 1-14, Politics vn. 9, 

1329 b 25 : see also Jaeger, Aristotle , pp. 128 ff., and cf. 
ch. 14 below, note a on p 115. 




elval cf>aGi ro rrepiexov Kal prj povov ra (frepopev a 
ad) para, to 8e pera£v yrjs kcll rcov darpo>v depa, 
decoprjoavres av ra vvv 8eiKvvpeva St a rtbv pa 8r\- 
partov LKav&s lews av irravaavro ravrrjs rrjs 
rrai8iKrjs Soijrjs' X Lav yap drrXovv to vopl^eiv ptKpov 
35 toZs* peyeOeaw elval ra>v <j)epopevcov eKaarov, on 
<f>aiverc u deojpovaiv ivrevdev rjptv ovra >$ . elprjr ai 
pev odv Kal rrporepov iv rots rrepl rov avo) rorrov 
deajprjpaai • Xeywpev 8e rov avrov Xoyov Kal vvv . 

340 a el yap ra re 8iaarrjpara rrXrjprj rrvpds Kal rd aw- 
para avvearrjKev €K rrvpos , rraXai (f>pov8ov av rjv 
eKaorov rtov aXXwv gto tye iojv . aXXd prjv c ou§’ ae- 
pos ye povov rrXrjprj- rroXv yap av vrrepfiaXXoi rrjv 
5 laorrjra rrjs Koivrjs avaXoylas rrpos ra crioroiya 
oo) par a, Kav el 8vo aroiyeicov rrXrjprjs 6 peragv 
yfjs re Kal ovpavov r ottos ioriv ov8ev yap cos 
elrrelv popiov 6 rrjs yrjs eanv oyKos, iv <p ovvei- 
Xrj7rrat rrav Kal to rov vSaros rrXrjffos, rrpos ro 
rrepiexov peyedos. opcopev S’ ovk iv roaovrcp 
10 peyedei yiyvopevrjv rrjv vrrepoxrjv rcdv oyKcov, drav 
it; vSaros arjp yevrjrai SiaKpiOevros rj rrvp it; aepos’ 
avayKr) 8e rov avrov exeiv Xoyov ov l^€t ro rooovSl 
Kal piKpov v8a>p rrpos rov i£ avrov yiyvopevov 
aepa, Kal rov rrdvra rrpos ro rrav v8 cop. 8ia<f>epei 
8’ ovSev ov8’ el ns <j>rjaei pev prj yiyveodai ravra 
15 i£ aXXrjXwv, loa pevroi rrjv Svvapiv elval * Kara 
rovrov yap rov rporrov dvayKrj rrjv laorrjra rrjs 
Svvapecos vrrdpyeiv rots peyedecnv avrcov, doorrep 

° Perhaps Heracleitus, as he is definitely referred to at 
b 34 (see note 6). 

b Heracleitus believed the sun was the size it looks to us, 
“ about a foot across ” ; Diels 22 A 1 (141, 12), 22 B 3. 



other hand those® who maintain that not only the 
bodies in motion but also the element surrounding them 
are composed of pure fire, and that the space between 
the earth and the stars is filled by air, would perhaps 
have ceased to hold this childish opimon if they had 
studied what mathematics has now sufficiently 
demonstrated. For it is too simple to believe that 
each of the moving bodies is really small in size be- 
cause it so appears to us when we look at it from the 
earth . 6 The matter is one we have already discussed 
in our consideration of the celestial region/ but let 
us repeat the argument again here. If the intervals 
between the bodies were full of fire and the bodies 
also composed of fire each of the other elements 
would long ago have disappeared, (b) But neither 
can the intervals be full of air alone : for air would 
then far exceed its due proportion in relation to its 
fellow elements, even if the space between earth and 
sky were filled with two elements, as the bulk of the 
earth, including the whole mass of water, is, we may 
say, a mere nothing when compared in size with 
the surrounding universe. But in fact we see no such 
excessive disproportion of masses when air is formed 
by separation from water or fire from air : yet any 
small quantity of water of given volume must neces- 
sarily bear the same proportion to the air which is 
formed from it, as the total aggregate of air bears 
to the total aggregate of water. And this still holds 
even if you deny that the elements can be trans- 
formed one into another, but say that they have equal 
powers of action ; for on this argument certain quan- 
tities of them must be equal in powers of action just 

* De Caelo li. 7 (stars and surrounding element not fire), 
ibid. 11 . 14, 297 b 30 IF. (the smallness of the earth). 



340 a 

kcLv el yiyvopeva e£ aXXrjXwv vrrrjpxev. on pev 
oSv ovr arjp ovre rrvp ovprrerrXrjpcoKe povov rov 
peraljv rorrov , (f>avepov eon. 

Aolttov Se Siarroprjcravras elrreiv Trejos reraKrai 
20 ra 8 vo rrpos rrjv rov rrpwrov oco paros deoiv, Xeyco 
Se aepa re Kal rrvp, Kal Sta rtV air lav rj Oepporrjs 
a rro roov avcodev a orpaov yiyverai rots rrepi rrjv 
yfjv rorrois. rrepi aepos ovv elrrovres Trpcorov, 
coorrep vrredepeda, X eyaopev ovroj Kal rrepi rovraov 

El Srj yiyverai vSwp e£ aepos Kal arjp e£ vSa ros, 
25 Sia rlva rror air lav ov ovvlorarai ve<f>r) Kara rov 
avco rorrov; rrpoorjKe yap paXXov ooco rroppwrepov 
6 rorros rrjs yfjs Kal xjjvxporepos , Sia to prj6' ovroo 
rrXrjolov etvai rtov a orpaov deppdov ovraov ptfre roov 
drro rrjs yfjs dvaK.Xaopevaov a Knvaov, at kooXvovoi 
so rrXrjolov rrjs yfjs ovvloraodai, SiaKplvovoai rfj 
Oepporrjn ras ovordoeis yiyvovr at yap at rcov 
vecj)6jv adpolcreis, ov X fjyovoiv rjSrj Sta ro Oxford ai 
els Graves at aKrives . 

1V H ovv ovk e$s arravros rov aepos rrecfovKev ilSaop 
ylyveodai, i) el opolaos ££ arravros , 6 rrepi rfjv yrjv 
ov povov arjp eonv aAA’ otov drpls 3 St 6 rraXiv 
35 ovvlorarai els vSaop. aXXa pfjv el rooovros dov 6 
arjp arras dr pis eon, So^eiev dv rroXv vrrepfiaXXeiv 

° Cf Toe Gen. et Gorr. ii. 6, esp. 333 a 16-27, where Aris- 
totle argues that if the elements are mutually comparable 
(e.g. by any form of measurement) they must be mutually 
transformable. For the reference to Empedocles see Diels 
31 B 17, 1. 27. 

6 This is a problem because Aristotle believes the stars 


as they would be if transformation were possible. 0 
It is clear therefore that neither air nor fire fills the 
space between earth and the outermost heaven. 

It now remains for us to discuss and give our solu- 3. Two 
tion of two problems — what positions these two, faM^posi- 
that is air and fire, occupy m relation to that of the 
first element, and what is the cause of the heat that (&) heat* 
reaches the places in the neighbourhood of the earth &om star8, 
from the stars in the upper region 6 Let us therefore 
deal with air first, as we proposed, and then proceed 
to deal with these problems. 

If water is produced from air and air from water, («) a P- 
why afe no clouds formed in the celestial region ? (focussing y 
The farther the region from the earth and the lower ^y^d^noT 
its temperature the more readily should clouds form clouds form 
there : and its temperature should be low because one 6r 
it is not so very near to the heat of the stars nor to might 
the rays reflected from the earth, which by their heat e pec 
break up cloud-formations and so prevent clouds 
gathering near the earth — for clouds gather where 
the rays begin to lose their force by dispersion m 
the void. 

Either then water is not naturally produced from 0) intro- 
all air, or, if it is, what immediately surrounds the ducfcl0n * 
earth is not air simply but a sort of vapour which can 
condense into water again. c But if the whole expanse 
of the air is all vapour, then the amount of the sub- 

(with which of course he includes the sun and planets) are 
not made of fire and so not hot : c/. note c on p. 15 above. 

c Tjvo alternatives : either there aie two strata of air, one 
(the lower) of which will condense and form clouds and one 
of which will not, or all air will condense but the stratum of 
air immediately round the earth contains an admixture of 
vapour so that clouds form more readily m it. Of, Alex. 11. 

31 f., Phil, ad 340 a 32. 



340 a 

rj rov aepos <f>vais Kal rj rov vSaros, etrrep ra re 
340 b hiaarrjpara ra>v av<o rrXrjpr^ earl acdparos nvos , 
Kal rrvpos pev aSvvarov Scot ro Kare^rjpavdai av 
raAAa rravra, Xeirrerai S’ depos Kal rov rrepl rrjv 
yrjv rraaav ilSaros' rj yap dr pis vharos SiaKpiais 
ear iv. 

Tlepl pev oiv rovroov rjrroprjadw rovrov rov 
5 rporrov rjpeis 8e Xeycopev apa rrpos re ra XeyBrj- 
aopeva Siopil^ovres Kal rrpos ra vvv elprjpev a. to 
pev yap avco Kal peypi aeXrjvrjs erepov etvai ad) pa 
<f>apev rrvpos re Kal depos, ov prjv aAA’ ev avrcp 
ye ro pev Kadapdrepov etvai ro S’ fjrrov etXtKpives, 
10 Kal Sia cfiopas ex €LV > Ka ' L pdXiara ‘fj KaraXrjyei rrpos 
rov depa Kal rrpos rov rrepl rrjv yrjv Koapov . 
<f>epopevov Se rov rrpdjrov aroiyelov kvkAco Kal 
rcdv ev avrd> aaipdrcov, ro rrpoaeyes del rov Kano 
Koapov Kal ad) par os rfj Kivrjaei 8ia Kpivopevov 
eKrrvpovrai Kal rroiei rrjv Bepporrjra. 8ei 8e voetv 
15 o tiros Kal evrevOev apljapevovs* ro yap vrro rrjv 
avco rrepufiopav acopa oiov vXrj ns ovaa Kal Su- 
va pei depprj Kal ifsvypd Kal £rjpd Kal vypa, Kal oaa 
aXXa rovrois aKoXovOei rrddrj, ytyverai roiavrrj 
Kal eanv vrro Kivrjaeios Kal aKivrjaias, ?js rrjv 
alriav Kal rrjv dpxrjv elprjKapev rrporepov. errl 
20 pev odv rov peaov Kal rrepl ro peaov ro fiapvrarov 
eanv Kal ifruxporarov drroK€Kpipevov 9 yrj Kal v8wp' 
rrepl Se ravra Kal exopeva rovr<ov> drjp re Kal o 

a O.T. takes this to refer to “ the region between air 
properly so called and the moon ” : so also Ideler (l. p. 840), 
This seems very unnatural. Alex., Phil, and 01. all take it 
to refer to the celestial region and the fifth element, as does 
also Heath, A rhtarcfms, p 998 ; and 1 have followed their 


stances air and water will be unduly large : for the 
spaces between the heavenly bodies must be filled 
by some substance, and if this cannot be fire because 
everything else would have been burnt up if it were, 
then it must be air and the water that surrounds the 
earth — for vapour is evaporated water. 

So much then for the difficulties involved — let us (ii) soiu- 
now give our own statement of the matter with refer- celestial 
ence both to what we have already said and to our sphere 
future discussions We maintain that the celestial heatf* 63 
region as far down as the moon is occupied by a body 
which is different from air and from fire, but which 
varies ^n purity and freedom from admixture, and 
is not uniform in quality, especially when it borders 
on the air and the terrestrial region. 0 Now this 
primary substance and the bodies set in it as they 
move in a circle set on fire and dissolve by their 
motion that part of the lower region which is closest 
to them and generates heat therein. We are also led £. Two 
to the same view if we reason as follows : The sub- one &L 
stance beneath the motion of the heavens is a kind 
of matter, having potentially the qualities hot, cold, 
wet and dry and any others consequent upon these b : 
but it only actually acquires and has any of these 
in virtue of motion or rest, about whose originating 
cause we have already spoken elsewhere. 0 So what 
is heaviest and coldest, that is, earth and water, sepa- 
rates off at the centre or round the centre : immedi- 
ately round them are air and what we are accustomed 

interpretation, taking juJxp 1 to mean “ down as far as ” and 
the crtoi ua to be the fifth element. 

6 De Gen . et Qorr . ii. 2-3. 

6 Ibid. ii. 10, where the sun’s annual movement in the 
ecliptic is stated to be the efficient cause of terrestrial change. 

Of, 341 a 19 below, and ch. 2, note c on p. 8. 



8ta ovvrfiei av KaXovpev 7 rvp> ovk kan Se rrvp' 
vrrep^oXrj yap deploy Kal olov leas eon to rrvp . 
aAAa Set vorjaai rod Xeyopevov vcf> 9 rjpwv a epos to 
25 pev Trepl ttjv yrjv olov vypov Kal deppov eivai Sia to 
a rpLl^eiv Te Kal avaBvpiaaiv eyeiv yfjs, to Be vrtep 
tovto deppov rj$r) Kal £r)pov. eoTiv yap aTpiSos pev 
<j)vai$ vypov Kal i/jvypov^ dvaQvpidcrews Se deppov 
Kal {jrjpov Kal evTiv or pis pev Svvdpei olov vS cop, 
30 avadvpcacns 8e Svvdpei olov 7rvp. tov pev ovv ev 
Tip avw tottcx) prj ovvlaraodai ve<j>7] TavTTjv vrroXr)- 
ttt€ov alrlav eivai, oti ovk evecjTiv arjp povov aAAa 
paXXov olov rrvp. ovSev Se KwXvei Kal Sfa ttjv 
kvkXco (j>opav KwXveodai ovvioTaoQai ve</>r) ev Tip 
dvwTepw tottco' peiv yap avayKatov arravra tov 
35 kvkXw depa, oaos prj ivTos ttjs rrepi^epeias Xa p- 
fiaverai Tijs drrapTi^ovarjs waTe ttjv yrjv a<f> at- 
- poeiSrj elvai Tracrav' c/>aiveTai yap Kal vvv rj twv 
avepojv yeveais ev tois Xipva^ovai tottols Trjs yrjs, 
341 a Kal ovy vrrepfidXXeiv ra rrvevpaTa tcov vxfjrjXwv 
opwv . pel Se kvkXw Sia to avvefieXKeaOai rfj rov 
oXov 7repi<j>opq . to pev yap rrvp tw avw OTOiyelcp, 
Tip Se 7rvpl 6 arjp ovveyrjs earin' ware Kal Sta tJ)v 
5 Kivrjaiv KwXveTai ovyKpivead at els vSwp, aAA 9 del 

1 tftvxpov E x 235 Ross, Aristotle, p. 109, n. 4, O.T., cf. 
Thurot : Oeppov Fobes cett. 

® I agree with Ross that the logic of the passage reqimes 
xjsvxpov here. The “ part of what we call air ” immediately 
surrounding the earth is moist and hot because it is arpts 
(moist and cold) plus avaQvptacns (hot and dry). 360 a 23 
speaks of arpls as wet and cold and 367 a 34 implies the same. 
De Gen. et Corr . 330 b 4 speaks of air as hot and moist, 
adding olov arpis yap 6 arjp . But I do not think this neces- 
sarily implies that arpis is hot and moist : air is ofov arjits, 
not the same thing as ar/xiV, and the present passage seems 


to call fire, though it is not really fire : for fire is an 
excess of heat and a sort of boiling. But we must 
understand that of what we call air the part which 
immediately surrounds the earth is moist and hot 
because it is vaporous and contains exhalations from 
the earth, but that the part above this is hot and dry. 

For vapour is naturally moist and cold a and exhala- 
tion hot and dry : and vapour is potentially like 
water, exhalation like fire. We must suppose there- 
fore that the reason why clouds do not form in the 
upper region is that it contains not air only but rather 
a sort of fire. At the same time there is no reason y. n 
why the formation of clouds in the upper region ^ 1 
should not also be prevented by the circular motion. 

For the whole encircling mass of air must necessarily 
be m motion, except that part of it which is contained 
within the circumference that makes the earth a 
perfect sphere . 6 (Thus m fact we find that winds 
rise in low marshy districts of the earth, and do not 
blow above the highest mountains.) It moves in a 
circle because it is carried round by the motion of 
the heavens. For fire c is contiguous with the element 
m the celestial regions, and air contiguous with fire, 
and their movement prevents any condensation ; 

to imply that air combines the characteristics of arpis and 
avadvtiiacns, while the “ fire ” that surrounds it has those of 
avaOv/iiaais only : cf. Ross, Aristotle , pp. 109-110, and the 
note on the arrangement of the elements at the end of this 

6 The earth is not a perfect sphere because of the moun- 
tains and valleys on its surface. The “ circumference that 
makes the earth a perfect sphere ” will have as its radius the 
distance from the centre of the earth to the top of the highest 

r %.e. “ what we are accustomed to call fire ” : 340 b 22 



o tl av fiapvvrjTat ptoptov avrov eK9Xtfioixevov els 
tov ava) tottov tov 9epptov Kara) (j>epeTat, aXXa S’ 
iv ptepet oruvava<f>epeTat rep dvadvpaajpLevtp rrvpL, 
Kai oilrco o-vveytos to ptev aepos SiareXet 7 tX rjpes ov 
to Se TTvp6s> kclI del aXXo Kai aXXo yLyverat eKaarov 

10 Ilepl ptev ofiv rod ptrj ylyveo9 at ve(j>rj ptrjS’ els 
vS <up ovyKptatv, Kai ttcxjs Set Xafietv 7 repl rod 
pteTa^v tottov tcov aurpojv Kai rrjs yfj$ , Kai rlvos 
evrlv otoptaros ttX rjprjs, rocravra elprjcrda). 

Ilepl Se rrjs ytyvoptevrjs 9epptorr]Tos, rjv Trapeyerat 
6 rjXtos, ptaXXov ptev Ka9* eavro Kai d/cpijSeDs ev rots 

15 TTepl a ladijaews TTpoarjKet A eyetv (rrados yap rt to 
9epptov aladrjaedis ear tv), Sta Ttv a S* atTtav ytyveTat 
ptrj toiovto^v ovT(x>v eKetvoiV tt)v (f>vutv, XeKTeov Kai 
vvv. optbptev Srj rrjv Ktvrjcrtv otl Svvarat StaKpivetv 
tov aepa Kai eKrrvpovv , a>OT€ Kai rd cf>epopteva 
TrjKopteva <j>atveo9at TroXXaKts . to ptev oSv ytyve- 

20 o 9 at rrjv aXeav Kai rrjv 9epptoTrjTa tKavrj eoTtv 
7rapaoK€vd^€tv Kai rj tov tjXlov <f>opa ptovov rayetav 
re yap Set Kai ptrj tt oppw elv at. rj ptev odv t&v 
duTpoyv Tayeta ptev Trip pay Se, rj Se Trjs creXrjvrjs 
k<£t<o ptev fipaSeta Se* rj Se tov rjXtov apt<fxv Tavra 

a Le. of fire surely, not “ air ” (O.T.). The point of the 
passage (a 5-9) is that the terrestrial region (outside the 
highest mountains) has an upper layer of “ fire ” and a lower 
of “ air ” and that air and fire are in a constant process of 
change one into other. aAAa (1. 6) . . . rrvpC (1. 7) refers 
to the change into fire : so aAA’ del (1. 5) . . . <f>4perca (1. 6) 
must refer to the change back to air or dr^ts ( cf \ O.T. note on 
$apdvr\T<u, “ i.e. becomes a rptls ”). Aristotle uses p.6pLov with- 
out further qualification because he is apparently thinking 


for any paiticle a that becomes heavy sinks down, 
the heat m it being expelled and rising into the upper 
region, and other particles in turn are carried up with 
the fiery exhalation : thus the one layer is always 
and continually full of air, the other of fire, and each 
one of them is in constant process of transformation 
into the other. 

These then are the reasons why clouds do not form 
and why the air is not condensed into water, and this 
is the correct description of the space between the 
stars and the earth and the substance with which 
it is filled. 

a. A # separate and exact account of the heat gener- 3 (6) Heat 
ated by the sun’s action would be more in place in a the' earth* 6 * 
treatise on sensation b (for heat is a sensible quality) : due to two 
but we may explain now the reason why it is gener- 
ated although the heavenly bodies themselves are not 
naturally hot. We see that motion can rarefy and in- 
flame air, so that, for example, objects in motion are 
often found to melt. The sun’s motion is therefore in 
itself sufficient to produce warmth and heat : for to 
produce heat a motion must be rapid and not far off. 

The motion of the stars is rapid but far off : that of the 
moon close but slow : but the sun’s motion has both 
required characteristics to a sufficient degree. That 

of the substance, which fills the region, as a whole, and 
saying that any pait of it that becomes heavy sinks, while 
other parts “ rise with the exhalation ” ; so the region con- 
sists of two strata each constantly changing into the other. 

Thus air and fire are ( a ) m constant circular motion, (5) m 
constant process of mutual transformation. (6) is presumably 
due to (a) (this I take to be the force of the aXXd 341 a 5), and 
the non-formation of clouds due to (a) and ( b ) and to (a) 
through (6). 

6 No such account is to be found either m the De Anima 
or in the De Sensu . 



LKavcbs. to 8k paAAov ylyveodat dpa red rfAico 
25 avreo rrjv depporrjra evAoyov, Aapftavovras to 
opoiov €K tcov Trap* rjplv yiyvopevcov Kal yap 
ivTavda tcov ftia <f)€pop4vwv 6 TrArjcnd^cov arjp 
pdAcora yLyverai deppos- ko! tovt evAoycos ovp- 
fialver pdAtcrTa yap rj tov GTepeov 8 caKplvec Kcvrjacs 
a vtov. 8 ia re TavTrjv ovv ttjv aiTtav d<f>iKV€LTai 
7 T€pL€yov 7rvp tov aipa Scappalveadai Tjj KcvijcreL 
TToAAaKLS Kal <j)ipead at fiia koto}. 

Hrjpelov 8* LKavov otl 6 avco t ottos ovk eon 
Qeppos ov8* €K7T€7Tvpcopevos Kal at ScaBpoflal tcov 
acTepcov. €K€l pkv yap ov ylyvovTai, Karoo 8e* 
35 Kalroi Ta paAAov Kivovpev a Kal da ttov, eKTTVpovrai 
daTTOV . TTpOS 8k TOVTOLS 6 7 ]AlOS, OCTTTep paAlOTa 
eivat 8 ok€l deppos, <f>aiV€TaL A €vkos aAA 9 ov 7 tv- 
pco8rjs cov. 

a Gf. with this account He Caelo n. 7, 289 a 29 ff. The 
*' air ” which is ignited by the motions of the sun and stars 
is the fiery layer of air referred to above, 340 b 22 ff. It is 
described as vrreKKavfia and as “ file ” in ch. 4 below, 341 
b 14 ff. The chief difficulty in Aristotle’s account seems to 
be that this “ air ” is strictly speaking only in contact with 
the innermost of the spheres of the celestial region. Mr. 
Guthrie (Aristotle, On the Heavens, L.C.L. p. 179) suggests 


The following note on the arrangement of the elements and 
the stratification of the atmosphere m Aristotle’s natural 
philosophy may be useful at this point. 

1. The Elements. There are five elements. The fifth 
element is the material from which stars and planets and 
the spheres which carry them are made. These constitute the 


the heat is increased by the presence of the sun is 
easily enough explained by considering analogies 
from our own experience : for here too the air m the 
neighbourhood of a projectile becomes hottest. That 
this should be so is easily explicable, for the move- 
ment of a solid object disintegrates it most. This 
then is one reason why heat is transmitted to the 
terrestrial region.® f3 Another reason is that the fire 
which sui rounds it is frequently scattered by the 
motion of the heavens and forcibly carried downwards. 

(A sufficient proof that the celestial region is not 
hot or fiery is provided by shooting stars For they 
do not Originate there but in the terrestrial region : 
and yet the longer and more rapid its movement the 
more rapidly does an object catch fire. b A further 
proof is that the sun which appears to be the hottest 
of the heavenly bodies is bright rather than fiery in 

that Aristotle perhaps “ saw a way of escape in the thesis 
that the fifth element exists in purity only at the outer 
extreme of the universe, and gets moie and more con- 
taminated at its lower levels ” (cf. above, 340 b 6). See also 
Heath, Aristarchus , p. 242. 

6 And so if the celestial spheie could catch fire it would, 
as its motion is fastest of all. This last paragraph is an after- 
thought or footnote to the last section of the argument and 
has been omitted from the analysis at the head of the chapter. 

Celestial or Heavenly Sphere, the outermost layer of the 
Universe : Fig. 1, a (p. 26). Beneath the Celestial Sphere is 
the Terrestrial or Sub-Lunar Sphere (the moon being the 
innermost of the planets). Celestial and Terrestrial spheres 
are contiguous and the Celestial is the souice of motion in 
the Teirestrial : cf. ch. 2 above, 339 a 21 ff. 

In the terrestrial sphere the foui tenestnal elements are 
arranged m concentric spherical strata, with earth at the 
centre (e) and water, air and fire above in that order (d, c, b). 



But this stratification is not rigid. Dry land rises above 
water, and fire burns on the earth ; and in addition all fom 

Fig. 1 

elements are in constant process of change one into the other 
(c/. De Gen . et Oorr . ii. 4 and 341 a 5, with ch. 3, note a 
on p. 22, for the constant interchange of “ air ” and “ fire ”). 
The four concentric spheres repiesent, rathei, the “ natural 
places ” to which each of the four elements naturally move 
and m which the main bulk of each is found. 

But “ air ” and “ fire ” are still further analysed in terms 
of Aristotle’s theory of “ exhalations.” This theory is men- 
tioned in this chapter, 340 b 23, and recurs constantly 
throughout the work : e.g. ch. 4 and Book II. ch. 4. The 
earth when heated by the sun gives off two kinds of exhala- 


tion, one hot and dry, from the earth itself (the irav/aanoSqs 
01 kcutvc68t)s avaQvixCaais of ch. 4 : often called dva$v(i£aois 
simply), the other cool and moist, from the watei, on the 
earth (ar^uy). The outermost terrestrial stratum (b) to which 
Aristotle often refeis as “ fire,” is, strictly speaking, com- 
posed of the hot-dry exhalation, which rises above the cool- 
moist : it is a highly inflammable material (vneKKavpa), 
which is the material of which shooting stars, etc. are com- 
posed (ch. 4 below) and which is ignited to produce the sun’s 
heat (341 b 10 and note a on p. 24). The inner stiatum, “ air,” 
is composed of a mixture of the two exhalations, and is there- 
fore hot and moist : cf. 340 b 23 and ch. 3, note a on p. 20. 
It is the material from which cloud, lain, etc. are formed. 

2. Stratification of the Atmosphere. There are thus two 
main strata of what we may call the atmosphere, “ air ” and 
“ fire.” Cut within the sphere of air there are certain further 
differentiations, (a) Clouds cannot form beyond the tops 
of the highest mountains : for the air beyond them is carried 
round -with the celestial motion and clouds cannot therefore 
form m it (340 b 32) s cf. 361 a 22 for the celestial motion 
being' imparted to air. ( h ) Clouds also cannot foim close to 
the earth, because the heat reflected from the earth prevents 
it (340 a 31). 

We thus reach an arrangement lllustiated in Fig. 2, where 
m-m-m are the mountain tops and the stratum a-a is the 
stratum m which clouds can form. 

But Aristotle is not always consistent and it is difficult to 
see where the calm region “ near the earth ” in which haloes 
are formed (373 a 23) is situated. 





The subject of the chapter is “ burning flames , shooting 
stars , torches and goats f different hinds of meteoric pheno- 
mena, with which Aristotle rightly classes so-called shooting 
stars (341 b 1-5). These are due to two causes. (1) There are 
two kinds of exhalation that rise from the earth , one vaporous , 
one dry and hot . The dry and hot exhalation is lighter and 
rises to the top , forming a sheath of “fire ” round the 
terrestrial sphere , wore vaporous exhalation or “ air ” 
lying below it. Though we must call it fire for lack pf a better 
word it is not fire in the ordinary sense, but rather a kind of 
inflammable material ( vneKKavpa ) (341 b 5-22). This inflam- 
mable material is liable, when set in motion by the celestial 

341 bi Tovtoov Sc 8ia>pwpb£vu)v y XeycopLev Sta tlv* air lav 
at re <f)A6y€s cll /cato/zevat <f>alvovrai Trepl tov ov- 
pavov /cat ot Sta deovres aorepes /cat ot KaXovpuevoi 
m to rivcov SaAot /cat alyes' ratira yap rravr lofiv 
5 to av to /cat Sta, ttjv avrrjv alrlav, Sta^cpet Sc ra> 
pidXXov /cat fjrTOv. 

5 Apx t) 84 eanv /cat tovtojv /cat rroXXcov aXXcov 
rjSe. deppiaivopL€V7]s yap Tijs yfjs vtto tov rjXlov 
ttjv dvadvpblacnv avayKaiov ylyveadai pug drrXijv , cos 
tlv€$ oiovTai , aAAa BlttX rjv 9 ttjv p^kv dr/ztScoScGTcpai' 
TTJV 8k 7TV€VpiaTU)8€(JT€paV 3 TTJV pL€V TOV €V T fj yfj 
10 /cat cm ttj yfj vypov ar/zt'Sa, rr]v S’ a VTrjs Tfj$ yfjs 
ovcftjs irjpds Ka7rvd)8rj’ /cat tovtcov tt)v pukv rrvev- 
jttardJS'q £m7roXd^€iv Sta to deppiov, ttjv Sc vypo - 
rkpa v v<j>laTaa9ai Sta to fiapos. /cat Sta TavTa 

TOVTOV TOV TpOTTOV /CC/COCfyt^rat TO 7T€pL^ m updoTOV 

pt>kv yap imo tyjv iyievicXcov cfropav Igtw to Beppiov 



argument (< continued ) 

sphere immediately above it , to burst into fames. The par- 
ticular hind of meteoric phenomenon produced depends on 
the position, amount and consistency of the inflammable 
material available (341 b 22-35). (2) These phenomena are 
also caused by heat being ejected forcibly downwards by pres- 
sure, when air condenses owing to cold (341 b 35 — 342 a 16). 

Cause (1) operates m the upper atmosphere, cause (2) in the 
lower . The direction taken depends on the position, etc of 
the exhalation, which is the material cause in both cases, the 
efficient m (1) being the heavenly motion , in (2) condensation 
(342 a 16-30). All these phenomena tak e place below the moon, 
as their motion shows (342 a 30-33). 

Having laid down these principles let us now explain Subjectr- 
what is the cause of the appeal ance of burning flames phenomena 
m the sky, of shooting stars and of what some people 
call “ torches ” and “ goats.” All these phenomena 
are the same thing and due to the same cause, and 
only differ in degree. 

Their origin, as the origin of many other pheno- Caused (l) 
mena, is as follows. The exhalations that arise from 
the earth when it is heated by the sun must be not, 
as some think, of a single kind, but of two kinds ; one 
is more vaporous in character, the other more windy, 
the vapour arising from the water within and upon 
the earth, while the exhalations from the earth itself, 
which is dry, are more like smoke. The windy exhala- 
tion being hot rises to the top, the more watery 
exhalation being heavy sinks below lfc. And thei'e- 
fore the region round the earth is arranged as follows : 
first, immediately beneath the circular celestial 


15 Kcd tjrjpov, o Xiyopev Trvp (avcjvvpov yap to kolvov 
hrl Traarjs rfjs Ka7TV<jb8ov$ Sta/c/ncrew o/xcos* 8 c 
Bia to paXtoTa 7T€(f>VK4vac to tolovtov CKKateodaL 
tojv ooparcov ovtojs avayKaiov yprjod ac tol$ 6vo~ 
paouv), vi to Se ravrrjv rrjv <f>v<nv aijp. Set 8fj 
vorjoac otov vireKKavpa tovto o vvv zfaropev Trvp 
20 7 Tepireraodai tt}$ ire pi rrjv yfjv a<j>alpas ecryarov, 
co ore piKpas tavrjcr€cos rvyov €KKatecrdai TroAAa/as* 
oyairep tov Kamov eon yap rj <f>Xo £ ttvzv paros 
£rjpov treats . fj av ofiv paXiora evKaipcvs %XT) V 
TOLavrr) ovora<ns, orav vi to rfjs TrepL<f>opcx)g Kivrjdfj 
7 tojs, iKKaerat. 

Aia </>4pu S’ t} 8 rj Kara rrjv rov vrreKKavparos deoiv 
25 fj to TrXfjdos" av pkv yap TrXaros eyr) Kal prjKos to 
vmKKavpa, ttoXXolkis oparac Kaiopevrj <£Ao £ coa-Trep 
iv apovpa Kaiopivrjs KaXaprjs, iav 8k Kara prjKos 
povov, oi KaXovpevoi 8aX ol Kal a lyes Kal aoripss. 
[eav pkv rrXeov to vireKKavpa fj Kara to prjKos fj 
30 to TrXaTos J 1 ot av pkv ofiv 2 aTTOOTnvdr)plt > r) apa 
Kaiopevov (tovto 8k ylyvcTat 8ia to TrapeKirv 
povoQai, Kara piKpa pev, err’ apxfjv 84), alg /caAet- 
1 eav . . . trXdros seclusi. 2 o$v N : otov Fobes. 

a Cf. 340 b 25-27 above, 6 Of. 340 b 23 above. 

0 I have bracketed iav pev (23) ... to v-Xaros (29) as a 
gloss on /card fiijKos (27), The words appear m all the mss . 
and in Phil, and Alex, with some vacations (v, Fobes’ 
apparatus) : but they are not required by the logic of the 
passage and only serve to give it a rather confused appear- 
ance (cf. Ideler i. pp. 368-370). They do in fact explain the 
meaning of Kara nfjKos, which is a somewhat odd phrase, 
but which must mean, I take it, “ with greater length than 


motion comes a warm and dry substance which we 
call fire a (for we have no common name to cover 
every subspecies of the smoky exhalation : but 
because it is the most inflammable of all substances, 
we must adopt this nomenclature) ; below this sub- 
stance comes air. Now we must think of the substance 
we have just called fire as extending round the out- 
side of the terrestrial sphere like a kind of inflammable 
material, which often needs only a little motion to 
make it burst into flames, like smoke : for flame is 
the boiling up of a dry current of air . 6 Wherever then 
conditions are most favourable this composition 
bursts irfto flame when the celestial revolution sets 
it in motion. 

The result differs according to the position and whose 
quantity of the inflammable material. If it extends 
both lengthwise and breadthwise we often see a causes 
burning flame of the kind one sees when stubble is phenomena; 
being burnt on ploughland : if it extends lengthwise 
only, then we see the so-called torches and goats and 
shooting stars. When c it throws off sparks as it 
burns (which happens when small portions of matter 
catch fire at the side but m connexion with the main 

breadth ” — as we talk of a “ long ” object : so Alex. 21. X b 
(<?/. Phil. 59. 30, 33) interprets it. The bracketed words 
might have been a gloss to explain an odd phrase and have 
found their way into the text later. If we omit them, and 
read ovv m 1. 29 with N, we have a passage whose logic is 
fairly clear, and which may be analysed as follows : (l) av 
fikv yap TrXaros eyr) Kal fJLrjKOS, (25) . . (3) iav Sc Kara 

fiijKOS fiovov (27) . . SaAol Kal a lyes Kal acripes, (a) orav 

pkv odv (29) . . . cuf, ( b ) orav S’ avev rovrov (32) * . SaAoj, 

( o ) iav §c (33) . aaripes The omitted clause is thus quite 
unnecessary to the logic of the passage, which it merely 
serves to confuse by repeating what has already been stated 
in Kara prjKO?. 



rat, orav S* dvev rovrov rov 7ra9ovs , SaAos*. eav 
8e ra jaepi? 1 ttJ? dva9vpudaeevs Kara pttKpa re /cal 
rroXXaxfj Siearrappteva fj /cal optoievs Kara rrXaros 
35 /cal fiados, oi SoKodvres darepes Starretv ylyvovrat . 
e 0r€ ptev ofiv in to rfjs Ktvrfaeevs rj ava9vptlaats 
iKKaiopLevr] yew a avra* ore 8e vrro rov Sta rrjv 
342 a ijivtjiv avvtaraptevov depos eK9XLfier at /cal eKKplve- 
rat to 9epptov, 8 id /cal eoucev rj (j>opd pLifjet ptaXXov 
avrevv, dAA’ ovk eKKavarei. arropijaete yap dv rts 
rrorepov evarrep rj vrro rovs X vyvovs n9epe vrj ava- 
5 9vpttaais drro rrjs avev9ev (f>Xoyos drrret rov KarevSev 
Xvxvov (9avptaarrj yap /cal rovrov rj raxvirjs ear tv 
/cal optoia p'ufjeiy aXX ovx d)S aXXov /cal aXXov 
ytyvoptevov rrvpos ), rj pljjets rov avrov nvos ad>- 
pharos eiatv at StaSpoptal. eotKe 8rj Si apt<f)cv' /cal 
yap ovrevs dvs rj arro rov Xvxvov ytyverat, koI evia 
10 Sta to eKOXifieodat pirrreZraiy evarrep oi £k revv 
SaKrvXcvv rrvprjves > dare /cal els rrjv yrjv /cal els 
rrj v OaXarrav <f>alvea9ai rrtrrrovra, /cal vvKrevp /cal 
pteO 9 rjptepav /cal aWplas ovarjs. Karev 8e pirtreZrat 
Sta to rrjv rrvKvevatv els to Karev perretv rrjv arr - 
eodovaav. Sid /cal ol Kepavvol Karev mrrrovaiv 2 * 
15 rravrcvv yap rovrevv rj yeveats ovk eKKavais aXX 
eKKptats vrro rrjs iKdXlifseevs eartv , irrel Kara <f>vatv 
ye to depptov dvev rre$>vKe <j>epea9at rrav . 

1 jidpi] E«joi r m i 233 N Ideler : nrjKTj Pip Fobes. 

2 rov irvp6s avco <f>epo jiivov Kara <j>voiv post iriTrrovoiv 
habenl PI Fobes : om, codd. 

a So the O.T., following Alex. 21 . 20, Phil. 59. 37 ff. 
Ideler and Salnt-Hilaire take the words to mean “ when 
consumed bit by bit, but entirely.” 

6 I have omitted the words rov nvpds . . . (v. crit. 

note) because they do not seem to add anything to the passage. 


body a ) it is called a goat : when this characteristic 
is absent it is called a torch : and if the parts of the 
exhalation are broken up small and scattered in many 
directions both vertically and horizontally, then what 
are commonly thought to be shooting stars are pro- 

Sometimes then the exhalation produces these ^^con- 
phenomena when ignited by the heavenly motion, of air . 10 
But sometimes heat is ejected by pressure when the 
air contracts owing to cold ; and then they take a 
course more like that of a projectile than of a foe. 

For one might be uncertain whether shooting stars 
are the result of a process like that in which, when 
one lamp is placed beneath another, the exhalations 
from the lower one cause it to be lit from the flame 
of the upper (the speed with which this takes place 
is extraordinary and resembles the action of a pro- 
jectile rather than of a train of fire), or whether again 
they are caused by the projection of a single body. 

Probably both causes operate, and some of these phe- 
nomena are produced in the same way as the flame 
from the lamp, others are shot out under pressure, 
as fruit stones from the fingers. And we see them 
falling onto the earth and into the sea, both at night 
and by day, from a clear sky. They are shot down- 
wards because the condensation which propels them 
has a downward inclination. For this reason thunder- 
bolts too fall downwards : for all these phenomena 
are produced not by combustion but by projection 
under pressure, since naturally all heat tends to rise 
upwards. & 

Aristotle says the same thing m 11. 15-16, which surely makes 
the words superfluous here : and PI seems the only authority 
for them. 

c S3 

342 a 


*'0oa pev o Sv [paXXov] 1 ev rep a voj 2 romp ovv - 
iorarai , eKKaiopevrjs yiyverai rr}$ dvadvpuaoecos, 
ooa Se KardorepoVy eKKpwopevrjs Sta to ovvievat 
20 /cai ipvyead at rrjv vyporepav avadvplaow avrrj 
yap ovviovoa teal Kara) perrovoa arraydei ttvkvov - 
pevrj /cat /ccmo 7rotet to£ deploy rrjv piifsiv 8ta Se 
rrjv deoev rfjs dvadvpuxoeojg y ottojs av rvyr) Keipevrj 
rov rrXarovs /cat rod fiddovs, ovreo <f>eper at 7 ) avco 
77 /carco 77 €ts* to rrXdyiov. ra nXeiara S’ as to 
25 rrXdyiov 8ta to Suo <j>epeod at <j>opds, /Jta ptev Karo), 
<f>voei 8 ’ aw rravra yap Kara rrjv hiaperpov 
</>eperai ra roiavra . Sto /cat tco^ Scaffeovrwv 
aorepwv 77 rrXel arrj Xoljrj yiyverai efropd. 

liavrwv Srj rovrojv dlnov c bs pev vXrj rj avaOv- 
plaois, <bs 8e to kivovv ore pev rj avw <f>opa , ore 
30 8 ’ rj rov aepos ovyKpivopevov nrrjijis. rravra Se 
Kara) ravra oeXrjvrjs ylyverai. orjpeiov 8 ’ rj (ftaivo- 
jievrj avrdtv rayvrrjs opola ovoa roig vcf) 9 rjpcov 
pirrrovpevois , a Sta to rrXrjolov amt rjpcvv rroXv 
So/cet rco rdyei rrapaXXdrreiv dor pa re /cat rjXiov 
/cat oeXrjvrjv. 

1 /LtaAAov om. E Ap Ol : habet Fobes. 

2 aval E 90S 01 : dvcaraTco PI Fobes : avanipo) Ap. 

a On the readings in 1. 17 the O.T. has the following note : 
“ Omit iiaXKov ana read avco with E and the lemma in 



The aurora borealis is due to the condensation of air. This 
may produce the phenomena mentioned in the last chapter ; 


When therefore formation takes place in the upper Summary 
part of this region, the phenomenon is produced by 
combustion of the exhalation a : when in the lower, 
by ejection consequent upon the condensation and 
cooling of the more humid exhalation, which inclines 
downwards when it condenses and as it contracts 
propels the heat and causes it to be shot downwards. 

The motion is upwards, downwards or sideways ac- 
cording to the position of the exhalation and whether 
it happens to lie vertically or horizontally. The 
motion is most often sideways because it is a com- 
bination of two motions, an impressed motion down- 
wards and a natural motion upwards, and bodies under 
these conditions move obliquely. 6 Therefore the 
movement of shooting stars is commonly transverse 

The material cause then of all these phenomena 
is the exhalation, the moving cause in some cases the 
celestial motion, in others the condensation of the air 
as it contracts. And all of them take place below the 
moon : a proof of which is the fact that the speed of 
their movement is comparable to that of obj ects thrown 
by us, which seem to move much faster than the 
stars and sun and moon because they are close to us. 

Olympiodorus. fiaXXov and the superlative a vcordro) are ex- 
planations of avcD.” So also is Alex.’s avaurepw. 

6 As Thurot (p. 89) points out, Aristotle’s mechanics here 
are at fault. 


argument {continued) 

but may also, when it takes place to a lesser degree and when 
the air is also lit up by reflection, produce the various pheno- 
mena of the aurora . 



{The O.T. supposes that the chapter deals with “ phenomena 
of cloud coloration Ideler says it deals with the aurora 
and produces evidence that this can be seen as far south as 

342 a 34 OatWrat Sc nore avPicrrapieva vvKrwp aid p Las 
35 ovarjs noXXa (fxxapiara iv rep ovpavw, olov x^p^d 
re Kal fioOvvot Kal atpLarwSrj x/xn/xara. atriov Sc 
342 b cm rovrwv ro av ro m in el yap cfaavepos ion aw- 
iorap,evos 6 dvw a r)p c oar €Knvpova9ai, Kal rrjv 
eKnvpwaiv ore pev roiavrrjv ylyveadat ware <j>X6ya 
SoKeiv KaleaOac, ore Sc olov SaA ovs <j>epea6a t /cat 
dare pas, ovSev dronov el XP U) P i aTt^crat 6, avros 
5 ovros arjp avviardpievos navroSanas XP° as 1 * Sta 
re yap nvKvorepov 8iacf>aiv6pi€vov eXarrov (f>ws Kal 
avaKXaacv Bexdpevos 6 arjp navroSana xpdtpara 
noirjoei, puaXiara Sc (/>olvikovv rj nopcj>vpovv, Sta 
to ravra paXiara c/c rov rrvpwBovs Kal XevKov 
(jjalveaOac pcei yvvpevwv Kara ras imnpoadrjaeis, 
10 olov dvlaxovra ra aarpa Kal Bvopieva, eav fj Kavpua, 
Kal Sta Kanvov <f>oiviKa <j>aLverai. Kal rfj ava/cAaact 
Sc noiTjaei, orav ro evonrpo v fj roiovrov ware /arj 
ro oxVP ia <*AAa to XP&P a Se^coflat. rov Sc perj 
noXvv xpovov peveiv ravra rj ovaraais alrLa ra^cta 

is Ta Sc ^aa/mra dvapprjywpevov rov cf>wrds c/c 
Kvavov /cat /xeAa vo$ noiei n fiados ey^v BoKelv . 
noXXaKLs S* c/c rwv roiovrwv Kal SaAot eKnlnrovaw, 
orav ovyKpiOfj paXXov avviov S’ ere ^aerjaa So/cct. 

a I have translated owlaraaOai etc. “ condense,” “ con- 
densation ” (with O.T.) because it seemed to make the best 


Greece and so might he known to Aristotle ( i . p . 374) * Heath , 
Anstarchus (p. 243), also supposes Aristotle is referring here 
to the aurora.) 

Sometimes on a clear night a number of appearances 
can be seen taking shape in the sky, such as “ chasms/’ 
41 trenches 99 and blood-red colours. These again have 
the same cause. For we have shown that the upper 
air condenses a and takes fire and that its combustion 
sometimes produces the appearance of a burning fire, 
sometimes of “ torches ” or stars in motion ; it is there- 
fore to be expected that this same air m process of 
condensation should assume all sorts of colours. For 
light penetrating more feebly through a thicker 
medium, and the air when it permits reflection, will 
produce all sorts of colours, and particularly red and 
purple * for these colours are usually observed when 
fire-colour and white are superimposed and combined, 
as happens for instance in hot weather when the stars 
at their rising or setting appear red when seen through 
a smoky medium. The air will also produce the same 
effects by reflection, w T hen the reflecting medium is 
such as to reproduce colour only and not shape. The 
cause of the brief duration of these phenomena is 
that the condensation lasts for a short time only. 

Chasms have an appearance of depth because the 
light breaks out from a dark blue or black back- 
ground. Similar conditions often cause the fall of 
“ torches ” when there is a greater degree of con- 
densation : but while the process of contraction is 

sense. The word can bear this meaning (<?/. 342 a 1), and 
7rvKvoripov 1. 5 and avyspiBrj 1.1T seem to indicate that it bears 
it here. 

The atriov ... to avro of the previous sentence must then 
refer to cause (2) of the last chapter. 



oA<OS‘ S’ iv TCp fJieXaVL TO XeVKOV TToXXds TTOL€L ttol- 
kiXlcls, olov T) <j>X6g iv rep Kanvcp. rj pi pas piv ovv 
20 6 7}XlO$ KCoXv€l , VVKTOS 8’ i£<jO TOV (f>OLVLKOV T <X 

aAAa St’ ofjLOXpotav ov <£atWrat. 

Ilept piv ofiv tcov Sta deovrcov a aripwv Kal tcov 


cj>acrpdTc ov oora ra^etas 1 ttolzltcu tcls <j>avTaoLas, 
ravras imoXafieiv Set ras* cartas. 

a Thurot (p. 90) finds these words (avviov . . . Bokcl II. 17- 
1B) u unintelligible,” and suggests reading am iov hi rt <jSo0uvo? 
ehai ro> x < * (I l J ' a So/cet, a suggestion which the O.T. adopts and 
translates “ When the * chasm ’ contracts it pi events the 
appearance of a ‘ trench.’ ” This has the advantage that it 
provides us with a definition of the fiodvvoi m 342 a 36, which 



Comets . A. Previous mews stated and criticized. (\) An- 
axagoras and Democritus — Comets are due to a conjunction of 
planets (342 b 27-29). (2) (a) The Pythagoreans believe that 
comets are a planet which only appears at long intervals (342 b 
29-35). 2 (b) Hippocrates and Aeschylus agree , but suppose 
that the tail is due to reflection of the sun m moisture attracted 

342 b 25 n €pl Si TCOV KOpTjTCOV Kal TOV KaXoVpeVOV yd- 
XaKTOS Xiycopev , StaTroprjoavTes Trpos T<i rrapd tcov 

aXXcOV €Lprjp>€Va 7TpO>TOV. 

*Ava£ay6pa$ pev ofiv Kal ArjpoKptTOs <j>acrtv elvai 
tovs KOfirjTas ovpcjoaotv tcov TrXavfjTCov aoTepcov, oTav 
Sia to rrXrjotov iXdetv S o£<ocn Styyavetv dXXrjXcov. 

30 Tcov S ’ TTaXiKCOV Tiv€$ KaXovpivcov Uvda yopeicov 


going on a chasm appears.® In general, white thrown 
on black produces a variety of colours, as does flame 
on smoke. In the day time the sun prevents their 
appearance, at night all other colours except red are 
lost because they provide no contrast with the back- 
ground of darkness. 

These then must be assumed to be the causes of 
shooting stars and fires and of other such phenomena 
whose appearance is of brief duration & 

otherwise remain unmentioned. But it is not unlike Ai istotle 
to leave them unmentioned, particularly as they are so 
evidently similai to x^o-gara ; and I have accordingly left 
the text a<s it stands m Fobes, and taken owiov to mean the 
same as ovviorapevos^ This when read in conjunction with 
the first part of the sentence makes good sense. 

6 These last words sum up the contents of chs. 4 and 5. 


ARGUMENT (continued) 

by the comet . and add further explanations of its infrequent 
appearance (342 b 35 — 343 a 20). All these views are in- 
correct : criticisms , (7) of 2 (a) and (b) (343 a 20-b 6), (II) 
of l and 2 jointly (343 b 7-25), (III) of 1 (343 b 2.5 — 344 a 2). 
With this chapter cf Heath , Aristarchus, pp. 243 jf. 

Our next subjects are comets and the so-called milky 
way. First let us examine the views of others on 
these subjects 

1. Anaxagoras a and Democritus b say that comets Previous 
are a conjunction of planets, when they appear to lAnaxa- 
touch each other because of their nearness. g° ras and 

2 ( a ), Of the Italian schools some of the so-called 
■ Diels 59 A 81 : A 1 (fa. 6. 3). * Ibid . 68 A 92. 



2 (a). The 


eva Xeyovaw avrov etvac rcbv rrXavrjroyv aorepwVy 
aXXa Sta rroXXov re xP° vov <j>avraoiav avrov 
elvai Kai rrjv virepfioXriv erri [UKpov, orrep ovp- 
ftaivei Kai rrepi rov rod *E pfaov aarepa • Sta yap to 
piLKpov erravafialveiv 7roAAas* eKXelrrei (j>daeis, abort 
35 Sta xpovov <j>aLveo8ai ttoXXov. 

Uapa7rXrjoiws Se rovrois Kai ol rrepi Ttttto- 
343a Kparrjv rov Xtov /cat rov pLadrjrrjV avrov AloyoXov 
drre^rjvavrOy rrXrjv rr\v ye Kopurjv ovk avrov 
(f>aoiv ex^Wy aAAa rrXavd>iievov Sta rov rorrov 
evlore Xapfiaveiv dvaKXwfJLevrjs rrjs rjp,erepas oifseios 
arro rrjs eXKofjLevrjs vyporrjros vrr avrov rrpos rov 
5 rjXiov. Sta Se ro vnoXeirreadai fipahvrara ra> 
Xpdvco Sta rrXeLorov xp° vov tfrcdvecrdai rcbv aXXtov 
darpo)v 3 tbs orav ck t avrov <f>avfj vrroXeXeiyLiievov 

a Diels 42. 5. 

6 The mathematician. Heath, Greek Maths, i. pp. 182 ff. ; 
Diels 42. 5. c Tbid. 

d We normally speak only of the object being reflected by 
the mirror to the eye : Aristotle here speaks of the sight 
(otfns) being reflected by the mnror to the object. Fig. 1 
illustrates this theory of Hippocrates and Aeschylus (I have 
followed Alex. 27 and Phil. 77). 

e Two reasons are given for the infrequent appearance of 
comets. (1) The planet “ is slowest of all in falling behind ” 
(v. note /). (2) It does not acquire a tail, and so appear as a 
comet, m every region of the sky, but only when its couise 
lies towards the north. 

f woAewrecr&u is the ordinary word for the apparent retro- 
grade motion of the planets, which seem “ to fall behind ” 
the motion of the fixed stais. And early cosmologies sup- 
posed that this was in fact what happened, the stars moving 
more quickly than the planets, which were consequently left 
behind and so appeared to have a “ backward ” motion of 
their own (Heath, Aristarchus, pp. 108-109 ; Cornford, 
Plato's Cosmology , p. 112 ; Alex. 27. 13). Alex. (27. 15 ff.) 


Pythagoreans a say that a comet is one of the planets, 
but that it appears only at long intervals and does 
not rise far above the horizon. This is true of Mercury 
too ; for because it does not rise far above the horizon, 
many of its appearances are invisible to us, and so it 
is only seen at long intervals of time. 

2 (( b ). Hippocrates 6 of Chios and his disciple 2 (b) Hip- 
Aeschylus c held views similar to this. But they P£| rates 
maintain that the tail does not belong to the comet Aeschylus, 
itself, but that it acquires it when in its passage 
through space it draws up moisture which reflects d 


vyporrjs §P 

----- "O ^ 


Fig. 1 

Sun’s image reflected in moisture produces appearance 
of comet’s tail. 

our vision towards the sun. It appears at longer 
intervals than any of the other stars e because it is 
the slowest of all in falling behind the sun/ and when 
it reappears again at the same point it has completed 

takes this to be the meaning of the word heie. But it is 
difficult to see how this could account foi the comet-planet 
appearing more seldom; indeed, as Philoponus (79. 27) re- 
marks, it would have the opposite effect. He accordingly 
supposes (78) that xmoXeLirtadai here means not “ fall behind 
the stars ” but “ fall behind the sun ” ; and that this accounts 
for its rare appearance, because it remains for a long time 
too close to the sun to be visible. The analogy with Mercury, 
one of the slowest planets on this view, thus gams point 
(Phil. 79. 35). Ideler ( 1 . p. 385, quoting Vicomercatus) and 
Heath (p. 243) follow Philoponus. 



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pidvcov £otlv €ls aoTepcov 6 Kopb^Trjs* ot yap 7rAa- 
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a It is visible only for a short period and must complete 
its “ backward ” orbit and come back to the same relative 
position before it is visible again. 

6 Though the text is uncertain it seems clear what the 
meaning must be. When the planet's course falls south of 
the tropics, then, though there is plenty of moisture, reflection 

’ METECfrlOLOGlCA, I vi 

its backward orbit. a It falls behind both to the north 
and to the south. In the zone between the tropics 
it cannot draw up water to itself because the sun in 
its course dries up that whole region. In its south- 
ward course it finds plenty of the requisite moisture, 
but as only a small segment of its course is visible 
above our horizon, the greater part of it being below, 
human vision is incapable of being reflected as far as 
the sun either when it approaches its southern limit 
or at the summer solstice. & In these regions therefore 
it does not become a comet. But when it falls behind 
towards the north, then it gets its tail because the 
segment of its course that is above the horizon is a 
large one, and the arc of its circle below the horizon 
small, and when this is so, human vision can easily 
reach the sun by reflection. 

There are impossibilities in all these views, some 
of which apply to all, others to some only. 

(I) Let us first deal with those who say the comet Criticisms • 
is one of the planets, (i) The planets all fall into pytha^ 6 
retrogradation within the zodiac circle, but many ^ rea ^ afces 
comets have been seen outside that circle, (ii) Again, ana a 63 

is impossible, either when the sun approaches the southern Aeschylus * 
or the northern limit of its course. We have the northern 
m the summer solstice {Bspivais rpoTrais 1 . 15) ; and the words 
rpoiriKto roircp should define the southern, but as they stand 
hardly* do. vorcp or voritp appears m some mss., and some 
phrase with one or the other would give the necessary sense. 

But it is difficult to see exactly what the reading should be. 

(Thurot’s note here (p. 90) seems to rest on a misunderstand- 
ing. LI. b 4-7, to which he refers, can have no relation to this 
passage, which states the conditions under which comets do 
not appear : b 4-7 deals with conditions under which they 
do and should be related to a 17-20 The view that comets 
cannot appear m the south at the summer solstice is not in- 
consistent with the view that they can appear then in the 


more than one comet has frequently appeared at 
the same time (in) Besides, if they owe their tails 
to reflection, as Aeschylus and Hippocrates say, the 
star in question should sometimes appear without its 
tail, since it falls into retrogradation in several regions 
but does not have a tail in all of them a ; but in fact 
no planet has been seen other than the five, and all 
of these are often visible m the sky together above 
the horizon, and comets have appeared with equal fre- 
quency both when all the planets are visible and when 
some are not, being too close to the sun. (iv) Nor is it 
true that comets only appear in the northern part of 
the sky when the sun is at the summer solstice. 6 For 
the great comet, which appeared about the time 
of the earthquake in Achaea c and the tidal wave, 
rose in the west. d And there have been many in the 
south. And when Euclees, son of Molon, was archon c 
at Athens, there was a comet towards the north in 
the month Gamelion^ about the time of the winter 
solstice : and even the upholders of this theory are 
prepared to admit that reflection at such a distance 
is impossible 

(II) Objections which apply both to those who (ii> Appiy- 
hold this theory and also to those who suppose comets aH 
are due to conjunction of two planets are (i) that some 
of the fixed stars have tails. And for this we need 
not rely only on the evidence of the Egyptians who 
say they have observed it ; we have observed it also 
ourselves. For one of the stars in the thigh of the 

northern part of the sky ; the further condition “ and at the 
summer solstice ” was omitted. 

c 373-372 b.c. Also refen ed to at b 18, 344 b 34, 368 b 6. 

d Lit “ towards the equinoctial sunset,” cf. ch. 13 below 
and Heidel, Frame of Greek Maps. 

6 497/6 b.c. ‘ * Jan.-Feb. 



343 b , , x 

kvvos aarrjp ns eaye Koprjv, apavpav pevrov 
aTevl^ovaiv pev yap els avTov dpvSpov eylyver o 
to <f>eyyos> TrapafiXerrovai S’ rjpepa ttjv oi/jlv nrXiov, 
is 7rpos Se tovtols aTTavTes ol Kad 5 rjpas coppevoi avev 
Svaecos rjc^avladrjoav ev ra> vrrep tov opl^ovr oj 
totto) dnropapavdevTes Kara piKpov ovtcos, wan 
pyyre evos aarepos vTroXei(/)9rjvai acopa prjTe nrXeio* 
vcov , in rel Kal 6 peyas darrjp nrepl od nr porepov 
ipvnjod7]pev ic/xxvr] pev yeipcovos ev rrayois koI 
20 aid plats dfi iouepaSy enrl * Acrrslov apyovTOS, koI 
rfj pev 7rpa)rrj ovk &<j>dr\ cos 7Tpo8e8vK(bs t ov rjXlov , 
rfj S’ varepala ojcjydr]- oaov iuSeyerat yap eXayiGTov 
vireXel^dy], Kal evdvs ISir to Se <f>eyyos aTrerave 
peypi tov rplrov pepovs rod ovpavov otov aXpa 1 ' 
Sio Kal ckX^Otj 68os . hravrjXde Se peypi rrjs £,<dvrj$ 
25 rod 'mpioivos, Kal ivTavdot SieX v8rj. 

Ka Itol ArjpoKpLTos ye nTpoanre^iXoveiKrjKev rrj 
86grj rfj amov * <l>rjal yap &<f>dai 8iaXvopev<ov tcov 
KoprjTcov dcrTepas nvas> tovto Se ovy ore pev 
eSei ylyveada i ore Se ov, aXX del. nrpos Se tov- 
tois Kal ol A lyvrrnol <f)aai Kal tcov nrXavrjTcov Kal 
7rpos avTovs Kal nrpos to vs drrXavels ylyveaSai 
30 cruvoSovs, Kal a vtoI icopaKapev tov aorTepa tov tov 
Aids tcov ev to is SiSvpois ovveXdovTa nvl yjSr) Kal 
d<f>avlcravTa , aAA s ov Koprjrrjv yevopevov . en 8e 
Kal €K tov Xoyov <f>avepov ol yap dorTepes Kav el 
pel^ovs Kal eXaTTovs <f>alvovrai, aAA’ opcos aSi- 
35 alpeTol ye Kad * ea vtovs eivai Sokovoiv . dodnrep ofiv 
Kal el rjoav aSialpeTot, arpapevoi ovSev av irrolrjcrav 

1 dfifia E x F x : apa J. 

a 343 b 1. 



Dog had a tail, though a dim one : if you looked hard 
at it the light used to become dim, but to a less intent 
glance it was brighter, (ii) Further, all the comets 
seen in our time disappeared without setting, gradu- 
ally fading away in the sky above the horizon and 
leaving behind neither one star nor more than one. 

For instance, the great comet which we mentioned 
before 0 appeared during the winter m clear frosty 
weather in the west, in the archonship of Asteius : 
on the first night it was not visible as it set before the 
sun did, but it was visible on the second, being the 
least distance behind the sun that would allow it to 
be seen, and setting immediately. Its light stretched 
across a third of the sky in a great jump, b as it were, 
and so was also called a path. It rose as high as 
Orion’s belt, and there dispersed. 

(Ill) Democritus, however, has defended his view <M) Of 
vigorously, maintaining that stars have been seen to 3)emocnfcus * 
appear at the dissolution of some comets, (i) But 
this ought, on his view, to happen not sometimes but 
always, (ii) And further, the Egyptians say that 
there are conjunctions both of planet with planet and 
of planets and fixed stars, and we ourselves have 
observed the planet Jupiter in conjunction with one 
of the stars in the Twins and hiding it completely, 
but no comet resulted, (iii) Besides, the theory can 
be shown to be wrong on purely logical grounds. For 
though some of the stars seem to be bigger, some 
smaller than others, yet individually they seem to 
be indivisible points. As therefore, if they were 
indivisible points, the addition of one to another 

b otov dA/ua, “ like a jump,” is an odd phrase : the alter- 
native reading aju/za, “ like a cord (or band),” is perhaps 



fiiyedos fiel^ovy ovrws /cat ineiSr] ovk elalv pev 
344 a (fxXWOVTCLl 8 € dBlCLLpZTOL, KCU GVV€\doVT€$ OTjSeV (jxX“ 
vovvrat fj,€ l£ov$ to peyedos ovres. 

f/ Ort fiev ovv at Xeyopevai rrzpl a vrcov atrtat 
ifievSets odaai rvy^dvovoiv 3 ct prj Sta rrAeiovcnv 3 
aAAa /cat Sta rovroov t/cai'co? 8fjAov ecrrw. 

a Aristotle regaided the geometrical point as indivisible 
(abiaLperov) ; the line cannot be composed of points, the 
point is not part of the line. Thus the point has no magnitude, 
and cannot increase or decrease a magnitude (cf. Phys. vi. 



Comets {continued). B. Aristotle's own theory. Comets 
have two causes. (1) As has been said, the outermost part of 
the terrestrial sphere consists of a hot dry exhalation, which is 
carried round by the motion of the heavenly sphere with which 
it is contiguous. When this motion sets up a fiery principle 
of moderate strength and this meets a suitably constituted 
exhalation, a comet is produced. {It will bea“ comet ” Ko^oj- 
T7]S or “ bearded-star ” -nooyajvlas according to the shape of the 
exhalation.) A comet of this kind is in fact a self-contained 
shooting star (344 a 8-33). (2) When the exhalation is formed 
by one of the stars this star becomes a comet, and is followed 
by a tail just as the sun and moon are sometimes followed by 

344 a 5 ’Erret Sc irepl rwv d<f>avobv rfj aiodrjcreL vopi^opev 
Ikolvojs on-oS eSctp^at /card rov A oyov, iav ctV to 
hvvarov dvaydywpev , €K re rcov vvv fiatvopevoov 
VTroXdfioi ns av code rrepl rovroov paXiara crvp- 


•METEOftOLOGICA, I. vi~vn 

could not give an increase in magnitude, so now, 
since they appear to be indivisible points even though 
they really are not, their conjunction will bring no 
appearance of an increase m magnitude.® 

Though more could be said, this is enough to 
demonstrate the falsity of current theories of the 
causes of comets. 

chs. 1, 2). ^ So here he argues that as the stars look like points, 
their conjunction (addition) can bring no appearance of 
increase in magnitude. 


argument (continued) 

haloes a (344 a 33-b 8). Comets of type (2) have the same 
motion as the star m question : type (1) move with the ter- 
restrial sphere and so fall behind the stars (344 b 8-12). Con- 
firmation of this view that comets are fiery is that they are 
generally the sign of winds and drought : the more of them 
there are the more likely are these to occur (344 b 12-31). 
Examples (344 b 31 — 345 a 5). The reason why comets are 
rare is that the motion of the sun and stars not only causes the 
hot principle to form but also dissolves it (345 a 5-10). 

We consider that we have given a sufficiently rational 
explanation of things inaccessible to observation by 
our senses if w^e have produced a theory that is pos- 
sible : and the following seems, on the evidence 
available, to be the explanation of the phenomena 
now under consideration. 

° “ Comets are thus bodies of vapour m a state of slow 
combustion either moving freely or in the wake of a star,” 
Heath, Aristarchus , p. 24 6. 



344 a , v v 

'YrroKeirai yap rjpiv rod Koapov rod rrepi rr)P 

10 yfjv, ooov v rro rrjv eyKVKXiov ianv cfjopav , etvai to 
rrpajrov pepos avadvpiaaiv £rjpav Kal Bepprjv avrrj 
8e avrrj re Kal rod avveyods vrr* avrrjv a epos errl 
ttoXv ovprrepiayerai rrepi rrjv yrjv vrro rrjs (j>opds 
Kal rrjs Kivrjaeajs rrjs kvkXco * cfjepopevrj Se Kal 
Kivovpevrj rodrov rov rporrov, fj av rvyrj evKparos 
15 odaa, rroXXaKLs iKrrvpovrar 8 to <f>apev ylyveoB at 
Kal ras rwv arropdSwv aarepajv ScaSpopas* orav 
odv els rrjv rotavrrjv rrvKvwaiv eprrearj Sta rrjv 
avcudev KivrjGiv a pyrj rrvpajbrjs, prjre ovraj ttoXXtj 
X iav ware rayv Kal errl rroXv eKKaieiv, prjd* ovrajs 
dadevrjs ware arroofieadrjvaL aAAa nXeitov Kal 

20 errl ttoXv, 1 a pa Se KaravOev avpTTlrrrrj avafialvetv 
evKparov avadvptaoiv , aorrjp rodro ylyvera l Koprj- 
rrjSy brrajs av to avadvpcajpevov rvyrj ioyrjpan- 
apevov iav pev yap rr avrrj opolcas, Koprjrrjs, iav 
8’ errl prjKos , KaXeirai rrajyujvias . warrep Se rj 
roiavrrj <f>opa aarepos </>opa SoKet etvai , ovrws Kal 
25 rj povrj rj opola aarepos povrj So/cet etvai * rrapa- 
rrXrjaiov yap to yiyvopevov olov el res ayypajv 
drjpwva Kal rrXfj6os waeie SaXov rj rrvpos dpyrjv 
ip/3aXoi piKpdv </>alverai yap opola Kal rj raj v 
dorepojv SiaSpoprj rovreo • rayv yap Sea rrjv evcjjvtav 
rod wreKKav paros SiaSlScoaiv errl prjKos . el Srj 
30 rodro pelveie Kal prj Karapapavdelrj SieXBov, fj 
paXiara irrvKvajae to V7T€KKavpa } yevoir dv dpyrj 


We have laid down that the outer part of the Two types 
terrestrial world, that is, of all that lies beneath the ( 0 f)7o?med 
celestial revolutions, is composed of a hot dry exhala- by a fiery 
tion. This and the greater part of the air which is the^o? 6 m 
continuous with and below it are carried round the exhalation ; 
earth by the movement of the circular revolution : 
as it is carried round its movement frequently causes 
it to catch lire, wherever it is suitably constituted, 
which we maintain is the cause of scattered shooting 
stars. a Now when as a result of the upper motion 
there impinges upon a suitable condensation a fiery 
principle which is neither so very strong as to cause 
a rapid and widespiead conflagration, nor so feeble 
as to be quickly extinguished, but which is yet strong 
enough and widespread enough ; and when besides 
there coincides with it an exhalation from below of 
suitable consistency ; then a comet is produced, its 
exact form depending on the form taken by the ex- 
halation — if it extends equally in all directions it is 
called a comet or long-haired star, if it extends 
lengthwise only it is called a bearded star. And 
just as a phenomenon of this sort when it moves 
seems to be a shooting star, so when it remains 
stationary it seems to be a stationary star. An 
analogy may be found in what happens when one 
thrusts a burning torch into a large quantity of chaff 
or drops a spark onto it ; for the course of a shooting 
star is similar in that because the fuel is suitable it 
runs quickly along it. But if the fire were not to run 
through the fuel and burn itself out, but were to stand 
still at a point where the fuel-supply was densest. 

Ch. S, 340 b 14 ff. and ch. 4, 341 b 5 ff. 
1 Kal ini noXv del. Thurot. 



rrjs <f>opas rj reXevrrj rrjs StaSpoptfjs- rotovrov 6 

KOp/fjTiqS icTlV CLGTTjp y <jQ07T€p SiaSpOfAT) doripOS, 

iyoov iv iavrcb Trip as Kal apyfv. 

" Orav pev oSv iv avra> rep Kara) toitco rj dpyfj 
35 rrjs ovordoews fj, KaO* iavrov <f>atverat Koprjrrjs * 
orav S’ vtto rcbv darpcov rtvos 9 rj rcbv drrXavcbv 
rj rcbv 7rXa vrjrcov, vtto rrjs Ktvrjoeos avvtorrjrat rj 
344 b dvaOvplaats, rore Koprjrrjs ytyverat rovrcov ns* 
ov yap rrpos avrots rj Koprj ytyverat rots aarpots, 
aXX 9 ebarrep at aXcp ire pi rov rjXcov <j>aivovrat Kal 
rrjv aeXrjvrjv rrapaKoXovOovaat , Kalrrep ptedtora- 
5 pivcov , orav ovrws fj rrerrvKvcopivos 6 arjp wort 
rovro yiy veaOat to rrdBos vtto rrjv rov rjXiov r ro- 
pelav, ovrw Kal rj Koprj rots aarpots otov aXas 
ioriv rrXrjv rj pev ylyverat St 5 avaKXaatv rotavrrj 
rrjv ypoav, €K€t S’ h r a vrebv to %pcbpa (jjatvopevov 
ear tv. 

" Orav pev ovv Kar dare pa yivrjr at rj rotavrrj 
10 crvyKptarts, rrjv avrrjv avdyKrj <f>alvea6at cjyopav 
Ktvovpevov rov Koprjrrjv rjvrrep (f>eperat 6 a orrjp' 
orav Se avarfj Ka6 9 a vrov 9 rore vrroXeirTopevoi 
<j>alvovrai. rotavrrj yap rj <j>opa rov Koapov rov 
ire pi rrjv yrjv. 

(Tovro yap pdXtara prjvvet prj elvat avaKXaatv 
nva rov Koprjrrjv , t os aXco iv vrriKKavpan Kadapcpf 
15 rrpos avrov rov daripa ytyvopevrjv, Kal prj c os 
Xiyovatv oi rrepl 'IrrrroKparrjv, rrpos rov rjXiov, on 

1 interpunxit O.T, 

0 The point of this comparison appears to be as follows, 


then this point at which the fire stops would be the 
beginning of the orbit of a comet. So we may define 
a comet as a shooting star that contains its beginning 
and end m itself. 6 

When therefore the material gathers m the lower (2) formed 
region, the comet is an independent phenomenon. by a star * 
But when the exhalation is formed by the movement 
of one of the stars — either of the planets or of the 
fixed stars — then one of them becomes a comet. The 
tail is not attached to the stars themselves, but is a 
kind of stellar halo, like the haloes which appear to 
accompany the sun and moon as they move, when 
the air has condensed in such a way as to produce 
such formations beneath the sun’s course. The 
difference between them is that whereas the colour 
of the sun’s halo is due to reflection, the colour of the 
comet’s tail is what it actually appears to be. 

When therefore the formation of matter occurs in Motion of 
connexion with a stai, the comet must necessarily typll of ° 
appear to follow the same course as that on which comet, 
the star is moving : when it is an independent forma- 
tion it seems to fall behind the stars, as it follows the 
movement of the tenestrial sphere. 

(A conclusive disproof that the comet is a reflection, 
not to the sun, as the school of Hippocrates maintain, 
but to the star itself — thus being a kind of halo in 
the clear inflammable material — is that a comet often 

If you ignite a large quantity of inflammable material ( e.a . 
chaff), if it is scattered over an area, the fire will run quickly 
across it. This is analogous to a shooting star If the 
material is gathered together in a heap, then the fire will burn 
at the place where the heap is. This is analogous to a comet 
(cf. Alex. 34 24 ff. and Phil. 93. 28). 

6 i,e. burns in a single place, like the heap of chaff, and 
does not " shoot ” like a shooting star propel , 



Kal Kad 9 avrov ytyverai Koprjrrjs rroXXaKis Kal 
rrXeovaKis rj irepl rtov (bpiapevtov nvas aoreptov. 
7 T€pi pev oSv rrjs aXa> rrjv air Lav varepov epovpev.) 
II epl he rod rrvptohrj rrjv ovoraotv avrtdv eh at 
20 reKprjpiov XPV vopl^eiv ore orjpaLvovcn yiyvopevoi 
rrXeiovs nvevpara Kal avypovs' hrjXov yap on 
yLyvovrai Sea to iroXXrjV etvai rrjv roiavrrjv eKKpicnv, 
wore £rjp6repov avayKaiov ehai rov aepa, Kal 
hiaKptveodai Kal hiaXveaOai to Sea rpl^ov vypdv vtto 
rov rrXrjQovs rrjs Oepprjs dvaOvpidcrecos, doare pi] 
25 avvioraod at pahltos eh vhoop. cracjtecrrepov S’ epov- 
pie v Kal rrepl rovrov rov rradovs , orav Kal rrepl 
7rvevpdrcov Xeyeiv fj Kaipos. 

e 'Orav pev oSv ttvkvoI Kal rrXeLovs cf>atva)vrai , 
Kaddrrep Xeyopev , £r)pol Kal rrvevparcoheis yLyvovrai 
oi eviavrol emSrjXtos' orav Se crrravitorepoi Kal 
apavporepoi ro peyeOos, 6 pottos pev ov ytyverai 
30 to roiovrov, ov prjv aAA’ cos errl ro rroXv ytyverai 
ns VTrepfioXr) rrvevparos rj Kara xpovov rj Kara 
peyedos, iirel Kal ore 6 ev A iyos rrorapois erreae 
XLdos €K rov aepoSi vrro rrvevparos apdels e^erreoe 
ped* rjpepav ervxe Se Kal rdre Koptfrrjs darrjp 
yevopevos a <f>* ecrrrepaS' Kal 7repl rov peyav darepa 
35 rov Koprjrrjv £rjpos rjv o Kal fiopeios, Kal ro 

Kvpa hi ivavrLcociv eyevero rrvevpdrtov ev pev yap 
(45 a rep KoXrrq) fiopeas Karefyev, e£oo he voros errvevae 

a I take it that Aristotle is meeting a possible modification 
of Hippocrates’ theory. This seems to be how Phil. (98. 19) 
took the passage : it is not clear from Alex. (35. 23 f.) that 
he had the same text, as he seems to find only a simple refer- 
ence to the opinion of Hippocrates above, ch. 6, 342 b 36. I 
have bracketed the passage in my translation because it 

METK$)ROLOGICA, 1 . vii 

appears independently, indeed more often than 
round one of the stars a The cause of the halo we 
will explain later. 6 ) 

We may regard as a proof that their constitution 
is fiery the fact that their appearance m any number 
is a sign of coming wind and drought. For it is evident 
that they owe their origin to this kind of exhalation 
being plentiful, which necessarily makes the air drier, 
while, at the same time, the moist evaporation is 
disintegrated and dissolved by the quantity of the 
hot exhalation so that it will not readily condense 
into water. But we will give a clearer explanation 
of this when the time comes to deal with winds. 0 

So when comets appear frequently and in consider- 
able numbers, the years are, as w r e say, notoriously 
dry and windy. When they are less frequent and 
dimmer and smaller m size, these effects are not so 
considerable, though as a rule the wind is excessive 
either in duration or in strength. For instance when 
the stone fell from the air at Aegospotami d it had 
been lifted by the wind and fell during the day time : 
and its fall coincided with the appearance of a comet 
in the west. Again at the time of the great comet 6 
the winter w T as dry and the wind strong and jiortherly, 
and the tidal wave was due to a conflict of winds, for 
the north wind was blowing inside the gulf, while 
outside it there was a southerly gale. Again in the 

seems to be rather a parenthesis or footnote than part of the 
main argument : ana I have therefore also omitted it from 
the chapter analysis. 

6 Book III. ch. 2. c Book II. chs. 4 ff. 

d The fall of this meteor attracted the attention of Anaxa- 
goras (Diels 59 A 11, 19 : cf. 71). He was even said to have 
foretold it (Diels 59 A I, ii. 6‘. 9). 

* Of 343 b 1, ch. 6, note e on p. 45. 

Proof that 
comet3 are 



Iliyas- in S’ £rr* a pxovros NiKOfidxov iyiveTO 
oXLyas 7 } [lip as KOfir)T7)s rrepl rov larjfiepivov kvkXov , 
ovk acjf iarripas TTOiijcrdfievos rrjv avaroXrjv , €<^’ <3 
5 to 7 T€/)t Kopu'flov irvevfia yeviadai avviireoev. 

Tou 8k fir) yiyveadai iroXXovs fir) 8k iroXXaKLs 
KOfirjras, Kal fiaXXov £kt6$ tcov TpoiriKcbv rj £vto$, 
atr los r) rov r)XLov Kal r) tcov aaripcov kLvt)ois 3 ov 
fiovov iKKpivovaa to Oepfiov, aAAa Kal 8iaKpivovaa 
to crwiOTafievov . /xdAtora S’ a ltlov otl to irXeiOTOV 
10 els t rjv tov ydXaKTos a6 pol&T ai ywpav , 



The Milky Way . A. Previous views stated and criticized. 
(1) The Pythagoreans say it is the path of a star that fell in 
Phaethoiis time or else the path the sun once described (345 a 
13-17). Criticisms (345 a 17-25). (2) Anaxagoras and 

Democritus say that it is the light of the stars that fall within 
the shadow cast by the earth when the sun passes beneath it : 
for the light of these stars is not overpowered by that of the 
sun (345 a 25-31). Criticisms (345 a 31-b 9). (3) A third 
view which supposes that it is due to reflection of our sight to 
the sun ( like the view of comets above , ch. 6 (2) (b) (345 b 
9-12). Criticisms (345 b 12-31). 

B. Aristotle's own view. The Milky Way is formed m the 
same way as the type of comet formed by a star ; only the 
formation affects a whole circle of the heavens (345 b 31 — 

345 a 11 "07 tcos Se Kal 8id tiv ahlav ylyveTat Kal tl £oti 

to yaXa, A iycofiev rj8r). 7rpo8iiX6cofi€v 8k Kal irepl 
tovtov to* rrapa tcov aXXcov elprffiiva irpcoTOV. 



archonship of Nicomachus a a comet appeared in the 
equinoctial circle for a few days (this one had not 
risen in the west), and this coincided with the storm 
at Corinth. 

The reason why comets are few in number and Why 
infrequent, and why they appear more outside the^fj^. 
tropics than within them, is that the movement of 
the sun and stars not only separates off the hot sub- 
stance but also disintegrates it as it is forming But 
the chief reason is that most of it collects in the area 
of the Milky Way. & 

a 34-1/0 b.c. b Of. 346 b 7 below. 

argument ( continued ) 

346 a 11). hi the zodiac circle the formation of the necessary 
exhalation is prevented hy the movement of the sun and 
planets : and similarly sun and moon do not have tails (346 a 
11-16). The Milky Way extends beyond the tropic circles, 
and contains very many bright stars which cause the exhala- 
tion to gather there * that this is the cause is indicated by the 
fact that it is brighter where it is double and that it is there 
that the stars are thickest (346 a 16-30). So, assuming our 
account of comets to be reasonable, we may define the Milky 
Way as the tail of the greatest circle, due to exhalation (346 
a 30-b 6). (So comets are rare because the material for them 
collects in the Milky Way (346 b 7-10).) So much for the 
upper atmosphere (346 b 10-15). 

Let us now explain how the Milky Way is formed, and 
what is its cause and nature and let us again first 
review what others have said on the subject. 


345 a 


Tov [lev ofiv KaXovpbivov Hv8a yopeiov <f>aai 
15 rives o8ov elvai ra vrrjv oi fiev tov €ktt€o6vtov 
tlvo s acrreptov, Kara rrjv XeyopLevrjv irrl Qaedovros 
<j>8opav, ol 8e tov rjAiov tovtov tov kvkXov (frepecrdal 
7 Tore </>acrLV olov oSv 8iaK€KavaQaL tov tottov tov- 
tov rj ti tolovtov aXXo rreirovdivai rrados vtto tt} s 
< j)opas CLVTCOV. 

*'At 07T0V 8e TO pLTJ CTVVVO€LV OTL €LTT€p T0VT * fjV 

20 to a ltlov, eSec kcll tov tov £ o8lov kvkXov ovtos 
eyew, kcll pLaXXov rj tov tov ydXaKTos * drravra 
yap iv a vto <f)£p€TaL ra TrXavdpLeva /cat ovy 6 
t}AlOS pLOVOS 8r]AoS S’ TjfJLLV dlTaS 6 KVkXoS * at6t 
yap avTOV <j>avepov tjpllkvkXlov Trjs vvktos . aAAa 

7T€7TOvdds Ov8eV (f>aW€TaL TOLOVTOV, 7rXr)V €L Tt 

Ol Se rrepl *Ava£ayopav /cat ArjpLOKpcTOv (f>os 
etvaL to yaXa XiyovaLV aoTpov tlvov‘ tov yap 
7)Alov vtto ttjv yrjv cf>€p6pi€Vov oi>x dpav evia tcov 
daTpcov. ocra puev ovv rrepLopaTai vtt 9 avTov, tov- 
tov pLev ov <f>aivecrdaL to cf>os ( KoXveodai yap m to 
30 TCOV TOV rjAioV aKTLVCOv ) ' OOOLS S S aVTL<j>paTT€L 7) 
yrj coot€ pLrj opaadaL in to tov 7)Xlov, to tovtov 
oIk€lov <f> os elvai (j>a<JL to yaXa. efravepov S* otl 

® Diels 58 B 37 c. The second view is attributed also to 
Oenopides ; Diels 41. 10 (Heath, Aristarchus, p. 133). 

* Diels 59 A 1 (n. 6. 2) ; 42 (u. 16. 31) ; 80. 

c Ibid, 68 A 91. 

d “ As we have seen, he (Anaxagoras) thought the sun to 
be smaller than the earth. Consequently, when the sun m 
its revolution passes below the earth, the shadow cast by the 
earth extends without limit. The trace of this shadow on 
the heavens is the Milky Way. The stars within this shadow 


The so-called Pythagoreans give two explanations A. Previous 
Some say that the Milky Way is the path taken by JSSpytS^ 
one of the stars at the time of the legendary fall of goreans ; 
Phaethon : others say that it is the circle m which 
the sun once moved a And the region is supposed 
to have been scorched or affected in some other such 
way as a result of the passage of these bodies 

But it is absurd not to see that if this is the cause, 
the circle of the zodiac should also be so affected, 
indeed more so than the Milky Way : for all the 
planets, as well as the sun, move in it. But though 
the whole zodiac circle is visible to us (for we can see 
half of it at any time during the night) it shows no 
sign of being so affected, except when a part of it 
overlaps the Milky Way. 

The schools of Anaxagoras 6 and Democritus c (2) Anara- 
maintam that the Milky Way is the light of certain f^mocritus; 
stars. The sun, they say, in its course beneath the 
earth, does not shine upon some of the stars ; the 
light of those upon which the sun does shine is not 
\isible to us, being obscured by its rays, while the 
Milky Way is the light peculiar to those stars which 
are screened from the sun’s light by the earth d This 

are not interfered with by the light of the sun, and we there- 
fore see them shining ; those stars, on the other hand, which 
are outside the shadow are overpowered by the light of the 
sun, which shines on them even dm mg the night, so that we 
cannot see them.” So Heath {dristarchust p. 83) summarizes 
this passage. What is not easy to understand is why, on 
Anaxagoras’ theory, we see any stars outside the Milky Way, 
if the light of stars outside it is “ overpowered by the light 
of the sun.” Alex. 37. 24-2 7 implies that such stars owe their 
light to reflection fiom the sun. Anaxagoras was the first 
to discover that the moon owes its light to the sun (Heath, 
op . cit p. 78) ; he may have held that the stars outside the 
Milky Way did too. 



kol tovt* aSvvarov to piev yap yaAa act to auTo 
ev rots avrois iorriv aarpois {^alverai yap ptey taros 
cov 1 kvkXos), vtto 8e tov rjXiov del erepa Ta ot;^ 
35 opcbpeva Sta to pirj iv Tavrco pieveiv romp . I'Set 
o5v pediarapevov rov rjXiov piediaracrdai /cat to 
yaAa* vw Se ot5 cf>aiverai tovto yiyvopievov . rrpos 
345 b Se tovtois, et Kadarrep SetKWTac vvv iv rots rrepl 
darpoXoyiav deoop'rjpiaaiv, to tou ^Atou / aeyedos 
ptet£ov iciTLV rj to tt]S“ y^S* /cat to Bidarrjpa rroA- 
XarrXaaicvs ptet£ov to tojv aorpcov rrpos rrjv yrjv fj 
5 to tov rjXiov , Kadarrep to tov rjXiov rrpos rrjv yrjv 
rj to t rjs creXrjvrjs , ovk av rroppoi rrov Trjs yrjs o 
kcovos 6 drro tov rjXiov crvpiftdXXoi rag a/crtvas, 
oi) S’ av rj a/cta 7 rpos rocs aarpois eirj Trjs yrjs, rj 
KaXovpiivrj vv^ % aAA 9 dvayKrj rravra tov rjXiov Ta 
aarpa rrepiopavy /cal pirjSevl rrjv yrjv dvri^parreiv 

10 *'E Ti 8’ iuTLV TpiTYj TIS VTToXrjlfji S 7T€pl aVTOV* 
Xeyovaiv yap rives ava/cAaatv etvai to yaXa Trjs 
rjpierepas oipecos rrpos rov rjXiov, cborrep /cat tov 
dare pa tov Kopirjrrjv. 

9 ASvvarov Se /cat tovto* el piev yap to re opcbv 
rjpepioirj Kai to evorrrpov /cat to opibpevov array , 
iv rip avrip arjjieUp rov ivorrrpov to avro (f> atvotr 9 
15 av ptepos Trjs ipi<f>doeaJS * el Be kivolto to evorrrpov 
Kai to opcbpievov iv r<p abrip piev drroarrjpari rrpos 
to opd>v /cat rjpepiovv , rrpos dXXrjXa Se pitfre tao- 
rax&s pirjB* iv rip adrcp del SiaarrjpiaTi, aSvvarov 

1 ix4y lotos wv PI * /l Uyas Ei SB : fieyicrros E v .n : [xiy lotos 
cov 6 Oc : fieaov cov 6 01 : peyioros elvau Aid 

a The text is uncertain and the meaning of y,iy lotos kvkXos, 
“ gieatest circle,” doubtful. But by referring to the Milky 



theory is also manifestly impossible. For the Milky 
Way always remains stationary among the same con- 
stellations, and is clearly a greatest circle a : whereas 
the stars on which the sun does not shine change 
constantly as the sun changes its position. The 
Milky Way should therefore change with the sun’s 
change of position : but in fact no such change is 
observed. Besides, astronomical researches have now 
shown that the size of the sun is greater than that 
of the earth and that the stars are far farther away 
than the sun from the earth, just as the sun is farther 
than the moon from the earth : therefore the vertex 
of the cone formed by the rays of the sun will not fall 
very far from the earth, nor will the earth’s shadow' 

(which we call night) reach the stars. The sun must 
therefore shine on all the stars, nor can the earth 
screen any of them from it. 

There is still a third theory about the Milky Way. (3) a thud 
For some say that it is a reflection of our vision to Yie * 
the sun, just as a comet was supposed to be. & 

But this too is an impossibility. For if the eye and 
the mirror and the w T hole of the object seen were at 
rest, the same part of the image would alw r ays appear 
at the same point in the mirror. But if mirror and 
object are m motion, keeping the same distance from 
the eye, which is at rest, but moving with different 
speeds and so not keeping the same distance from 

Way as “ a (or “ the ”) greatest circle, ” Aristotle appears 
to mean that it lies on the outermost celestial sphere. The 
phrase occurs agam at 346 a 17 and 346 b 6. 

& Diels 42. 6. He attributes the theory to Hippocrates and 
Aeschylus. There seems no explicit independent evidence 
that it is theirs, but the words t5c mep . . . Kofiijrqv b 11-3 S? 
refer to their theory of comets (eh. 6, 9 ( b )) and perhaps sug- 
gest that this theory of the Milky Way was theirs too. 



345 b 

rrjv avrrjv epL(f>acriv h rt rod avrod etvai pepovs rod 
evorrrpov. ra S’ iv raj rod yaXaKros kvkXo> (f>epo- 
20 peva dorpa Kivetrai Kal 6 tjXlos i Tpos ov rj ava- 
kXclols, pevovrcov rjpcov, Kal opoicos Kal loov rrpos 
rjpds arreyovra , avrdov S 5 ovk loov • ore pev yap 
peocov WKrcov 6 8eXcf>ls imreXXei, ore he ecoBev, 
ra he popia rod yaXaKros rd air a pevei ev eKaorcp. 
25 Kairoi ovk ehet, el rjv ep<f>aois, aXXa prj ev avrots 
n tfv rodro ro rrdBos rots roTrocs . 

,; Et6 Be vvKrcop ev vhan Kal rots rotovrocs evo7r - 
rpois to pev yd Xa ep(j>aiverai Becopodcn, to he rrjv 
oift iv avaKXdoBai rrpos rov rjXtov rrcos hvvarov ; 

"Oti pev ovv ovre 68os rcov rrXavrjrcov ouSevos 
ovre </> cos eon twv prj opcopevcov dorpaov ovr 
30 avaKXaocs, €K rovrcov (joavepov. o^ehov he radr 
iorlv povov ra pe%pi rod vdv rrapahehopeva rrapa 
rcov aXXcov. 

'Hpets Se Xeycopev avaXa/36vres rrjv vrroKetpevrjv 
a pxyv rjptv. elprjr at yap rrporepov on ro eo^arov 
rod Xeyopevov a epos hvvapiv e # ^ rrvpos, coore rfj 
Kivrjoei hiaKpivopevov rod a epos drroKplveoBai ra- 
sa avrrjv ovoraow olav Kal rods Koprjras aorepas elval 
cfoapev. rocodrov 8 rj het vorjoai yiyvopevov orrep cV 

346 a eKeivcov, orav prj avrrj kclB' avrrjv yevrjrai rj roi- 

avrrj eKKpiois, aXK vrro nvos rcov aorpcov rj rcov 
ivSehepevcov rj rcov TrXavcopevcov rore yap oiroi 
<f>aLvovrai Koprjrai Sta ro rrapaKoXovBetv avrcov rfj 

a Which is close to the Milky Way. 
b Alex. 40. 16 and Phil. 108 ad loc . explain this to mean 
that the double reflection that would be necessary is im- 
possible at such a distance. 
c 340 b 4 f., 341 b 6 f. 



each other, it is impossible for the same image to 
remain in the same part of the mirror. But the stars 
whose course lies through the circle of the Milky Way 
are in motion, and so also is the sun from which the 
reflection comes. And while their distances from us, 
who are at rest, remain constant and equal, their 
distances from each other vary : for the Dolphin a 
sometimes rises at midnight, sometimes at dawn. 

But the constitution of the Milky Way remains the 
same in each case. But this should not be so if it were 
a reflection and not a characteristic of the region. 

Besides, we can see the Milky Way reflected at 
night in water and similar reflecting surfaces : but 
how can our sight m these circumstances be reflected 
to the sun ? & 

This shows clearly enough that the Milky Way is 
not the path of one of the planets, nor the light of 
stars unlit by the sun, nor a reflection : and these are 
more or less the only views on the subject previously 
put forward. 

Let us now recall the first principle we have laid Aristotle's 
down and then proceed to give our own explanation own view 
of the matter. We have previously said c that the 
outer part of what is commonly called air has the 
properties of fire, and that when the air is disin- 
tegrated by motion there is separated off a kind of 
mixture out of which, we maintain, comets are 
formed.* 1 We must then suppose that the same thing 
happens here as when a comet is formed not by an 
independent formation of the requisite material but 
by one of the stars — either one of the fixed stars or 
one of the planets. For the stars then appear as 
comets because there accompanies their motion a 

d 344 a 1 £ 



c/>opd djcnrep tco rjXLcp rrjv TOiamrjv GvyKpiGLv , d<j> 
5 rjs Sta ttjv ava/<Aacriv ttjv aXco <f> aivcoQal c/xipev, 
orav ovtco Tvyr] KCKpapiivos 6 arjp o Srj kol8* cva 
ovpifiaivci tcov doTepcov, tovto Set Xafietv yiyvo - 
arraGav cvXoyov yap 3 ctrrcp f) ivos aoTpov Kwrjaig, 


7 tl^clv aepa re kcll 8ia Kptvciv Sid to tov kvkXov 
10 fieycdog. 1 kcll rrpog Tomoig ctc kclO' ov tottov 
TrvKvorcLTCL kcll ttXcZgtcl kcll pieyiOTa Tvy^dvovaiv 


tov tjXlov <f>opdv Kai ttjv tcov TrXavrjTcov SiaXvcc ttjv 
15 TOP rjXlOV OVT€ 7 T€pL G€.Xr)Vr)V yiyVeTCLl KOflT] * 8&TTOV 
yap SiaKpLPovGiv rj cogtc avGTrjvai Toiavrrjv ovy~ 
KpiGLV . o$to$ S’ 6 kvkXos iv cp to yaXa <j>aivcTa i 
toZs opcoGiv, 6 tc piiyLOTog cov Tvy^dva Kal Trj 

20 7rXrjp7)$ CGTLV TCOV piCyiGTCOV Kal XapiTTpOTaTCOV, Kai 

tols ofipiaaiv ISclv <f>ai /cpov), cogtc Sea Tama ovv- 
€xqj s Kal <x€t Tamrjv irdoav aOpoilcadai ttjv avy~ 
KpiGiv . GrjpLCLov 8e* Kal yap a vtov tov kvkXov 
rrXcov to <f>cog cgtlv iv SaTcpco rjpUKVKXlco tco to 

1 aepa . . , jieyedos om. J E 23$ : (m voc. eV/>m£«v cadii 
PI) t post peyeBos Kavaytcrj toIvvv tcov avTcov {xeyCarcav kvkXcov 
p&XiOTa TTjv fieXXovaav tovto iroirfoeiv <f>opdv , . xprj yap tovto , 
tva TroXXrj Ktvncris fj Bid to fxeyeSos yiyvop,evrj Kal rrXeiova ttjv 
e£a*{tiv TTorfcrr) > Fobes, praebet 01 : om. codd. 



formation similar to that which follows the sun and 
causes, so we maintain, the appearance of a halo 
when the constitution of the air is suitable. We must 
assume then that what happens to one of the stars 
happens to the whole heaven and the whole upper 
motion. For it is reasonable to suppose that, if the 
motion of a single star can produce this effect and 
set the air on fire or disintegrate it because of the 
size of the circle, a the movement of all the stars can 
do so too 6 ; and especially in a region in which the 
stars are thickest, most numerous and largest in size. 
In the zodiac circle any such mixture is dissolved 
because of the movement of the sun and the planets 
— and consequently the majority of comets fall out- 
side the tropics Besides, no tail appears around the 
sun or moon because they dissolve any such mixture 
before it can form. But this circle m which the Milky 
Way appears to our eyes is the greatest circle and 
is so placed that it extends far beyond the tropics. 
And in addition the region is full of stars of greatest 
size and brilliance, and also of what are called scat- 
tered stars (you can see this clearly enough if you 
look). So for these reasons all this mixture always 
continues to gather there. A proof of this is the 
following : the light of the circle itself is stronger 
in that half of it in which the Milky Way is double, 

Cf. US a 7. 

6 As they stand the words inseited by Fobes do not con- 
strue easily, if at all : as he indicates, there is a lacuna after 
<f>opav. It seems that the words might be a gloss on Sea ro rov 
kvkXov peyeBos, meaning roughly “ The circle must be one 
of the gieatest ; for thus its motion will be gieat because of 
its size, and the conflagration caused greater ” — a fairly 
intelligible comment. I have accordingly omitted them, but 
retained aipa , . . peyedos with Fobes. 




25 SLrrXcopa eyovrr iv rovrco yap rrXeLoj /cat rrvKvorepd 
ianv aarpa rj iv darepcp, cos ov Si' erepav riv 5 
ah Lav yiyvopivov rod <f>eyyov$ rj Sta rrjv rcbv 
darpcov <j>opdv el yap ev re rep kvkXco rovrco yty- 
verai iv cp ra rrXeZara KeZr at redv aarpcov, /cat 
airod rod kvkXov 1 iv & paXXov cj> aLverai Kara~ 
30 rrerrvKvcdad ai /cat peyede t /cat rrX^dei darepcov, 
ravrrjv et/cos* vrroXafieZv olKeiordrrjv ah Lav etvai 
to v 7 radovs. 

QecopeLaOco S' o re kvkXos /cat ra iv avrep acrrpa 
€/c rrjs vrroypa<f>rjs. rods Se arropaSas KaXovpevovs 
ovreo pev eh rrjv a<j>aipav ovk ear at rd£ai Sta to 
prjSepLav Sta reXovs eyeiv cf>avepdv eKaarov deatv, 
35 eh Se r ov ovpavov dvafiXerrovaLv ion SrjXov‘ iv 
povcp yap rovrco rcbv kvkXcov ra pera^v rrXrjpr] 
roiovrcov darepcov iorlv, iv Se roZg aAAots* SiaXeirrei 
346 b cfravep&s- c! oar elrrep /cat rrepl rod <j>aLveo9ai 

Koprjras arroSeyopeda rrjv ahLav cos* elprjpevrjv 
perplcos, /cat rrepl rod ydXaKros rov avrov vrro- 
Xrjrrreov rporrov eye tv o yap iiceZ rrepl eva iarlv 
5 rrddos rj Koprj , rodro rrepl kvkXov nva ovpfiaLvei 
yLyveadai to avro, /cat ear tv to yd Aa, cos elrreiv 
olov opi£6pevov, rj rod peyLorov Sta rrjv eKKpiaiv 
kvkXov Kopr). 

(Ato Kaddrrep rrporepov etrropev , ov rroXXol ovSe 
rroXXaKCS yLyvovrai Koprjrai, Sid to avveyws arro- 

1 post kvkXov fortasse ira\u> ttXzlqv yiverai scribenda : 
praebet Ap (43. 4. 5). 

a If the words from Alex, are inserted the translation 
would read “ and if again it is stronger in that segment.” 
The sense remains substantially the same in either case. 



and in this half the stars are greater in number and 
density than in the other, which indicates that the 
cause of the light is none other than the movement 
of the stars : for if the Milky Way lies on the circle 
in which are the greatest number of stars, and a in 
that segment of the circle in which the stars appear 
to be of a greater density and size, it is reasonable 
to assume that this is the most likely cause of the 

The circle and the stars in it can be seen on the 
diagram. d It is not possible to mark the so-called 
scattered stars on the sphere in the same way because 
none of them has a clear permanent position : but 
they are clear enough to anyone who looks up at the 
sky. For in this one alone of the circles the inter- 
vening spaces are full of stars of this sort, in the others 
they are clearly absent. So that if the cause of the 
appearance of comets given above is accepted as 
reasonable, it is to be assumed that something 
similar holds good for the Milky Way : for that 
which produces the tail in a single star affects a whole 
circle in the same way, so that the Milky Way might 
perhaps be defined as the tail of the greatest circle 
produced by the material formation we have de- 

(For this reason, as we have said before, 0 comets <So comets 
occur neither often nor in large numbers, because frequent.) 
the requisite formation of material has been and 

b Aristotle’s extant works are lecture-notes, or were 
written to be used m close conjunction with the teaching work 
in the Lyceum. References like the present are to diagrams 
displayed on the walls of the lecture-room ; 1. S3 suggests 
that it also contained a celestial globe. Of. Jackson, J. Ph . 
xxxv. pp. 191 ff. 

0 345 a 8 above. 




K€Kpiadai Kal aTTOKplveadai Kad * eKaoT'iqv TreploBov 
10 els tovtov tov tottov a lei ttjv roiavrrjv Gvoraow) 
Ilepi jl iev ovv tcov ytyvopevovv iv ra> 7repl rrjv 
yrjv KOGpicp ra> owe^ei rats <j>opals elpryrai, rrepi 
T€ ttJs* BiaSpoprjs tcov aoTpaov Kal rrjs e/cmp.7rpa- 
pivrjs <j>Xoyos } 4tl Se Trepl re KoprjTCov Kal tov 
KaXovpivov yaXaKTOs * cr^eSov yap elotv roGavra 
15 ra 7T<xdr} ra fiaivopeva t repl tov tottov tovtov. 



The lower atmosphere, the sphere of water and air below 
the sphere of fire (346 b 16-20). The moisture on the earth's 
surface is evaporated by the sun * when it rises into the atmo- 
sphere it is cooled again, condenses and falls as rain (346 b 
20-31). Cloud is condensed vapour, mist the residue of cloud 

346 b 16 riept Se tov Trj 64 g€l pev Seurepou tottov peTa 
tovtov , TrpdoTOv Se rrepi ttjv yrjv , Xiytopev' oStos 
yap kolvos uSaros* re tottos Kal dipos Kal tcov 
ovpupaivovTcov Trepl ttjv avcv yiveow a vtov. Atj- 
[20 ttt4qv Se Kal tovtcov ra? apyas Kal ras* atria s 
TravTCov opoltos. 

*H pev ofiv cos Ktvovaa Kal Kvpla Kal TrpcoTrj tcov 
apx&v 6 kvkXos iarlvj iv & cfjavepcos rj tov rjXlov 
</>opd hiaKplvovoa Kal ovyKplvovoa too ylyvec rdai 
ttXt]gIov rj rroppcorepov air la Trjs yeviaeoos Kal 
Trj s <f>6opds ioTL. pevovor )s Se rrjs yrj$ } to Trepl 
25 avTTjV vypov vtto tcov olktIvcov Kal vtto rrjs aXX r)s 
rrjs avojBev depporrjros a TptSovpevov <f>ipeTac avw 


continues to be separated off and collected at each 
revolution of the heavens into this region.) 

This completes our account of the phenomena in 
the region of the terrestrial world which is continuous 
with the heavenly motions ; that is, shooting stars 
and burning flames, comets and the so-called Milky 
Way — for these are practically all the phenomena 
which characterize that region. 

argument ( continued ) 

(346 b 32-35). The process varies with the sun's course m the 
ecliptic , evaporation being greater m summer , rainfall in 
winter (346 b 35 — 347 a 8). {Difference of drizzle and ram 
(347 a 8-12).) 

Let us next deal with the region which lies second 
beneath the celestial and first above the earth. This 
region is the joint province of water and air, and of 
the various phenomena which accompany the forma- 
tion of water a above the earth. And we must deal 
with their principles and causes also. 

The efficient, controlling and first cause is the circle Bain, 
of the sun’s revolution. b For it is evident that as it 
approaches or recedes the sun produces dissolution 
and composition and is thus the cause of generation 
and destruction. The earth is at rest, and the moisture 
about it is evaporated by the sun’s rays and the other 
heat from above and rises upwards • but when the 

a avrov 1. 19 must refer to water: so O.T. and Ideler i. 
p. 423. b Cf. ch. 2 above ; De Gen , et Gorr . ii. 10. 



346 b 

rrjs Se deppLorrjros arroXirrovarjs rrjs avayovarjs 
avro, Kal rrjs pt,ev 8iaaKe8avvvpLevrjs Trpos rov avaj 
rorrov, rrjs 8e Kal ofievvvpLevrjs 8ia to pLereaopl^eadat 
rroppcorepov els rov vrrep rrjs yrjs depot, ovviararai 
30 rraXw rj arpbls i/jvxop^evrj Std re rrjv drroXeujsLV rov 
deppiov Kal to v rorrov , Kal y Cyver at vScop e£ a epos’ 
yevopuevov 8e rrdXw <j>eperai rrpos rrjv yrjv. eon 
rj p,ev eg voaros avatfvpuaabs arpus, rj o eg aepos 
els v8a)p ve<f>os' opblxXrj Se ve<f>eX rjs rreplrrcopba rrjs 
els v8a)p avyKplaeoJS . 8 to orjpbelov pidXXov eanv 
35 ev8las rj vSarcov otov yap eanv rj opbixXrj V€<j>eX rj 
dyovos • 

F lyverai 8e kvkXos ovros pupbovpievos rov rov rjXlov 

347 a kvkXov apba yap eKetvos els ra rrXdyca pberafiaXXei 

Kal ovros dva) Kal Kara). Set Se vorjaai rovrov 
coarrep rrorapuov peovra kvkAco avay Kal Kara), 
kolvov aepos Kal vSaros’ rrXrjoiov pbev yap ovros 
rov rjXlov 6 rrjs drpul8os ava) pel rrorapios , afyiara- 
5 pbevov Se 6 rov vbaros Kara >. Kal toot’ £v8eX eyh 
ideXei ylyvead ai Kara ye rrjv ratjw* coot’ elrrep 
fjvlrrovro rov coKeavov ol rrporepov, rax rovrov 
rov rrorapbov Xeyoiev rov kvkXo) peovra rrepl rrjv 
yrjv • 

’A vayopbevov Se rov vypov a lei Sea rrjv rov deppiov 
Bvvapuv Kal rrdXw <f>epopLevov Kara) Std rrjv xjjv^iv 
io rrpos rrjv yrjv 3 oiKelcos 1 ra ovopbara rots rrdQeoiv 
Ketrai Kal now 8ia<f>opals avrcov orav pbkv yap 
Kara puKpd <f>eprjrab 3 iftaKades, orav Se Kara /xet£ a> 
pto/wa, veros KaXelrab. 



heat which caused it to rise leaves it, some being dis- 
persed into the upper region, some being quenched 
by rising so high into the air above the earth, the 
vapour cools and condenses again as a result of the 
loss of heat and the height and turns from air into 
water : and having become water falls again onto the 
earth a The exhalation from water is vapour ; the Cloud and 
formation of water from air produces cloud. Mist is 
the residue of the condensation of air into water, and 
is therefore a sign of fine weather rather than of ram ; 
for mist is as it were unproductive cloud. 6 

This cycle of changes reflects the sun's annual Winter and 
movement : for the moisture rises and falls as the Sununer * 
sun moves in the ecliptic. One should think of it as 
a river with a circular course, which rises and falls 
and is composed of a mixture of water and air. For 
when the sun is near the stream of vapour rises, when 
it recedes it falls again. And in this order the cycle 
continues indefinitely. And if there is any hidden 
meaning in the “ river of Ocean ” of the ancients, 
they may well have meant this river which flows in 
a circle round the earth. 

Moisture then is always made to rise by heat and Bridle 
to fall again to the earth by cold ; and there are aild K ’ ain ‘ 
appropriate names for these processes and for some 
of their sub-species — for instance when water falls 
in small drops it is called drizzle, when in larger drops, 

0 Of. 359 b 34 ff. 

6 vapour condenses into cloud, which subsequently falls 
as rain. Mist is what is left over in the process of condensa- 
tion ; it is therefore “ unproductive ” in the sense that it will 
not produce rain, and is thus a sign of fine weather. 

1 §€ post oIkglcos coll. Thurot, qui d vayopbov . . . yrfv cum 
antecedentibus coniungit. 





Dew and hoar frost are due to moisture which has evapo- 
rated during the day , hut has not risen far and falls again 
when cooled at night. When the vapour freezes before con- 
densing the result is hoar frost , when it condenses the result 

a 13 ’Eac Se rod Kad* rjptepav arptl^ovros oaov av pxj 
pterewpiadfj St 5 oXtyorrjra rov avdyovros avro 
15 rrvpos rrpos to ava yoptevov vScop, rraXiv Karafepo- 
ptevov orav j vvKroop, KaXetrai Spoaos Kal 

Tr&xyr] s rrdyyr] ptev orav rj dr puls rrayfj Trplv els vScop 
avyKpidrjvai naXiv (ylyverai 8e xeipbcovos, Kal 
ptaXXov iv rots xet/xeptvots* tottols), Spocros* S’ orav 
ovyKpiOfj els vScop rj arptls 3 Kal ptrj9* ovrcos eyrj rj 
20 aXea cScrre (jrjpavac to avaxdev, pLrjO' ovrw ijjvxos 
ware rrayrjvai rrjv arpilSa atirrjv Sta to 77 rov tottov 
dXeeivorepov rj rrjv c opav eh ar ylyverai yap ptaXXov 
77 hpoaos iv evSla Kal iv rots evSieivorepois rorroiSi 
rj §€ rraxw], Kadarrep eiprjrai, rovvavrlov' SfjXov 
25 yap <I>s rj drpbls 9epptorepov v'Saros (e^et 7^P r ° 
dvdyov en rrvp), ware rrXelovos ifjvxporrjros avrrjv 
7777 |at. ylyver at S* dptc/xv aWplag re Kal vrjveptlas' 
ovre yap dvaxStfaerai ptr\ ovarjs al9plas 3 ovre av - 
arrjvat Svvair 9 av aveptov irveovros • 

'Lrjptetov 8* on ylyverai ravra Sta to ptrj rroppo 
pterecopl^eadat rrjv arptlSa* iv yap rots ope a tv ov 
SO ylyverai Trdxvrj. air la Se ptla ptev avrrj, on dv~ 
dyer at €K rcov koIXcov Kal i<j>v8pwv tottcov, ware 
Kaddrtep <f>oprlov <f>epovaa rrXeov rj dvdyovaa deppto- 



argument ( continued ) 

is dew . Dew forms in warm and fine weather, frost m cold 
and clear (347 a 13-28). A proof that they are so caused is 
that hoar frost does not form on mountains : reasons for 
this (347 a 29-35). Conditions m which dew forms (347 a 
35-b 11). 

Any moisture evaporated during the day that does not Cause of 
rise far because the amount of the fire raising it com- ^t and 
pared to the amount of water that is being raised is 
small, falls again when it is chilled during the night 
and is called dew or hoar frost. It is hoar frost when 
the evaporation is frozen before it has condensed into 
water again ; this happens in winter, and more readily 
in wintry places than elsewhere. It is dew when the 
vapour has condensed into water and the heat is not 
so great as to dry up the moistuie that has risen nor 
the cold so intense as to freeze the vapour, either 
because the district or the season is too warm. Dew 
tends to form rather in fair weather and mild districts ; 
hoar frost, as said, under opposite conditions. For 
it is obvious that vapour is warmer than water, as it 
still contains the fire that caused it to rise, and so 
needs more cold to freeze it Both dew and hoar 
frost form in clear calm weather : no moisture will 
rise except in clear weather, and no condensation is 
possible in a wind. 

A proof that they are due to the vapour not rising a proof 
very far is that no hoar frost is formed on mountains, t^oa^e! 8 
There are two reasons for this : firstly, that vapour 
rises from hollow, damp places, so that the heat which 
is causing it to rise is unable, as if it were carrying 



347 a 

rrjs rj Ka6 9 eavrrjv ov Svvarai (lerewpl^eiv im 
rroXvv tottov avro rod viffovs , dAA’ iyyvs a </>lrjai 
rraXiv * erepa S’ on kcli pel jiaXiara 6 drjp pecov 
35 iv rols vifsrjXolSy 09 SiaXvei rrjv avaraaiv rrjv r ot- 


Ylyverai 8* rj Spoao9 'rravrayov vorlois, ov fio- 
pelois, 7 rXrjv iv rep Tlovrcp. €K€ l Se rotivavrlov 
347 b fiopeloi9 p>€v yap ylyverai, voriois 8* ov ylyverai. 
alnov 8 s op,OLO)9 warrep or c evSla 9 p*iv ylyverai , 
yeipicovos S’ ov - 6 (lev yap voro9 evSlav 7 roiel, 6 Se 
fiopea9 %€ 6 jLta ) va * \fjvxp 09 yap , loot’ Ik rov xeifJba)vo9 
rrj9 avadvpudoe(x)9 afUvwai rrjv depjiorrjra. iv 
5 Se rep YLovrcp 6 (lev voro 9 oi>x ovrco9 TTOiel evSlav 
ware ylyveadai arjilSa , 6 Se /3opea9 Sia rrjv i/jv- 
Xporrjra dvrtrrepuard9 to depfiov adpol^ei, ware 
rrXeov drjil^ei fiaXXov. 77oAAa/cfcs > 8 e rovro Kal iv 
roi9 ££to r 077019 iSelv yiyvdfievov ear iv * drjil^ei yap 
ra <f)peara j3opeloi9 fiaXXov rj vorloi9 m aXXa ra jiev 
10 fiopeia afievvvaiv rrplv avarrjval n TrXfjdos, iv Se 
rots* vorloi9 idrai ddpol^eaOai rj avadvfilaai9 * 

A vro Se to vS cop ov rrrjyvvrai, KaOdrrep iv rip 
rrepl ra vecf>rj romp. 

a Of. above, ch. 3, 340 b 33 ff. and note ad loc. 
b On dvTL7T€pu(ndvat, of. ch. IS, note b on p. 8S below. 
Here it means to “ surround and compress,” the “ compress ” 
being repeated m aOpoifa. 



a burden too heavy for it, to lift it to a great height, 
but lets it fall again while still close to the earth 
Secondly, that the flow of air is especially strong at 
great heights and this dissolves a formation of this 
kind . 0 

Dew is formed by south winds, and not by north, 
everywhere except in Pont us. There the opposite 
is true, for it is produced there by north winds and 
not by south. The cause is the same as that which 
makes it form in mild weather and not m wintry ; 
for the south wind brings mild weather, while the 
north wind, being cold, brings wintry weather, by 
which the heat of the exhalation is quenched. But 
in Pontus the south wind does not make the weather 
mild enough to produce vapour : while the north 
wind, because it is cold, surrounds b and compresses 
the heat and so causes more evaporation. This is a 
thing which it is often possible to observe happening 
in places outside Pontus. For instance, wells give 
off vapour m north winds rather than m south ; but 
the north winds quench the heat before any quantity 
of it has collected, while the south winds allow the 
exhalation to accumulate . 0 

The water formed from vapour does not freeze on 
the earth as it does in the region of the clouds.^ 

0 And so, except m Pontus, dew forms in south winds and 
not m north. 

d The point of this sentence, which the next chapter 
elaborates, is that while to dew and frost on the earth there 
correspond rain and snow m the clouds, there is nothing 
on the earth to correspond to hail. As Ideler i. p. 433 notes, 
the sentence comes rather awkwardly at the end of this 
chapter and might be better placed at the beginning of the 
next ; but I have kept the conventional chapter division to 
avoid confusion. 

of forma- 
tion of dew 





From the clouds there fall as a result of refrigeration ram , 
snow and hail . Ram and snow correspond to dew and frost 
respectively , are due to similar causes and differ only in 
degree • ram is due to the condensation of a large quantity 

347 b 12 5 E KeWev yap rpLa <j>oirq aobpara avviard peva Sta 
rr]v vS cop Kal xubv Kal ;^aAa£a. tovtcov Se 

15 ra pev 8 vo avaXoyov Kal Sia ras avrds a bias 
ylyverat rots Karoo, Sta <f>epovra rep paXXov Kal 
'rjrrov Kal TrXrjBeL Kal oXtyorrjrt' x L ^ t)V KCLl 

rra xvrj ravrov , Kal veros Kal 8 pocros, aXXa to pev 
ttoXv to S’ oXlyov . 6 fiev yap veros €K rroXXrjs 

arplSos ylyverai ipvxopevrjs' rovrov 8 s a ltlov 6 re 
20 tottos rroXvs Kal 6 xp°v°S c ov, iv <p ovXXeyerai Kal 
it; ov. to S’ oXlyov rj Spocros * i<f>fjpepos yap rj 
cnjoracTLs Kal 6 tottos piKpos' SrjXol re rj re yeveats 
oficr a rax^ta Kal ftpaxv to 7rXrjdos . opolcos Se Kal 
Traxv 7 ) Kal x L< *> v ' orav yap rrayfj to ve<f>os 3 X L( ^ V 
ioriv, orav S’ f) drpls 3 rrdxvrj. 8 to fj cbpas fj ^copas 
25 icrrlv orjpecov ifjvypas' ov yap dv irrfjyvvTO ert 
7ToXXrjs ivovorjs Bepp6rrjTOS 3 el pf) irreKparet to 
i/jvxos' iv yap Tip vetjoei ere eveernv ttoXv Beppov to 
vttoXoittov tov i^arptaavros €K rfjs yrjs to vypov. 1 

XaAa£a S’ €K€l pev ylyverai, iv Se to) TrXrjcrlov 
Trjs yr}$ arpi^ovTL tovt iKXelrrer Kadarrep yap el- 
30 7 ropev, tbs pev €K€i X lc ^ v > evravda yLyverai rrdxvrj, 
tbs S’ €K€ t veros 3 ivravBa Spoaos * tbs S’ €K€i yaXa^a, 



argument (continued) 

of vapour, dew of a small quantity , snow is frozen cloud , as 
frost is frozen vapour (347 b 12-28). But there is no analogy 
on the earth itself to hail (347 b 28-33). 

For from the clouds there fall three bodies formed by 
refrigeration, water, snow and hail. Two of these 
correspond to and are due to the same causes as dew 
and frost on the earth, differing from them only in 
degree and amount. For snow is the same as frost, 
rain the same as dew, there being a merely quanti- 
tative difference between them For rain is the result 
of the cooling of a large body of vapour, which owes 
its quantity to the length of time during which and 
the size of space m which it collects Dew, on the 
other hand, is produced by small quantities of vapour, 
which collect for a day only and over a small area, 
as is shown by the rapidity with which it forms and 
its scanty quantity. The same is true of hoar frost 
and snow . when cloud freezes snow is produced, 
when vapour, hoar frost. So snow is a sign of a cold 
season or a cold country. For the cloud would not 
have frozen, since it still contains much heat, unless 
the cold predominated : for a good deal of the heat 
which caused the moisture to evaporate from the 
earth is still left in the cloud. 

Hail forms at higher levels, but there is nothing 
to correspond to it in the evaporation close to the 
earth : for as we have said, snow above corresponds 
to frost below, rain above to dew below' but there 

* VypOV ITVpOS Erec Fobes : irvp6$ om. E x F Ap O.T. 



ivravda ovk avTarroSlScjocn to ofioiov. to 8* a ltlov 
ehrovcn rrepl ^oAo^? ear ai SrjAov. 



Hail. A. Difficulties . (1) Hail is ice : yet hailstorms are 
commonest m spring and summer , i.e. tn warm weather. 
(2) How does the necessary water remain m the air long enough 
to he frozen (347 b 34 — 348 a 14) ? B. Anaxagoras's view . 
Hail is due to cloud being forced into the upper atmosphere 
and there frozen (348 a 14-20). Criticisms (348 a 20-b 2). 
C. Aristotle's own view . Heat and cold react on one another . 
When cold is compressed by heat surrounding it , it may (a) 
cause heavy ram or (b), when the compression is greater and 
the consequent refrigeration quicker , cause hail. The nearer 

347 b 34 Ae£ Si Aafiecv afia Kal ra crufi^atvovra ire pi ttjv 
35 yivecnv avrrjs , ra re fir} TrAavtovra Kal tcl 8 okovvt 
elvai rrapdAoya. 

’'Eort fiiv yap rj yaAa^a KpvoTaXXos, rr'qyvvrai 8 i 
to ilScop tov xeifioovos* at 8i ^aAa^at ylyvovr ai 
348 a 6a pos fiiv Kal fi€TOTrd)pov fidAiOTa, elra 8i Kal 
Trjs otto) pa$, yeip^dovos S’ oAiyaKis, Kal orav fjr tov 
fj iftvxos . Kal oAcos 8i yiyvovTai ^aAa^at fiiv iv 
tols ei)8i€CvoTepoLs tottois, at 8i iv tois 

ijjvxporipoLs . 

5 1 Arorrov 8c koX to i rffyvvod ai ilScop iv Tip avco 

Torrtp' ovre yap Trayrjvat Suva tov rrplv yeviaO at 
vScop, ovre to ilScop ovSiva XP® V0V ofov re fiiveiv 
fiericopov ov . aAAa firjv ov S’ doair^p at i/jaKaSes 
avco fiiv oxovvTai 81 a fUKporrjT a, ivStarpiifjaoaL S’ 


is no analogous phenomenon below to correspond to 
hail above. The reason for this will become clear 
when we have dealt with hail. 

argument {continued) 

the earth and the more intense the refrigeration , the heavier 
the ram and the larger the hailstones. Hail is more frequent 
in spring and autumn because there is more moisture m the 
air at these seasons (348 b 2-30). Refrigeration takes 
place more quickly if the water is warmed first {so hail will 
form more easily in warm weather) (348 b 30 — 349 a 4). 

This is also the reason for the violent summer rainfalls in 
Arabia and Aethiopia (349 a 4-9). So much for rain , dew , 
snow, frost and hail (349 a 9-11). 

In considering the process by which hail is produced, 
we must take into account both facts whose inter- 
pretation is straightforward and those which appear 
to be inexplicable. 

(1) Hail is ice, and water freezes in the winter : a. Diffi- 
yet hailstorms are commonest in spring and autumn, cultiea 
rather less common at the end of the summer, and 

rare in winter when they only occur when it is not 
very cold. And, in general, hailstorms occur in milder 
districts, snowstorms in colder. 

(2) It is also odd that water should freeze in the 
upper region ; for it cannot freeze before it becomes 
water, and yet having become water it cannot remain 
suspended in the air for any length of time. Nor 
can we maintain that just as drops of water ride 
aloft because of their minuteness and rest on the 



348 a 

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yap ovp<j>ver at ra nenrjyora cdonep ra vypd . SijXov 
ovv on avco rooovrov vScop epeivev* ov yap av 
inayrj rooovrov. 

15 Tots piv ofiv So/cet rod rrddovs ainov etvai rovrov 
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avco ronov pdXXov ovra ifjvxpdv Sta ro Aijyew €K€L 
ra? a 770 rrjs yrjs rcdv aKrlvcov dvaKXaoeis, iXQov 
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ijKLOTa yiyveodai ^dAa^av Kalroi eSei, wonep Kal 
rrjv x L wa opcopev ini rots vifjrjAois paXiora yiyvo- 
pevrjv. en Si noXXaKts tonrat ve<f>rj <j>epopeva ovv 
25 i/jo<jxp noXXtp nap s a vrr)v rrj v yrjv, wore (f>oj3epdv 
elvai rots clkovovoiv Kal opdooiv c os ioopevov nvos 
pet^ovos* ore Si Kal dvev ifjocfrov roiovrcov 6<f>6ev- 
rcov ve<f>cdv x<xAa£a ylyver at noXXrj Kal ro peyedos 
amor os, Kal rots oxrjpacnv ov orpoyyvXrj , Sta to 
prj noXvv XP° V0V ytyveoOai rrjv <f>opav avrfjs cos 
so nXrjoLov rijs nrj^ecos yevopevrjs rrjs yrjs, aAA’ ovy 
wonep €K€tvoL (f>aoiv. aXXa pijv dvayKalov vno 
rod pdXior alrLov rrjs nrjgecos peyaXas yiyveodai 
XaXa&s' KpvoraXXos yap r) xaAa£a, /cat rodro 
navrl SijXov. pey aXai S’ elolv at rots oxtfp&viv 


air, like minute particles of earth or gold that often 
float on water, so here the water floats on the air till 
a number of the small drops coalesce to form the 
large drops that fall. This cannot take place in the 
case of hail, because frozen drops cannot coalesce 
like liquid ones. Clearly then drops of water of the 
requisite size must have been suspended in the air : 
otherwise their size when frozen could not have been 
so large. 

Some a then think that the cause of the origin of Anax 
hail is as follows : when a cloud is forced up into the vfewf 3 
upper region where the temperature is lower because 
reflection of the sun’s rays from the earth does not 
reach it, & the water when it gets there is frozen • and 
so hailstorms occur more often in summer and in warm 
districts because the heat forces the clouds up farther 
from the earth. But (1) in the very high places hail 
falls very infrequently ; but on their theory this 
should not be so, for we can see that snow falls mostly 
in high places (2) Clouds have often been seen 
swept along with a great noise close to the earth, 
and have struck fear into those that heard and saw 
them as portents of some greater catastrophe But 
sometimes, when such clouds have been seen without 
any accompanying noise, hail falls in great quantities 
and the stones are of an incredible size, and irregular 
in shape ; the reason being that they have not had 
long to fall because they were frozen close to the 
earth, and not, as the theory we are criticizing main- 
tains, far above it. (3) Moreover, large hailstones 
must be formed by an intense cause of freezing : for 
it is obvious to everyone that hail is ice. But hail- 

° Anaxagoras, as Aristotle tells us at b 12 below : Diels 
59 A 85. 6 Cf. 340 a 27 if. 



stones that are not rounded in shape are large in size, 
which is a proof that they have frozen close to the 
earth : for stones which fall farther are worn down 
in the course of their fall and so become round in 
shape and smaller in size.® 

It is clear then that the freezing does not take place 
because the cloud is forced up into the cold upper 

Now we know that hot and cold have a mutual c. Aris- 
reaction 6 on one another (which is the reason why ^w. s 0Wn 
subterranean places are cold in hot weather and warm Mutual^ ^ 
in frosty weather). This reaction we must suppose heat and 
takes place in the upper region, so that in warmer 
seasons the cold is concentrated within by the sur- 
rounding heat. This sometimes causes a rapid forma- 

Examples fiom elsewheie are, verb Problems 909 a 23, 936 
b 16, 943 all; noun Problems 867 b 32, Le Somn. 457 b 2, 

458 a 27 (sleep due to a concentration (cf. orvvecoafievri 458 a 10) 
of vital warmth by cold). There remains the use of the noun 
in the present passage 348 b 2, which L&S list under sense 
(2), At first sight this meaning seems to suit it better : yet 
twice m the next dozen lines the verb is used clearly in sense 
(1), and it is therefore more likely that the noun bears this 
sense too. The apparent ambiguity perhaps throws some 
light on the relation of the two senses. Substance a gives 
place to substance b (sense (2)) : from this it is not a long step 
to think of a and 6 exercising a mutual reaction or repulsion 
(c/. the O.T.’s “ recoil ” here). This explains the example 
which Ai istotle gives, that caves are warm in winter, cold in 
summer. For m winter the surrounding cold drives the heat 
underground, m summer vice versa : cf. Alex. 50. 23, where 
the meaning hovers instructively between mutual replace- 
ment (cf. dvTifjL€dLardfjL€vov 1. 26) and mutual repulsion. 

Finally we get compression when a larger quantity of a (or b) 
drives together, as it were, and so compresses a smaller 
quantity of b (or a). This is the vay hail is formed : compare 
the account of sleep in the De Somn , (sleep due to the vital 
warmth being driven together by cold). 



348 b 

T7)TCL OT€ fl€V TC^U vSojp €K V€<f)OVS TTOiel 1, S tO KCLL 

at ijjCLKa Ses rroXv peL^ovs ev rats* aA eeivals yLyvovrai 
10 fjpepais fj ev rep yet/xaivt, /cat vSara Xafiporepa* 
Xafiporepa piv yap Xeyerai orav adpodtrepa, adpod)- 
repa Si Sta ro Tacos’ rfjs rrvKvdjaecvs . (rovro Si 
yLyverai a vro rovvavriov rj d>s ’£ayopas Xeyei* 
o //,ev yap orav els rov ifjvypov depa irraveXdrj <f>rjcrl 
15 rovro TT&crxew, fjpeis S’ orav els rov deppov /car- 
eXdrj, /cat pdXiara orav pdXicrra.) orav S 9 en 
paXXov dvnrrepiarfj evros ro iftvxpov vrro rov e£co 
deppov, tiScvp rroifjoav errrj^ev /cat yLyver at ^aAa^a. 
ovpfiaLvei Si rovro orav ddrrov fj rj rrrj^is fj rj rov 
v'Saros (f>opa rj Karev el yap <j>eperai pev ev roacpSe 
20 xpovcp, rj Si ifsvxpdrrjs ocf>oSpd ofiaa ev eXarrovi 
err rj£ev, ovSiv KCoXvei perecopov rrayfjvai, eav rj 
Trfjijis ev eXarrovc yLyvrjr at XP° VC P T fjs K drco </>opas. 
/cat oacp S’ dv eyyvrepov /cat dOpocvrepa yevrjr at 
rj rrrj^is, ra re vSara Xafiporepa yLyverai /cat at 
xjjaKaSes /cat at yaAa£at peL^ovs Sta ro ^payvv 
25 cf>epeadaL rorrov . /cat ou rrvKval at iftaKaScs at 
peyaXai rrLrrrovoiv Sta rrjv avrfjv atrtav. fjrrov 
Si rov Oepovs yLyverai fj eapos real perorrwpov, 
paXXov pevroi fj x^W&vos > on £rjporepos 6 dfjp 
rov depovs * ev 8e ra) ea/>t en vypos , eV Se to) pen 
orrcLpcp fjSrj vypaLverai. yLyvovrai Se rrore , /ca0- 
30 a7T6/> eiprjrai, Kal rfjs orrdvpas ^aAafat Sta rfjv 
avrfjv air Lav. 

1 post ttol€l add. ore Se xaAa£a N lw , ore Se x<xAa£av Pc P1M. 

a “ Omit ore Se ^aAaJav in 1. 8, with all the mss. except 
Ncorr ore {j,h> is answered by orav S’ b 15 below and the inter- 


tion of water from cloud.® And for this reason you 
get larger raindrops on warm days than in winter 
and more violent rainfall — rainfall is said to be more 
violent when it is heavier, and a heavier rainfall is 
caused by rapidity of condensation. (The process is 
just the opposite of what Anaxagoras says it is. He 
says it takes place when cloud rises into the cold air : 
we say it takes place when cloud descends into the 
warm air and is most violent when the cloud descends 
farthest) Sometimes, on the other hand, the cold 
is even more concentrated within by the heat outside 
it, and freezes the water which it has produced, so 
forming hail This happens when the water freezes 
before it has time to fall. For if it takes a given time 
(t 1 ) to fall, but the cold being intense freezes it in a 
lesser time (t 2 ), there is nothing to prevent it freezing 
in the air, if the time (t 2 ) taken to freeze it is shorter 
than the time (t 1 ) of its fall. The nearer the earth 
and the more intense the freezing, the more violent 
the rainfall and the larger the drops or the hailstones 
because of the shortness of their fall. For the same 
reason b large raindrops do not fall thickly. Hail is 
rarer in the summer than in spring or autumn, though 
commoner than m winter, because in summer the 
air is drier : but in spring it is still moist, in autumn 
it is beginning to become so. For the same reason 
hailstones do sometimes occur m late summer, as 
we have said. 0 

vening lines 816 Kal . . . orav uaXiora are parenthetical . - 

b It is not at all clear why this is so, cf. Alex. 51. 32 and 
Phil. 130. 4. Perhaps Aristotle thinks of large and few as an 
alternative to small and many : if a given amount of vapour 
is condensed into large drops, as here, there will be fewer of 
them than if it was condensed into small. c 348 a 1. 



348 b 


7Trj£ecos Kal to TTpoTedeppavdai to v8 cop’ darrov 
yap ifjvxsT&i" 8 lo 7toXXol orav to v8 cop 1 if/v£ at, 
Taxv fiovXrjQcooiv, et? tov yjXiov Tidiaac rrpcoTOv, 
35 Kal oi 7 T€pl TOV n OVTOV OTOV €7TL TOV KpVfJTaXXoV 
<7K7)vo7roid)VTai 7Tpd$ Ta$ t€>v IxOvcav drjpas (drjpev- 
ovoi yap StaKOTTTOVTeg tov KpvcrraXXov) , v8o)p 

349 a 9eppt,dv 7 Tepix^ovai toZ$ KaXapois 8ia to Bolttov 

TTTjyvvod ai * XP^ VT ai 7^P r & KpvardXXcp dicnrep tco 
p,oXvj38cp 9 iv* rjpepwbatv oi KaXafioi, deppidv Se 
ylyv€Tai Taxv to avvcarapcevov vSojp ev t€ ra t? 
Xa>pais Kal Tats copat? Tat? aAeetvat? 

5 IYyveTat Se /cat irepl ttjv 'ApafSiav Kal tt)v Afflio- 
irlav tov depovs Ta vSaTa Kal oi tov ^et p<wo?, Kal 
TavTa paySaZa, Kal Trjs avTrjs rjpuEpas TroXXaKis , 
8ta ttjv avTrjv ah' lav ' Taxi yap i/w^erat Trj avTi- 
TrepujTaaei , fj ylyveTai Sta to aXeeivrjv etvai ttjv 
Xoipav iaxvpdjs. 

10 Ilept juiv oSv v^t ov Kal Spoaov Kal vl</>€tov Kal 
Trdxvrjs Kal ^aAa^?, Sta tlv OLTiav ylyveTai Kal 
tls rj </>voLs avTOiv ioTiv, elprjadoj TOcravTa. 

1 to vBoop corr. F Ap : to deppov Fi cet. P1V : om P1M. 

0 to dcpfiov, the reading adopted by the O.T. “ with all the 



Our next subjects are wind , rivers and the sea . 

(I) Wind. — Some people say wind is a current of air : 



If the water has been previously heated, this con- 
tributes to the rapidity with which it freezes * for it 
cools more quickly (Thus so many people when they 
want to cool water a quickly first stand it m the sun * 
and the inhabitants of Pontus when they encamp on 
the ice to fish — they catch fish through a hole which 
they make in the ice — pour hot water on their rods 
because it freezes quicker, using the ice like solder 
to fix their rods.) And water that condenses in the 
air in warm districts and seasons gets hot quickly. & 

For the same reason in Arabia and Aethiopia rain 
falls in the summer and not in the winter, and falls 
with violence and many times on the same day : for 
the clouds are cooled quickly by the reaction due to 
the great heat of the country. 

So much then for our account of the causes and 
nature of ram, dew, snow, hoar frost and hail. 

mss.,” must be wiong m spite of the mss. authority. The only 
point m putting the water in the sun is to warm it so that it 
may cool more quickly If it is already warm when put in 
the sun the whole point of the process is lost. 

& Aristotle is returning to the argument of 11. 30-32, which 
he interrupted at Sio 1. 32 in order to give examples (Thurot : 
cf. Ol. 93. 34) ; Sto . . . KaXafioi 349 a 3 is really paren- 
thetical and is printed as a parenthesis in the translation. 
The point of the paragraph is to give another reason for the 
formation of hail (ice) m summer, to avviordfxevov v8a>p being 
the water which freezes into hail. 

argument ( continued) 

some produce the ludicrous view that all winds are the same 
wind blowing in different directions. We must investigate 


water cools 

Arabia and 


the nature and origin of wind (349 a 12-b 1). (Aristotle here 
drops the subject of wind, arid does not resume it until Booh 
II. ch . 4.) 

(II) Rivers. — There are some who believe that rivers flow 
from subterranean reservoirs fed by rainfall (349 b 1-15). 
Criticisms (m the course of which Aristotle 9 s own view 
emerges ). (1) Such reservoirs would have to be impossibly 
large (349 b 15-19). (2) Condensation produces water below 
the earth as well as above it (349 b 19-27). (3) Rainfall does 
not collect into reservoirs. Most of it is absorbed by mountains 

349 a 12 r lepl Se dvifJUOV KCLl 7TaVTCOV TTVevpaTOiV, €Tl §6 

TTOTapdov Kal daXaTTYjs Xeycopev, rrpcoTOV Kal Yrepl 
tovtcov Sian TopYjoravTes Trpds Yjp as avTovs’ cdarrrep 
15 yap Kal Yrepl aXXcov, ovtcos Kal rrepl tovtcov ovSev 
YTapeiXrj<f>apev X eyopevov toiovtov o firj Kav o rv^cov 


Eteri Se Tives oi <f>acri tov KaXovpevov aepa kivov- 
pevov pev Kal peovTa dvepov etvai, ovvivTapevov 
Se tov avTOV tovtov ytoXiv vecfros Kal xiScop, c os Trjs 
avrrjs <j>voeoos ovcrrjs vSaros Kal rrvev paros, Kal 
20 tov dvepov etvai kivyjoiv aepos. Sid Kal tcov cro<f>tbs 
fiovAopevcov Xeyeiv Tives eva cf>aalv dvepov etvai 
iravTas tovs avepovs, otl avpYreYrTcoKe Kal tov 
aepa rov Kivovpevov eva Kal tov avrov etvai rravra, 
SoKeiv Se 8ia<f>epeiv ovSev Siacfjepovra Sia rods 
25 tottovs odev dv Tvyydvrj pecov e/cacrrore, nrapa- 
TrXrjorlcos XeyovTes cocrrrep dv el tis oioito Kal tovs 
rrorapovs rrdvTas eva iroTapdv etvai. S id fieXTiov 
ol ttoXXoI Aeyovoiv dvev tprjTTjaecos rcbv pera fyrj- 
Trjaecos ovtoo* Xeyovrcov • el pev yap €K pi as dpyfjs 
drtavTes peovoa, kolk€l tcl rrvevpaTa tov avTOV 


and high ground , which act as a hind of sponge and, in addi- 
tion, being cold , cause condensation ; it then gradually 
trickles together to form springs (349 b 27 — 350 a 13). This 
is confirmed by the fact that all the largest rivers flow from 
mountains : a brief geographical review to demonstrate this 
(350 a 14-b 22). Summary (350 b 22-30). There are of 
course bodies of water underground , as is proved by rivers 
that are swallowed up by the earth : this happens when no 
other outlet can be found to the sea. Examples (350 b 30 — 

351 a 18). 

Let us go on to deal with winds and all kinds of dis- 
turbances in the air, and also with rivers and the sea, 

And here again let us first discuss the difficulties in- 
volved : for on this subject as on many others we 
know of no previous theory that could not have been 
thought of by the man in the street. 

There are some a who say that wind is simply a (I) Wind, 
moving current of what we call air, while cloud and 
water are the same air condensed ; they thus assume 
that water and wind are of the same nature, and 
define wind as air in motion. And for this reason 
some people, wishing to be clever, say that all the 
winds are one, on the ground that the air which moves 
is in fact one and the same whole, and only seems to 
differ, without differing in reality, because of the 
various places from which the current comes on 
different occasions : which is like supposing that all 
rivers are but one river. The unscientific vie vs of 
ordinary people are preferable to scientific theories 
of this sort. If all rivers flowed from a single source, 
and something analogous were true of winds, there 

a Alex, and 01. both refer to Hippocrates, irepl <j>voa>v: 
the passage is given by Diels 64 C 2 (under Diogenes). Cf. 
also Diels 12 A 24 (Anaximander). 



349 a 

30 rpOTTov s ra^a A eyotev av n ol A eyovres ovtcos' el 
8* optolojs ivravda KaKet y SrjXov on to Kopufjevpta 
av etrj tovto \Jjev8os> irrel tovto ye 7TpoorjKovaav 
€X €L crfcdiftiv, n r ecrrlv 6 aveptos , Kal ylyverai 7tcos 9 
Kal rl to Kivovvy Kal rj a pyrj 7 rodev avrcov, Kal 
7 Torepov a p* tooirep e£ ayyetov 8et Aa fietv peovra 
35 tov aveptov, Kal pteypt tovtov petv etos av Kevcodrj 
349 b to ayyetov, otov doKCov d<f>teptevov , fj Kadarrep 
Kal ol ypa<j>ets ypd(f>ovcrtv, i£ avrcov rrjv dpyyjv 

'Optotcjs 8e Kal 7repl rrjs rcov 7rorap,cov yeveoe cos 
S oKet rtatv e^eiv* to yap avaydev w to tov rjXtov 
v8cop TraXiv voptevov adpotodev vtto yrjv petv €K 
5 KotXtas fJieydXrjs, 7 ) rra vras pitas f) aXXov aXXrjs' 
Kal ov ylyvead at v8wp ovSev , aXXa to ovXXexdev 
€K tov x^^dovos els ras rotavras yTroSoyds, tovto 
ylyvead at to rrXrjdos to tcov 7TOTaptd)v. 8 to Kal 
ptet^ovs del tov x^dovos petv fj tov depovs, Kal 
tovs ptev aevaovs elvat tovs S’ ovk aevaovs * oocov 
10 ptev yap 8ta to pteyedos rijs KotXtas 7toXv to crvXXe- 
yoptevov v8a )p ear tv, ware 8tapKetv Kal ptrj irpoava- 
XlaKead at irplv eireXdetv ro+optfipiov ev rep ^€t/xd>vt 
rrdXtv, tovto vs ptev aevaovs elvat 8ta reXovs, oaots 
oe eAa ttovs at vTrobox at, tovtovs be bt oAtyoTrjra 
tov v8a tos (f>davetv £rjpatvoptevovs 7rplv eTreXdetv to 
is €K tov ovpavov, Kevovptevov tov ayyetov. 

KatTOt (j>avepov, et ns fiovXerat Trot^cras otov 
v7ro8ox^jv 77 po opipidrov to) Kad’ rjptepav v8a n 
peovn ovvex&s vorjaat to 7rXrjdos * vrreppdXXot yap 

a Cf. Odyssey x. 19. 
h Cf. De Mot . An . 9, 69B b 95. 

* Anaxagoras : Diels 59 A 49 (ii. 16. 13). 



might be something in such a theory : but if nothing 
of the sort is true in either case, it is clear that 
the theory, though ingenious, is false. In fact, the 
following questions are worth investigation : What 
is the wind and how does it arise ? What is the motive 
cause of winds, and what their origin ? Are we to 
suppose that the wind flows like a stream from some 
vessel, and continues to flow until the vessel is empty, 
like wine poured from wineskins ? a Or are the 
winds rather self-originating as the painters depict 
them ? b 

Some people c hold similar views about the origin (H) Rivers 
of rivers. They suppose that the water drawm up VO ir ufeory. 
by the sun when it falls again as ram is collected 
beneath the earth into a great hollow from which 
the rivers flow, either all from the same one or each 
from a different one : no additional water is formed 
m the process , 1 d and the rivers are supplied by the 
water collected during the winter in these reservoirs 
This explains why rivers always run higher in winter 
than in summer, and why some are perennial, some 
are not. When the hollow is large and the amount 
of water collected therefore great enough to last out 
and not be exhausted before the return of the winter 
rains, then rivers are perennial and flow continuously : 
when the reservoirs are smaller, then, because the 
supply of water is small, rivers dry up before the 
rainy weather returns to replenish the empty con- 

(1) But it is evident that if anyone tries to compute Criticisms, 
the volume of water constantly flowing each day and 
then to visualize a reservoir for it, he 'will see that to 

4 e.g. by condensation, as Aristotle himself maintains, 

349 b 93 below. 



849 b ^ 

av rq> pceyeOec tqv Trjs yrjs oyKov rj ov 7 toXv av 
iXXeiTTOL to 8 exopcevov rrav to peov liScop els rov 

20 ’AAAa 8rjXov oTi crupcfialvei pcev Kal 7roXXa toi- 
avra TroXXayov Trjs yfjs, ov pcrjv aXX* drorrov el 
tis per) vopelt^ei Bed rrjv a vttjv alriav v8 cop i£ a epos 
ylyveada l 8 1 rjvrrep vrr ep yrjs Kal iv tyj yfj . <x> ot 
elrrep /ca/cct Sia i/jvxporrjTa awiararai 6 arpU^cov 
a rjp els vBcop, Kal vr to Trjs iv rfj yfj iffvxpOTrjros to 
25 av to tovto Set vojjilt.eiv crupepaCveuv, Kal ylyvec rOac 
per) peovov to aTTOKeKpLfjLevov vScop iv avTrjj Kal 
tovto peiv, aAAa Kal ylyveadai crvvex&S- 
,; Et6 Sc tov per) yiyvopevov aXX* vrrapxovTOS vSaros 
Kad 9 rjpepav pr) Toeavrrjv elvac rrjv &PXV V T ^ v 77 ora - 
30 pcov, olov vi to yrjv Xcpvas Tcvas arroKeKpipivas, Kad - 
arrep evioi Xeyovoiv , aAA ’ opoLcos coarrep Kal iv tco 
vrrep yrjs tottcq pi k pal avviarapevai pavlBes, Kal 
TraXiv avrai erepais , TeXos peTa rrXrjdovs fear ajSatvet 
to vopevov vScop } ovtco Kal iv rfj yfj e/c piKpcov av A - 
Xeipeadai to rrp&TOV Kal elvac olov m8(oor)s els iv 
35 Trjs yrjs ras opyas tc ov rroTapcbv. BrjXoi 8 5 avro 
350 a to epyov' ol yap ras vSpaycoylas rroiovvres vrro - 
vopois Kal Suopv£i avvayovacv , coarrep av IBiovarjs 
Trjs yrjs a rro tcov vi/jrjXa>v. 8 to Kal t<x pevpaTa tcov 
rroTapcdv e/c tcov opcov (f>aiveTai peovTa, Kal rrXeioToi 
Kal peyiaroi rroTapol peovaiv e/c tcov peyiuTCOv 
5 opcov, opolcos 8c Kal a l Kprjvac at rrXeiaTai opeaiv 

a Rainfall is not the only source of supply : there is also 
subterranean condensation. 
b i.e, by condensation. 

0 Construe rov . . . vSaros with Xifjwas (Thuiot) * a liteial 
translation would run “ the source of rivers is not as it were 


contain the whole yearly flow of water it will have to 
be as large as the earth in size or at any rate not much 

(2) And though it is true that there are many such 
reservoirs m different parts of the earth, yet it is 
absurd for anyone not to suppose that the same cause 
operates to turn air into water below the earth as 
above it. If then cold condenses vaporous air into 
water above the earth, the cold beneath the earth 
must be presumed to produce the same effect. So 
not only does water form separately within the earth 
and flow from it, but the process is continuous.® 

(3) Besides, even if one leaves out of account water 
so produced b and considers only the daily supply of 
water already existing, 0 this does not act as a source 
of rivers by segregating into subterranean lakes, as 

it were, in the way some people maintain : the pro- Aristotle^ 
cess is rather like that in which small drops form in own view 
the region above the earth, and these again join 
others, until rain water falls m some quantity ; simi- 
larly inside the earth quantities of water, quite small 
at first, collect together and gush out of the earth, 
as it were, at a single point and form the sources of 
rivers. A practical proof of this is that when men 
make irrigation works they collect the water in pipes 
and channels, as though the higher parts of the earth 
were sweating it out. So we find that the sources of 
rivers flow from mountains, and that the largest and 
most numerous rivers flow from the highest moun- 
tains. Similarly the majority of springs are in the 

lakes of ready-made as opposed to produced watei.” Thurot 
would read zmapx€Lv for ylyvzadai in 1. 25 — “ car Aristote 
oppose l’eau qui se forme (yiyveodai) a cette qin est toute 
formde ( vnaMeiv ) ” — and transpose Kad ’ ^fxepav 1. 99 to I. 28 
after yiyvofiivov* 



850 a 

kcu rorrois vijjrjXols yeirvicoGiv ev 8e rots* rrehlois 
avev rrorapicov oklycu ylyvovr ai rrdpiTTav. ot yap 
opeivol Kal vi/jrjXol rorroi , olov GTroyyos ttvkvos 
erriKpepidpLevoi, Kara puKpa piev rroXXaxfj Se 8ca- 
ttl8cogl Kal GvXXelfiovoi to v8 cop* Sexovrai re yap 
10 rov Kanovros v8a ros rroXv rrXrjdos (■ tL yap 8ia <j>epei 
kolXtjv Kal viTTiav rj Trprjvq rrjv rrepi<j>epeiav elvai 
Kal Kvprrjv; ap<f>orepcos yap rov igov oyKov Trepi- 
Xrjifjerai Gcopiaros) Kal rrjv aviovaav arpil Sa ifjvxovcri 
Kal ovyKplvovGL rraXiv eh v8cop. 

A io, KaOdvep eirropbev, ol pieyiGroi rcov rrora - 
15 pbcov £k rcov pbeyiGrcov <j>aivovrai peovres opcbv. 
8rjXov S’ £gtI rovro decopievois rag rrjs yfjs 
' rrepioSovs • ravras yap £k rov TrvvOdveoOai Trap 9 
eKaarcov ovrcos aveypaifsav , ogcov pirj GVpbfieflrjKev 
avrorrras yeveaBai rovs Xeyovras* ev phkv ovv rrj 
9 Agio, rrXeiGroi piev £k rov HapvaGGOV KaXovpievov 
20 <j>aivovrai peovres opovs Kal pieyioroi rrorapbol } 
rovro S’ opioXoyelrai Travrcov elvai pieyiarov to 
opos rcov 7 rpos rrjv eco rrjv ^et/xe/otv^v vTrepfidvn 
yap rj8rj rovro cj>aiverai rj e£co OdXarra , fj$ to 
rrepas ov 8rjXov rols ivrevOev. £k piev ovv rovrov 
peovGtv aXXoi re rrorapiol Kal 6 HaKrpos Kal 6 
'Kodarrrjs Kal 6 9 Apaijrjs * rovrov 8 9 o T avals arro- 
25 ax&rai piepos cov eh rrjv Maiconv Xipivrjv . pel 
8e Kal 6 TvSos el; airov, Travrcov rcov rrorajLcov 
pevpia rrXeiGrov . £k 8e rov Ka vKaaov aXXoi re 

a So condensation, as well as rainfall, contributes to the 
supply i cf 349 b 23 and note a on p. 92 above, Alex. 56. SI. 

b More correctly Paropamisus : the Hindu Kush. For 
the geography of this passage and Book II. ch. 5 see the note 
at the end of this chapter. 



neighbourhood of mountains and high places, and 
there are few sources of water m the plains except 
rivers. For mountains and high places act like a thick 
sponge overhanging the earth and make the water 
drip through and run together in small quantities in 
many places. For they receive the great volume of 
rain water that falls (it makes no difference whether 
a receptacle of this sort is concave and turned up or 
convex and turned down : it will contain the same 
volume whichever it is) : and they cool the vapour as 
it rises and condense it again to water. a 

Hence the largest rivers flow, as we said, from the 
highest mountains. You can see this if you look at 
the maps of the earth, which have been drawn up by 
their authors from their own first-hand knowledge or, 
when this failed, from inquiries made from others. 
We find that most of the rivers in Asia and the largest 
of them flow from the mountain range called Par- 
nassus, 5 which is commonly regarded as the highest 
mountain towards the winter dawn. c For when you 
have crossed it the outer ocean, whose farther limit 
is unknown to the inhabitants of our part of the world, 
is already in sight. There flow from this mountain 
among other rivers the Bactrus, d the Choaspes,* and 
the Araxes/ from the last of which the Tanais 9 
branches off and flows into Lake MaeotisA From 
it also flows the Indus, the greatest of all rivers. From 
the Caucasus there flow many rivers, extraordinary 

c South-east \ the direction in which the sun rises at the 
winter solstice. d Oxus, 

* Karun : or possibly Kabul River. 

1 Or Iaxartes : Syr Darya. 

8 Don. h Sea of Azov. 



350 a 

piovai rroXXol Kal Kara rrXrjdos Kal Kara piyedos 
vrreppaXXovres, Kal 6 ®d<w 6 Si Kavtcaoos pi- 
yiarov opos rcov rrpos rrjv eco rrjv depwrjv ianv Kal 
30 rrXrjQzi Kal vijfei. arjpel a Si rod piv iiijjovs otl 

opdrai Kal a7ro rcov KaXovpivcov padicov Kal as* 
rrjv Xlpvrjv elarrXeovrcov, in S’ rjXiovrai rrjs vvktos 
avrov ra a/epa pixp L T °v rplrov pipovs a rro re ryjs 
eco Kal rrdXiv a tto rrjs iarripas • rov §6 ttX rjOovs on 
7ToXXas €X 0V e$P a $> ev a Is edvrj re KaroiKel ttoXXol 
35 Kal Xcpvas elval cf>aai peyaXas, f aAA J opcos rrdaas 
rag eSpas elval <paac <j>avepas pixp 1 r y$ ioxdryjs 

350 b ’E/c 8 e rrjs Ylvprjvrjs ( rovro S’ iorlv opos TTpos 
Svaprjv lorjpepLvrjv 1 iv rfj KeXriKrj) piovaiv o re 
*T arpos Kal o Taprrjaaos. ovros piv ovv e£co 
arrjXcov, 6 S’ ’Tcrrpos* St’ oXrjs rrjs JLvpcorrrjs els rov 
E v^eivov rrovrov . rcov S’ aXXcov TTorapaiv ol rrXeZ- 
5 aroi 7 Tpog apKTOv eK rcov opcov rcov ’ ApKvvtcov * 
ravra Se Kal vifjei Kal rrXrjdei piyiara rrepl rov 
roTTov rovrov ianv . vrr 9 avrrjv Si rrjv apKrov virip 
rrjs iaxdrrjs Z/cuflias* at KaXovpevai 'Pfarcu, yrepl 
<Lv rov peyidovs Xiav elalv ot Xeyopevoi Aoyot 
pvdcoSeis * piovai 8* odv ol rrXeZaroi Kal peyiaroi 
10 pera rov *T arpov rcov aXXcov yrorapcov ivrevdev, 
cos (fraaiv. 

9 Opolcos Si Kal rrepl rrjv Aifivrjv ol piv €K rcov 

1 irpos Bva/xrjv iorjixepivrjv fortasse post crrrjXcov 1. 3 collo- 
canda censet Heidel. 

0 Rion. b North-east. c Cf 351 all below. 

d 41 This is unintelligible : our text, though it goes back to 
Alexander (Alex. 57. 32 f.), must be corrupt ” (O.T.). I agree, 
and have accordingly obelized the words. 

6 The Pyrenees. 



both in number and in size, among them the Phasis.® 

The Caucasus is the largest mountain range, both in 
extent and height, towards the summer sunrise. & 

A proof of its height is the fact that it is visible both 
from the so-called Deeps 0 and also as you sail mto 
Lake Maeotis ; and also that its peaks are sunlit for 
a third part of the night, both before sunrise and 
again after sunset. A proof of its extent is that it 
contains many habitable regions in which there live 
many tribes and in which there are said to be many 
great lakes, f And yet they say that all these regions 
are visible up to the last peak.-f d 

From Pyrene e (this is a mountain range towards Europe 
the equinoctial sunset in Celtice^) there flow the 
Istrus 9 and the Tartessus.* The latter flows into 
the sea outside the pillars of Heracles, the Istrus flow's 
right across Europe into the Euxme. Most of the 
remaining European * rivers flow northward from the 
Arkynian 0 mountains which are the largest both in 
height and extent in that region. Beneath the Bear 
itself* beyond the farthest part of Scythia is a range 
of mountains called the Rhipae 1 : the stories told of 
their size are too fanciful for credence, but they say 
that from them the greatest number and, after the 
Istrus, the largest of other European rivers flow. 

Similarly in Libya from the Aethiopian moun- Africa. 

f A general name for France and Spam. 

0 Danube. 

h Or Baetis : Guadalquivir. 

* I have inserted “ European ” here and at b 9 below, 
though it is not m the Greek : Aristotle must be thinking 
of Europe here and not of the world as a whole. 

3 The mountains of Central Europe, the Alps to the Car- 

* i.e. in the extreme North .* c/. 362 b 9. 

1 These seem to be purely mythical, as Aristotle indicates, 

e 97 


35° b 

AWiottikcov 6pd>v } 6 re A lycbv Kal 6 N varjs, of 8c 
/ liyiVTOi, TCOV SlCDVOpaapeVCOV, 6 T€ X/)6/X€T^S , 
KciXovpevos, os els TTjv e£a> pel OaXarrav, Kal rod 
NefA ov to pevpa to rrpwrovy eK rov 9 A pyvpov Ka - 
Xovpevov opovs . 

is T cov Se rrepl rov c EAAt ]vikov rorrov 6 pev ’A^eA coos 
eK TllvSov, Kal 6 9, lvaxos evrevdev 3 o Se 'Erpvpcbv 
Kal Necrcros* Kal o "EjSpos 1 aTravres’ rpels ovres €K 
rov TiKopfipov 7roXXa Se pevp ara Kal €k rrjs 
e Po8 orrrjs ear tv. 

< Opolojs Se Kal rovs aXXovs rrorapovs evpoi ns 
20 av peovras * aAAa paprvplov %a piv rovrovs eirropev* 
errel Kal oaoi avrcdv peovaiv e£ eXcdv, ra eXrj vtto 
opr] Keladac avp ft alvei rrdvra ayeSov r) rortovs 
v\/jy)Xo vs eK rrpooaycoyfjs . 

*0 n pev ovv ov Sel vopiQeiv ovno ylyvead ai rds 
a px&s riov 7 rorapwv (bs e£ a<f>copiapeva)v koiXilov, 
<f>avepov’ ovre yap av 6 r ottos iKavos fjv 6 rrjs yrjs 
25 cbs elrrelv , charrep ovS’ 6 rtov veejycbv, el to ov eSet 
pelv povov, aAAa pur] to pev arrriei to S’ eylyvero, 
aXX 9 a lei arro ovros erapievero • to re vtto rols 
opeoiv eye iv rds rtr]yds pa propel Sion rep avppelv 
els oXlyov Kal Kara piKpov eK rroXXcbv vorlScov 
so SiaSIScoaiv 6 rorros Kal ylyvovrai ovreos af rrrjyal 
rwv rrorapdov. 

Ov prjv aAAa Kal roiovrovs etvai rorrovs eyovras 
rrXrjOos vSaros, olov Xlpvas, ovSev arorrov, rrXrjv 
ovn rrjXiKavras chare rovro avpjSalveiv, ovSev paX- 

a Unidentifiable. 

6 Unidentifiable. 

c Later called the Mountains of the Moon: perhaps 
Mts. Kilimanjaro and Kenya or the Ruwenzori range. 



tains there flow the Aegon a and the Nyses b ; fiom 
the so-called Silver Mountains c the two largest of 
rivers distinguished by names, the river called the 
Chremetes, d which flows into the outer ocean, and 
the most important of the sources of the Nile 6 

Of the rivers in Greek lands, the Achelous flow's 
from Mount Pmdus, as does also the Inachus, and the 
trio Strymon, Nessos and Hebrus from Mount Seom- 
brus : and there are also many rivers that flow from 
Mount Rhodope*. 

Further investigation would show 7 that all other 
rivers flow similarly from mountains : these have 
simply been given as examples. For even when 
rivers flow from marshes it will almost always be 
found that these marshes lie beneath either moun- 
tains or gradually rising ground. 

We can now see that the supposition that rivers Summary, 
spring from definite hollows in the earth is a false 
one. For, firstly, the whole earth, we might say, 
would hardly be room enough, nor the region of the 
clouds, if the flow were fed only by water already 
existing, and if some waters were not in fact vanishing 
in evaporation, some re-forming all the time, but all 
were produced from a ready-made supply. Secondly, 
the fact that rivers have their sources at the foot of 
mountains proves that the place accumulates water 
little by little by a gradual collection of many drops, 
and that the sources of rivers are formed in this 

It is not, of course, at all impossible that there do Subter- 
exist such places containing large volumes of water, Waters and 
like lakes : but they cannot be so large as to act in rivers, 
the way this theory maintains, any more than one 

a Probably the Senegal River. * The White Nile. 



350 b 

A ov rj el tis oIolto tols <f>avepas elvat Trrjyas tcov 
7roTajj,a)v cr^eSov yap Ik Kprjvcvv ol TrXetOTOt 
35 peovcnv. opto tov ovv to eKetvas kcll to Tamas 

voptt^etv elvat to atopt a to tov vSa tos Trav . 

* Oti 8* elotv ToiavTai cjxipayyes Kal StaoTacrets 

351 a ttJs* yyjs, SrjXovatv ol KaTamvoptevot tcov Trorapdov. 

avptfiatvet Se tovto iroXXaxov ttjs yfjs, otov Trjs pev 
HeXoTTovvTqaov irXeloTa TOiama Trepl tt\v ’ApKaStav 
ioTLV. clItiov Se Sea to opetvrjv ovoav prj ex €LV 
5 eKpoas £k tojv koIXcdv els OaXaTTav TrXr]povpevot 
yap ol tottol Kal ovk e^ovTes eKpvotv avTols evpl- 
GKovTat ttjv SloSov els flados, arrofita^optevov tov 
avcoOev emovTos vSaTOS. Trepl ptev odv ttjv ‘EAActSa 
puKpa to Lavra rravTeXcos ecFTtv ytyvopteva- dXK rj 
ye V7T0 tov Kau Kaaov Xtptvr), rjv kclXovoiv ol etcel 
10 OdXaTTav 1 * avTTj yap rroTapdov ttoXXojv Kal pteydXtov 
eloflaXXovTCov ovk eyovoa eKpovv <j>avepov IkSISooolv 
vtto yrjv Kara Kopa£ovs, 7repl ra KaXovpteva fiadea 
tov Hovtov' TavTa S’ €OtIv arret pov tl ttjs daXa tttjs 
fiados' ovSels yovv rrcoTroTe Kadels iSvvrjdrj rrepas 
evpetv. TavTrj Se rroppaj Trjs yfjs ov Trepl Tpta- 
15 Koata oraSta rroTtpov avaStScocnv vScop h tI ttoXvv 
tottov , ov Gvveyrj Se , aXXa Tptcr<jaxfj» Kal Trepl ttjv 
A tyvcrTtKrjV ovk iX (ittcov tov 'PoSavov KaraTTtveTat 
tls rroTapos, Kal rrdXtv ava StScoatv kot aXXov 
tottov • 6 Se 'PoSavos* TroTaptos vavanrepaTOS icrTtv. 

1 QdXarrav <j>av€pa S ie c Cam. • OaXarrav fieyaXi) ci. Thurot. 

a And it cannot be merely the spring which we see at the 
source that supplies the river with water : it must rather be 
the whole process of accumulation described at b 27 and 
350 a 7 above, Cf, Alex. 58. 20 ff. 



could leasonably suppose that their visible sources 
supply all the water for the rivers, most of which flow 
from springs.® It is thus equally umeasonable to 
believe either that lakes or that the visible sources 
are the sole water supply. 

But the rivers that are swallowed up by the earth 
prove that there are chasms and cavities in the earth. 
This happens in many places : m the Peloponnese, 
for example, one finds it most often in Arcadia. The 
reason is that because the country is mountainous 
there are no outlets from the valleys to the sea : so 
when these valleys get filled with w r ater and there 
is no outlet, the water flowing m from above forces 
its w T ay out and finds a way through into the depths 
of the earth. In Greece this only happens in quite 
a small w r ay. But there is the lake b beneath the 
Caucasus, which the inhabitants call a sea c : for this 
is fed by many great rivers, and having no obvious 
outlet runs out beneath the earth in the district of 
the Coraxi d and comes up somewhere about the 
so-called deeps of Pontus. (This is a part of the sea 
w r hose depth is unfathomable : at any rate no sounding 
has yet succeeded m finding the bottom.) Here at 
about three hundred stades’ distance from shore 
fresh water comes up over a large area, an area not 
continuous but falling into three divisions And m 
Liguria a river 6 as large as the Rhone (and the 
Rhone is large enough to be navigable) is swallowed 
up, and comes up again in another place. 

b The Caspian Sea. 

c Thurot inserts ixeyaXr) after 0a\ arrav to answer to [UKpd 
in 1. 7. 

d On the east coast of the Black Sea. 

6 Perhaps the Po. “ Pliny alleges (falsely) that it flows 
underground (Plmy iii. 6) ” (O.T.). 




From the geogiaphical review in this chapter, and from the 
passage in Book II. ch. 5, 3 62 a 32 ff. on the zones of the 
earth, we leain Aristotle’s views about the dimensions and 
geography of the habitable world. 

Aristotle believed the earth to be a sphere, of no great 
relative size, situated at the centre of the universe (Book I. 
ch. 3, 339 b 6-8, 340 a 6-8 : cf. He Caelo n. 14, 298 a 10 ff., 
where he quotes an estimate of 400,000 stades= about 46,000 
miles for its circumference). There are two habitable zones of 
the earth, “ one, m which we live, towards the upper pole, the 
other towards the other, that is the south pole.” The zone 
in which we live is bounded by the tropic of Cancer on the 
south and the Arctic circle on the north, the other sector zone 
by the tropic of Capiicorn and the Antaictic cncle They are 
the only habitable legions, the zone between the tropics being 
uninhabitable owing to the heat, the zones beyond the Arctic 
and Antarctic circles owing to the cold. The habitable zones 
thus extend right round the globe m two broad stupa ; and 
the length of the portion of our strip which we know, that is, 
from “ the pillars of Heracles to India,” exceeds its bieadth 
in the pioportion of 5 to 3. “ Beyond the Pillars of Heracles 
and India lies the ocean which severs the habitable zone and 
pi events it forming a continuous belt,” though if it were not 
for the ocean the complete cncuit could be made. 

Such is the account of the zones of the earth m Book II. 
ch. 5 , and it gives us the general dimensions (length 5: 
breadth 3) of the maps (rrepioBovs 350 a 16) which Aristotle 
has m mind m Book I. ch. 13. In this chapter he is not, of 
course, setting out to give an account of the geography of 
the known world ; he is using geography to illustrate the 
theme that the largest rivers flow from the highest mountains. 
But it seems clear that he had a map or maps m mind, if not 
before him, and it should therefore be possible to draw a map 
that will illustrate what he says. 

Such a map is given here (Map 1) together with a map of 
the same area as wc know it to-day (Map 2). In making 
this map, and m identifying the rivers and mountains to 
■which Aristotle refers, I have been guided largely by the 
following works (m addition to Ideler and the O.T.) : Bun- 
bury. History of Jncient Geography , vol. i; Tozer, History of 



Ancient Geography (Ed. 2 , with additional notes by M. Cary) ; 
E. H. Warmington, Gieek Geography ; Heidel, The Fiameof 
the Ancient Greek Maps ; J. L. Myres, article on Herodotus’s 
maps m the Geographical Journal , 8, 1896; P. Bolchert, 
Anstoteles ErdKunde von Asien und Libyen. Prof. Heidel’s 
book I have found paiticularly useful, as it explains very 
clearly how the thiee co-ordinates, summer-equinoctial- 
winter-sunrise and sunset, were used as the frame within 
which Gieek maps were drawn (see Map 1). To these 
authors the reader is leferred for further information, but 
the following notes on particular identifications may be useful. 

1. Mountains. 

Parnassus 350 a 19. By this Aristotle must mean the range 
which later writers called Paropamsus or Paiopamisus : t.e. 
the Hmdu-Kush (Tozer, p. 133, Bunbury, p. 400, Heidel, p. 
42, note 107). Aristotle locates it “ towards the winter dawn,” 
which Heidel thinks too far south. But theie is no authority 
for a change of the text to read “ equinoctial ” or “ summer 
dawn ” as Heidel suggests , and it looks as if m Aristotle’s 
map Parnassus balances Caucasus (350 a 26) which is towards 
the summer dawn (the Greeks liked their maps to be sym- 
metrical : cf. Myres, loc. cit. p. 608) ; though it is true that 
with the present reading the course of the Araxes-Tanais is 
veiy long. Heidel (loc. cit.) also thinks Aristotle puts the 
Pyrenees too far south, and has suggested that the text should 
be amended (v 350 b 1 and note ad loc.). But Herodotus, 
who thought the Ister (Danube) rose “ from the city of 
Pyrene ” (n. 33), seems to locate it very far south (cf. maps m 
How and Wells’s Commentary, p. 303, Tozer, p. 75, Bunbury, 
p. 172), and it is still possible to draw a map without altering 
the text. But the map could of course quite easily be re- 
drawn if these two amendments of Heidel were adopted. 

The Silver Mountains (350 b 14), the source of the Chre- 
metes and the Nile, are more difficult to place. But Olymp. 
105. 30 identifies them with the mountains called later the 
Mountains of the Moon, which Tozer (p. 352) supposes to 
be Mounts Kilimanjaro and Kenya. Warmington (p. 144) 
suggests the Ruwenzori range “ which, though equatorial, 
has miles of snow and glacier.” I have placed them in 
Central Africa where they balance the mountain masses in 
Central Europe. For Herodotus thought that the Nile 
followed an easterly course in its upper reaches, and it was 



not until the Ptolemies that a fuller knowledge of it was 

2. Rivers. 

Choatpes, called by Heiodotus v 52 “ the nvei on which 
Susa stands,” and so presumably the Karun Rivei. But 
Aristotle may have a different Choaspes in mind : Bunbury, 
p 43 i ( cf Bolchert, p. 39), suggests the Cabul River. 

Bactrus “ is probably the 1 nvei of Bactria ’ — that is, the 
Oxus ” (Bunbuiy, Joe . at.). 

A raxes • it seems generally agreed that by this Anstotle 
means the Iaxartes or Syr Darya : cf. Bunbury, pp. 400 and 
434, Tozer, pp. 82, 135 and additional notes, p. xvm, and for 
Herodotus’s confusions about the Araxes, How and Wells, 
l. pp. 152 and 202. 

The Chremetes is otheiwise unknown, unless it is to be 
identified with the Chretes of the Periplus of Hanno, which 
was probably the Senegal River or a blanch of it. It is 
possible that Aristotle may have had some knowledge of the 
voyage of Hanno, just as the persistent Greek tradition about 
the shallowness of the sea beyond the pillars of Heiacles 
(Book II ch. 1, 354 a 22 : cf. Plato, Timaeus 25 d) may 
reflect the experience of Himilco in the Sargasso Sea : see 
Bunbury, pp. 324-325, 335 and 401 (Hanno), and 402-403 
(Himilco), Tozer, pp. 111-112 (Hinnlco). 

The lack of any reference to the Tigris or Euphrates is 
sui prising, for they were known to Herodotus and could have 
been used to illustrate Aristotle’s thesis. 



The same districts of the earth are 7iot always wet and dry , 
nor the same places always sea and land . The reason for this 
is that different parts of the earth grow old and dry up at 
different times , while others correspondingly revive and grow 
wet (351 a 19-b 8). But the whole process takes a long time 
to complete , and peoples perish by war , pestilence or famine 
before it ts complete , so that no record of it is preserved (351 
b 8-22). So also a people forgets its own first settlement m 


The tiaditional consensus of opinion (cf, Tozer, pp. 134, 
136, Bunbury, p 401) is that Anstotle did not distinguish 
the Caspian and Aral : and I have drawn the map accord- 
ingly. But Anstotle speaks at Book IT. ch 1, 354 a 3 of the 
Hyicaman and Caspian as distinct (cf, Book II ch, 1, note a 
on p. 126), and Tarn (Alexander the Greats vol. n. pp. 5 ff.) has 
aigued that he believed the two seas to be separate, his name 
foi our Caspian being Hyrcanian, for our Aral Caspian. Tarn’s 
argument is persuasive , but the reference m Book II. ch. 1 
is the only reference m Anstotle’s genuine works to either 
sea, it is a passing reference, not made in the course of his 
geographical review, and it is not easy to draw any firm con- 
clusions from it. If Tain’s view is accepted it must be on 
the strength of his contention that the truth was known to 
Alexander before his expedition ; for if this is so, it is reason- 
able to suppose, in view of this reference, that it was known 
to Aristotle and that Alexander learned it from him If 
Aristotle believed the two seas to be separate, then the map 
should be redrawn to show the Araxes and Bactrus falling 
into the Caspian- Aral, though this makes the course of the 
Araxes-Tanais even more awkward and perhaps strengthens 
the case for Heidel’s emendment of 350 a 21 
J. O. Thomson, History of Ancient Geography , to which 
reference may also be made, appeared when this note had 
alieady gone to the press, as dia also L Pearson’s article m 
G.Q. xhv (N.S. i) (1951), pp. 80 ff., in which he criticizes 


argument ( continued ) 

a district and the character of the district at the time of settle - 
ment, as has happened in Egypt, We can , however , infer 
from the evidence we have that this is a district that is drying 
up . It has been formed by the silt deposited by the JSile : the 
deposit is at first marshy but improves as it dries and is then 
inhabited, while other districts deteriorate and become too 
dry for habitation . A similar improvement and deteriora- 
tion has taken place in Argos and Mycenae, The same process 



takes place on a larger scale and affects larger areas (351 
b 22—352 a 17). 

The cause of these changes is not , as some say , a change m 
the universe as a whole — this is to lose sight of the relatively 
small size of the earth — hut periodical seasons of ram , as it 
were winters in a great year , which affect different parts of 
the earth at different times : e.g. Deucalion’s flood (352 a 

351 a 19 Ovk a lei S’ oi avrol tottol rrjs yrjs ovr evvypoi 
20 elaw ovre £ rjpol , aXXa pberafiaXXovcnv Kara ras rcov 
rrorajicov yeveaeis Kal ras drroXeLifjeLS' 816 Kal ra 
rrepl rrjv rjrreipov peer af3 aXAet Kal rrjv ddXarrav, Kal 
ovk a lei ra pikv yrj ra 8 k daXarra SiareXet rravra 
rov xpovov, aXXa ylyverai daXarra pikv orrov x^pcros, 
25 evda 8 k vvv daXarra , rraXiv evravda yrj. Kara piivroi 
nva ra£iv vopbl^ecv xprj ravra ytyvead at Kal rrepl- 
o 8 ov. dpxV Se rovrcov Kal atnov on Kal rrjs yrjs 
ra evros, doorrep ra crcopiara rcov <f>vrcbv Kal £a>cov, 
aKpbrjv eyti Kal yrj pas. rrXrjv eKelvois pikv ov Kara 
fiepos ravra avpifiawec rrdoye.iv, aAA’ a p,a rrav 
30 aKpid^eiv Kal (j>dlveiv avayKaiov rfj Sk yrj rovro 
ylyverai Kara piepos 8 id iJjv£lv Kal deppiorrjra. 
ravra pikv ofiv av£erai Kal <f>dlvec 8 ia rov rjXiov Kal 
rrjv rrepi<f>opdv 9 8 ia 8 k ravra Kal rrjv 8 vva puv ra 
pieprj rrjs yrjs XapifSavei 8 ia(f>epovaav, doore pi^XP 1 
nvos evvhpa Svvarai 8 ia pieveiv, elr a £rjpalverai Kal 
35 yrjpdaKei rrdXiv erepoi 8 k rorroi fSidooKovrai Kal 
evvS poi ylyvovr ai Kara piepos. dvayKrj 8 k rcov pikv 
351 b rorrcov yiyvopievcov £ rjporepcov ras rrrjyas d<f>avl- 
lecrd at, rovrcov 8 k crvpifiaivovrcov rovs rrorafiovs 
rrpcorov pikv €K pieyaXcov puKpovs, eira reXos yl- 
yvecrdai £rjpovs, rcov 8 k rrorapLcov piediorapievcov Kal 
evdev pikv d(j>avi^opb€vcov iv clXXols S’ dvdXoyov 



17-b 2) The effects of such a deluge last a long time , and 
longer in districts with suitable mountain ranges to retain 
the moisture (352 b 2-16). These changes must take place : 
and the facts show that they have . Evidence ‘—Egypt has 
been formed by Nile deposits , and lies lower than the Red Sea : 
clearly it was once all continuous sea. Lake Maeotis is simi- 
larly silting up (352 b 16 — 353 a 14). Conclusion (353 a 

The same parts of the earth are not always moist or Changes in 
dry, but change their character according to the andm itY 
appearance or failure of rivers So also mainland and relative^ 
sea change places and one area does not lemain earth, sea and 8 ° 
another sea, for all time, but sea replaces what was land * 
once dry land, and where there is now* sea there is at 
another time land. This process must, however, be 
supposed to take place m an orderly cycle. Its 
originating cause is that the interior parts of the earth, 
like the bodies of plants and animals, have their 
maturity and age. Only whereas the parts of plants 
and animals are not affected sepaiately but the whole 
creature must grow to maturity and decay at the 
same time, the parts of the earth are affected separ- 
ately, the cause of the process being cold and heat. 

Cold and heat increase and decrease owing to the 
sun’s course, and because of them the different parts 
of the earth acquire different potentialities ; some 
are able to remain moist up to a certain point and 
then dry up and become old again, while others come 
to life and become moist in their turn. As places 
become drier the springs necessarily disappear, and 
when this happens the rivers at first dwindle from 
their former size and finally dry up ; and when the 
rivers are removed and disappear in one place, but 
come into existence correspondingly in another, the 



351 b 

5 yiyvopivojv peTafSdXXeiv rrjv daXarrav onov piv 
yap i^ajPovpevrj vrro tojv noTaptov inXeova^ev > 
amovcrav ^rjpav i renew avayKalov, ottov Si rocs 
pevpacriv nXrjPvovaa 1 i^rjpaLveTo npoaxovpevrj/ 7ra- 
A iv ivravda A cpvd^eiv. 

’AAAa Sia to ylyveo9ai ndaav rrjv (fjvoiKyv nepl 
rrjv yrjv yeveaiv e/c npocrayajyrjs Kal iv ypovois 
10 napprjKeac npos rrjv rjpeTepav £ajrjv, Xav9dvei ravra 
yeyvopeva, Kal npoTepov oXojv tojv idv G jv andjXeiai 
ylyvovrac Kal <f>9opal nplv pvrjpovev9rjv at rrjv rov - 
tojv peTapoXrjv i£ dpxv 5 riXos, peyi orat piv 
ovv cj)9opal ylyvovrai Kal Ta^tcrra t iv tols noXipots, 
15 aAAat Si vocrois, cll Se acjjopcais, Kal ravrais a i piv 
peyaXai a l Se Kara piKpov, coots Aa v9dvovoi rdov 
ye tolovtojv i9vcov Kal at pLeravaardaeis Sea to 
tovs piv X ecnew tols ^copas, tovs Si vnopeveiv 
piXP 1 tovtov {lixpmep dv prjKeTL SvvrjTai Tpecjjew 
rj ^copa TrXr)9os prjSev. ano t^s npdjTrjs ovv an o- 
20 Xebpeojs ets* r r)v voTepav elKos ylyveo9 at pa Kpovs 

1 7r\rj8vovcn ci. O.T. 

2 7tA Tjdvvovcra rjJjgdvero Trpoaxovjxevr] i)Ji XU : TrXrjOvovaa ifa- 
paivero rrpoxovp.4vr] Nj, : rrXr)dvvovaa i^rjpalvero TTpooxovfxcvT} 
Niec : 4£rjpa£v€TO (in ras.) tt Xrjdvovcra (in ras.) rrpooxovpuivrj 
(-or- fortasse postea add.) E x : rjvgdvero oxovfievrj SIB : nX^dovaa 
et-rjpawero irpoaxovfjievi] Aid. 

a Rivers fall into the sea at A, push it back by silting and 
cause it to flood the land at B ; when the rivers dry up the 
sea will recede from B (first ottov clause 5-6), and at the same 
time flood the land made by the river silt at A (second ottov 
clause 6-8). The two ottov clauses are concerned with the 
same process but the first considers the flooding and sub- 
sequent drying of B, the second the formation and subsequent 
flooding of land at A. An example of the process as it affects 


sea too must change. For wherever it has encroached 
on the land because the rivers have pushed it out, it 
must when it recedes leave behind it dry land . while 
wherever it has been filled and silted up by rivers and 
formed dry land, this must again be flooded. a 

But these changes escape our observation because These 
the whole natural process of the earths growth takes take too 
place by slow degrees and over periods of time which tongfor 
are vast compared to the length of our life, and whole them to° r 
peoples are destroyed and perish before they can survive * 
record the process from beginning to end. Of such 
destructions the most extensive and most rapid are 
caused by war, others by disease and famine. Famines 
may be either immediately destructive or else so 
gradual that the disappearance of the people affected 
goes unnoticed ; for when the inhabitants emigrate 
in relays, some leaving, some remaining until at last 
the land is unable to support any population at all, 
the time that elapses between the first and last 

A can be found at 352 b 20 below. The whole of Egypt 
has been formed by the Nile silt. It lies lower than the 
Red Sea, which shows that the whole area was once sea 
(352 b 20-30). So presumably when the Nile dries up the 
land will again flood. As the O.T. points out, Aristotle is 
more familiar with one side of the process, the encroaching 
of land on sea. 

(My explanation in the first paragraph follows the O.T. 
closely. Alex, gives the same explanation of the first ot rov 
clause : but takes At (iva&iv in the second to refer to a stage 
in the process of silting up. So he supposes that each clause 
describes a way in which land is formed (by retirement of the 
sea or by silting), rather than that each describes from a 
different point of view the same process of reciprocal land 
formation and flooding. The O.T. explanation seems the 
better. Its variant reading nXyiOJovoi does not materially 
affect the sense. The text of the passage is doubtful, as ihe 
note on the text indicates.) 



351 h 

Xpovovs, o) are pirjSeva pivrjpioveveiv , aXXa cr<p£o- 
fjbivcov en rcbv v7TOfiev6vra)v emXeXrjadai Sid xpovov 
TrXfjdos. rov avrov Se rporrov XPV vop,i£eiv Kal 
rovs KaroiKiapiovs XavBaveiv rrore npoorov eyevovro 
rois eBveaiv eKaarois ets* ra jJLera^aXXovra /cat 
25 yiyvopieva ^rjpa i£ eXcoScov /cat evvSpcov /cat yap 
evravda Kara piiKpov ev ttoXXcv yiyverai XP° V( P ^ 
irriSoais, coare pur] pivrjpioveveiv rives irpooroi teal 
rrore /cat rroos eybvr cov rjXdov rcov rorroov, 

Otov avpifiefirjKev /cat ra Trepl Klyvnrov % real yap 
oSros del grjporepos 6 tottos <j>alverai yiyvopievos 
30 /cat Tracra rj ^copa ro & rrora/uov TTpoGycoais odcra 
rov NetAou, Sta 8 e ro Kara puKpov ^rjpaivopievcov 
rcov eXc bv rovs rrXrjalov elaoiKi£ea9ai ro rov xpovov 
pirjKos d(j>rj prjr at rrjv ap^v. <f> aLverai ovv Kal ra 
aropiara rravra, ttXt}V evos rov Kavcofii kov, x €l P°~ 
TTobqra Kal ov rov rrorapiov ovra , /cat to apyaiov 
35 rj Alyvrrros ®fjfi at KaXovpievai . SrjXol Se Kal 
*0 pirjpos, ovreos rrpoaejoaros cov cos elrreiv rrpos rag 

352 a roiavras pierafioXas* eKeivov yap rov rorrov rroieirai 

pivelav cos ovrrco Mepifiios ovorjs rj oXcos rj ov rrjXi- 
Kavrrjs . rovro S’ eiKos ovreo avpifiaivew ol yap 
Karcodev rorroi rcbv avoodev varepov cbKiadrjoav' 
eXcbSeis yap errl rrXelco xpovov dvayKolov etvai rovs 
5 eyyvrepov rrjs rrpoaxebaeos Sta to Xipiva^eiv iv 
rots eaydrois del piaXXov. fier a fiaXXei Se rovro 

a i.e. before starvation oi emigration has removed the last 
of the original inhabitants. 

6 In spite of the lack of records we can prove that the pro- 


emigration is likely to be too long for memory to 
cover, and indeed so long that memory fails before 
the last survivors have died out.® In the same way 
we must suppose that the time of the first settlement 
of the various peoples in places that were in process 
of change from wet and marshy to dry has been for- 
gotten. For here, too, the advance is gradual and 
takes a long time, so that there is no record of who 
the first settlers were or when they came or m what 
state they found the land. 

This has happened in Egypt. This is a land which Examples 
is obviously in the process of getting drier, and the Egypt ’ 
whole country is clearly a deposit of the Nile : but 
because the adjacent peoples have only encroached 
on the marshes gradually as they dried up, the be- 
ginning of the process has been lost in the lapse of 
time. We can see, however , 6 that all the mouths of 
the Nile, except the one at Canopus, are artificial and 
not formed by the action of the river itself ; and the 
old name of Egypt was Thebes. Homer’s evidence c 
proves this last point, though in relation to such 
changes he is comparatively modern : for he mentions 
the country as though Memphis either did not exist 
as yet at all or at any rate were not a place of its 
present importance. And it is quite likely that this 
was in fact so. For the higher lands were inhabited 
before the lower-lying, because the nearer a place 
is to the point where silt is being deposited the longer 
it must remain marshy, as the land last formed is 
always more water-logged. But this land changes 

cess has taken place by adducing the following facts as 

c Homer, II. ix. 381 ; cf. Od iv. iv. 83-85, 229 ff., xiv, 

245 if., 295. 



koll naXiv evdevel' ^rjpaLvopevot yap oi ronoi ep- 
yovr at els to KaXcos %X eiv > 0 * 8c nporepov evKpaels 
vnep^paivopevol wore ylyvovrac 

*'Onep avp^e^rjKe rrjs 'EAAaSos 1 Kal nepl rrjv 
10 9 A pyelcov Kal MvKrjvalcov x^pav enl pev yap ra )v 
TpcoiKov rj pev ’Apyela 8ta to eXco8r)s etvai oXlyovs 
eSvvaro rpecfrecv, rj 8e MvKrjvala KaXcos eXxev (S to 
evnporepa fy), vvv 8e rovvavrlov 8ia rrjv npoeiprj- 
pevrjv air lav rj pev yap apyrj yeyovev Kal £rjpa 
napnav, rrjs 8e r a rare 8ca to Xipva^eiv apya vvv 
15 %p^crt/>ta yeyovev. oocrnep odv enl rovrov rod ronov 
ovp^e^rjKev ovros pcKpov, ravro 8 el vopl^ew tovto 
avp^alvecv Kal nepl peyaXovs ronovs Kal x^pas 

01 pev ovv fiXenovres ini piKpov alrlav otovrai 
rov roiovrov eXvat nadrjparov rrjv rov oXov pera- 
fioXrjv cos yiyvopevov rov ovpavov- 8 to Kal rrjv 
20 daXarrav eXarro ylyveodal cf>aocv cos ijrjpawopevrjv, 
on nXelovs (jyalvovrai ronoi tovto nenovdores vvv 
fj nporepov. ecrnv 8e rovrov to pev aXrjdes to 8* 
ovk aXrjdes * nXelovs pev yap elonv ol nporepov 
evvSpoi vvv 8e x^paevovres, ov prjv aXXa Kal roitvav- 
rlov noXXaxfi yap crKonovvres evprjaovmv eneXrj - 
25 Xvdvtav rrjv daXarrav . aXXa rovrov rrjv alrlav ov 
rrjv rov Koapov yeveaiv olecrdac XPV' Y^Xotov yap 
8ia piKpas Kal aKaptalas perafioXas Kiveiv to rrav } 
6 8e rrjs yrjs oyKOs Kal to peyedos ovSev eon 8tf 
nov npos rov oXov ovpavov aAAa navrcov rovrov 

<* The reference is presumably to Democritus, to whom a 


m its turn and m time becomes thriving. For as 
places dry they improve, and places that formerly 
enjoyed a good climate deteriorate and grow too dry. 

This has happened m Greece to the land about Greece. 
Argos and Mycenae. In the time of the Trojan War 
Argos was marshy and able to support few inhabitants 
only, while Mycenae was good land and therefore 
the more famous. Now the opposite is the case for 
the reason given above : for Mycenae has become 
unproductive and completely dry, while the Argive 
land that was once marshy and unproductive is now 
under cultivation. What has happened m this small 
district may therefore be supposed to happen to 
large districts and whole countries. 

Those whose vision is limited think that the cause The cause 
of these effects is a universal process of change, the changes 
whole universe being in process of growth. So they periodica] 
say the sea is becoming less because it is drying up,® e uses 
their reason being that we find more places so affected 
now than m former times. There is some truth in 
this, but some falsehood also. For it is true that there 
is an increase in the number of places that have 
become dry land and were formerly submerged ; but 
the opposite is also true, for if they will look they will 
find many places where the sea has encroached. But 
we must not suppose that the cause of this is the 
growth of the universe : for it is absurd to argue 
that the whole is in process of change because of 
small changes of brief duration like these ; for the 
mass and size of the earth are of course nothing com- 
pared to that of the universe. 6 Rather we should 

belief that the sea is drying up is attributed in n. 3, 356 b 10, 
a passage Diels quotes as 68 A 100. 

b Cf, ch. 3, note a on p. 12. 



352 a 

clltiov vTToXrjTTrdov ore ylyverat 8ia xpoviiiv elpap- 
30 pevcov , otov iv raXs kclt iviavrov Spats x €L pdov t 
ovrcos rrepi68ov n vos peyaXrjs piyas x €l ^ v ^al 
vrrepfioXrj opftpcov. avrr) 8e ovk del Kara rovs 
avrovs rorrovSy dXX SoTrep 6 KaXovpevos irrl Aeu- 
KaXlcovos KaraKXvopos ' teal yap oSros Trepl rov 
'EXXtjvikov iyevero tottov pdXiora, Kal tovtov irepl 
35 rrjv 'EAAaSa rrjv apyaiav. a vrrj S’ iorlv rj ire pi 
352 1 ) AcoScovt/v Kal rov 'AyeXcoov oSros yap TroXXayov 
to pevpa fjLerafidpXTjKev cokovv yap ot EeAA ol 
ivravda Kal ol KaXovpevoi rore pev VpaiKol vvv 8* 
"EAA^vcs*. orav ovv yev7]r at roiavrr) VTrepfioXri 
opfipcov, vopl^ecv yprj €7 rl ttoXvv XP° V0V Sta pKeXv, 
5 Kal SoTrep vvv rov aevdovs etvai revas rcov irorapwv 
rovs 8e prj ol pev <f>acriv dinov etvai to peyedos 
r&v vtto yfjs x a<y P j ^ T(x)V > V^ts Se T ° peyeOos rcov 
vifjrjXtbv tottcov Kal rrjv 7rvKv6rrjra Kal xfsvxporrjra 
avrSv (ovroi yap irXeXorov Kal Seyovrai v8cop Kal 
oreyovoiv Kal tcolovgw ogols 8e piKpal a l irriKpe- 
10 pdpevai rcov opobv ovardoeis ?? oop<f>al Kal Xi8d>8eis 
Kal apyiXcbSeis, rovrovs Se 7rpoa7ToXei7r€iv) , ovtcos 
oieoBai 8 €lv 1 rore > iv ols av yevrjrai rj roiavrif] rov 
vypov <f>opd, otov devdovs rroceXv ras vyporTjras row 
tottcov paXXov. 2 3 ra> XP° V(J P Se ravra ^rjpalverai 
15 [yiyvopeva]* paXXov, 6 are pa 8 5 eXarrov 4 ra e<f>v8pa, 5 

1 Bet W O.T. 

2 om. O.T. : Trora/uwv pro tottcov jufi XXov habent Par. 2032 Ol. 

3 seel. Ideler O.T., cf. Ap 62. 33-34. 

4 eXarrov O.T., cf. Ap 62. 34 ; iXarrco Fobes. 

5 ra etf>vBpa seel. Ideler. 



suppose that the cause of all these changes is that, 
just as there is a winter among the yearly seasons, 
so at fixed intervals in some great period of time a 
there is a great winter and excess of rains. This does 
not always happen in the same region of the earth : 
for instance, the so-called flood of Deucalion took 
place largely in the Hellenic lands and particularly 
in old Hellas, that is, the country round Dodona and 
the Achelous, a river which has frequently changed 
its course. Here dwelt the Selloi and the people then 
called Greeks and now called Hellenes. Whenever 
such an excess of rains occurs it must be supposed to 
suffice for a long time. To give an analogy — We have 
just said tliat the cause of some rivers flowing peren- 
nially, some not, is considered by some to be the size 
of the chasms beneath the earth, but that we con- 
sider it to be the size and frequency and low tempera- 
ture of mountainous districts, for such districts catch, 
contain and produce most water ; while if the moun- 
tain systems overhanging a district are either small 
or porous and composed of stones and clay, the supply 
of water runs out earlier : so then we must suppose 
that where the fall of water is so large, it tends to 
make the moisture of the districts almost inexhaus- 
tible. But in course of time districts of the second 
kind dry up more, the others, that is those of the 

a Perhaps a great year, the period which it takes the 
heavenly bodies to return to the same relative positions. 
This is an old idea: of. Heath, Aristarchus , ana Taylor, 
Commentary on Plato's Timaeus , p. 215, ad 39 d. There is 
no association of the great year m this passage with periodic 
cataclysms : but the idea that there are such cataclysms 
occurs several times in Plato, Tim. 22 b-c, 23 a-b, Laws 677 a, 
Critias 109 d, cf. Politicos myth 268 e if., esp. 273 a. Com- 
pare the doctrine of a recurrent cycle of knowledge, ch. 8, 
note e on p. 13. 




eons av e\dr) 7rdXtv rj KarafioXr) rrjs TrepioSov tyjs 

5 E7T€fc 8* dvayKYj rov oXov ylyvead at piv nva 
jjLeraftoXtfv, pur] pbevroi yevecnv Kal (f)9opdv, elVep 
pevec to nav, dvdyKrj, Kadairep rjfieLS Xeyopev, prj 
rov $ avTovs del tottovs vypovs r* elvai 6aXdrrr) Kal 
20 TrorapLOLs Kal £r)pov$. 8 y]Xol Se to yiyvopevov* ovs 
yap <j)apL€v dpx^orarovs eXvat tcov dvOpcoTrcov 
PdyvTTTiovSy tovtcov rj x^pa 'naaa yeyovvXa </>alv€Tai 
Kal oScra rov noTapov epyov . Kal tovto Kara T€ 
tyjv x c * ) P av avrrjv opcovn ByjXov icrrw, Kal ra rrepl 
tyjv ipvdpdv daXarrav reKpijpLov LKavov ravrrjv 
25 yap rwv paatXetov rts h Teipddrj ScopvrreLv (ov yap 
piKpas elx^v av a vtols (IxfreXeLas ytXcotos 7ra$ 6 
tokos yevopevos* Xeyerat Se Trpdjros ^ecrcoarpis 
iyX^iprjorac tcov TraXatcov), aXX 9 evpev vifrrjXorepav 
ova av rrjv QdXarrav rrjs yfjs * Sto €K€lvos re rrpo- 
repov Kal Aa peios vorepov inavoa to § topVTTCov, 
30 ottcos pLY] Sia<f>9ap7] to pevp a tov rroTapov crvpbpu- 
yeivrjg Trjs OaXaTTY)?, (j)avepov ofiv otl SaAarra 
TravTa pi a TavTYj avvexys W* Sio Kal to, Trepl tyjv 

a The text and interpretation of 11. 8-15 are doubtful My 
interpretation follows the O.T. and makes ravra (13) refer 
to the latter of the two types of district described in the 
parenthesis, i,e. to Scots 84 . . . upoaTroXeLTretv (9-11) • dare pa 
then refers to ovrot yap . . . ttolovcl 8-9, words which de- 
scribe a type of district that may fairly be described as tyvZpos 
(14-15). On this interpretation Aristotle is contrasting* two 
types (o#roi yap and oaois 84) of districts and saying that after 
a deluge one retains its moisture longer than the other. 

Thurot makes ravra refer to the wet districts described m 
11. 12-13, and alters 11. 13-15 to read as follows — ra> xP° V( i> ^ 


moist kind, less,® until the beginning of the same 
cycle returns again. 

Since some change must necessarily take place Evidence 
in the whole, but this change cannot be growth and changes 
decay as the universe is permanent, it must be as we §J^edtoa 
say that the same districts are not always moistened 1 
by sea and rivers nor always dry. The facts prove 
this. For the land of the Egyptians, who are sup- 
posed to be the most ancient of the human race, 
appears to be all made ground, the work of the river. 

This is clear to anyone who looks at the country 
itself, and further proof is afforded by the facts about 
the Red Sea One of the kings tried to dig a canal 
to it. (For it would be of no little advantage to them 
if this w r hole region was accessible to navigation : 

Sesostris is said to be the first of the ancient kings 
to have attempted the work ) It was, however, found 
that the sea was higher than the land : and so Sesostris 
first and Dareius after him gave up digging the canal 
for fear the water of the river should be rumed by 
an admixture of sea-water. & This makes it clear that 
there was once a continuous sea here, which again is 

ravra ijypcuvofieva ytyvercu eAarrw ra e(J>vBpa } Sdrepa Be TrAetcu, 
fas . . . Thus the contrast is between districts subject to 
the deluge and m consequence wet, which shrink while other 
districts not subject to it and so dry correspondingly expand. 

yiyuofieva (14) is condemned by Ideler (i. p. 487) as well as 
by O.T. and Thurot, and does not seem to have been read by 
Alex. I have therefore bracketed it. IAa ttov seems necessary 
m 1. 14 on the interpretation I have adopted. 

6 Cf. Herod, u. 108, 158, Strabo xvii. 25, Diodoius i. 33, 

Plmy, Nat. Hist . vi. 33 ; and How and Wells’s Commentary on 
Herodotus , vol. 1 . pp. 245-246. The canal ran from the Nile 
at Bubastis to the Bitter Lakes and thence southwards to 
the Red Sea. Strabo, Diodorus and Pliny all mention the 
difficulty caused by the difference in levels, which Diodorus 
says was overcome by means of a lock. 



why the district of Ammon a m Libya is unexpectedly 
found to be lower and hollo wer than the land to sea- 
ward of it : for clearly what happened was that the 
river deposited silt which formed dry land and lakes, 
but that in course of time the water left m the lakes 
dried up and has now disappeared. Furthermore, Lake 
there has been such a great increase of river silt on the M - aeotis * 
shores of Lake Maeotis that the ships that ply there 
now for trade are far smaller in size than they used 
to be sixty years ago And from this fact it is easy 
to deduce that, like most other lakes, this too was 
originally produced by rivers and that eventually 
it must all become dry. Besides, there is always a 
current through the Bosphorus as a result of the 
silting, and one can even see with one’s own eyes how 
the process works. For whenever the current made a 
sandbank -off the shore of Asia, there formed behind 
it at first a small lake, which subsequently dried up : 
then a further sandbank formed in front of this one 
and another lake, and so the process went on. When 
this has happened often enough the channel must 
in course of time be narrowed till it is like a river, 
and even this in the end must dry up. 

It is therefore clear that as time is infinite and the ConclusioD. 
universe eternal that neither Tanais nor Nile always 
flowed but the place whence they flow was once dry . 
for their action has an end whereas time has none. 

And the same may be said with truth about other 
rivers. But if rivers come into being and perish and 
if the same parts of the earth are not always moist, 
the sea also must necessarily change correspondingly. 

And if m places the sea recedes while in others it 
encroaches, then evidently the same parts of the earth 

a Qattara Depression. 



353 a 

yfjs ovk del ra avrd ra pev eonv daXarra ra S’ 
fjireipos, dWd pera/3dXXei rep XP° VC 9 17 dvr a. 

25 A ton ji lev ovv ovk del ravra ovre yepoevei rfjs 

yfjs ovre nXcora eonv , ko! Sia rw alrlav ravra 
(jvp,f}aivei y ecpyjrar opoicos Se Kal Sta rl ol pev 
devaoi ol 8’ ov rtbv irorap&v eloiv . 



as a whole are not always sea* nor always mainland, 
but in process of time all change. 

We have now explained why the same parts of the 
earth are not always either dry land or navigable 
water and what the reason for this is : and we have 
explained similarly why some rivers are perennial, 
some not. 





The sea and its nature . (I) Previous views. The theo- 
logians believed that the sea has sources ( like a river) ; the 
secular philosophers believed that it had a beginning m time 
and give various accounts of its saltness (353 a 32-b 16). 
(II) The sea cannot have sources. A (1) Water that has a 

353 a 32 Utpl Se 9aXarrrjs , Kal rls rj </>vois avrrjs, Kal Sia 
rlv curlew dXjJbvpov roaovrov ianv vSaros 7rXrj9os, 
ere §€ rrtpl rrjs apxrjs yeviatcos X iycojatv. 

35 01 p>tv oSv apxcuoc Kal hiarplfiovres rrtpl ras 

353 b 9toXoyias ttolovow avrrjs rrr\yds 3 tv 9 avrols wow 
apxcu Kal pl^ac yrjs Kal SaXdrrrjS' rpayiKwrtpov 
yap ovreo Kal otp,vortpov vrriXafiov laws tiv at to 
A tyopbtvov, cos iiiya n rod rravros rovro piopiov ov 
Kal rov X oirrov ovpavov oXov rrtpl rovrov avvtardvai 
5 rov rovrov Kal rovrov X^P IV ovra npudorarov 
Kal apxrjv. 

Oi 8c oocfxvrtpoL rrjv av6pcorrlvr]v oo<f>lav rrotovaw 
avrrjs yivtaiv * tiv at yap to it poor ov vypov drravra 


argument (continued) 

source is either running or artificial, the sea is neither ; (2) 
some seas are land locked and their sources would have been 
discerned (353 b 17 — 354 a 5). B (1) Though the sea does 
flow m 'places this is due (1) to confinement m narrow straits, 

(2) to differences of depth (354 a 5-34). 

Our next subject is the sea and its nature, the pro- 
blem of why so great a volume of water is salt and of 
its original formation. 

(I) The ancients who concerned themselves with The Theo- 
theology a make it have sources, their purpose being logians 
to provide both land and sea with origins and roots. 

They perhaps supposed that this would give a more 
dramatic and grander air to their theories, according 
to which the earth was an important part of the 
universe, the whole of the rest of which had formed 
around it and for its sake, as if the earth were the 
most important and primary part of it. 

Those who were more versed in secular philosophy The Philo - 
suppose it to have had a beginning They say that sop eTS * 

Gf. Hesiod, Theogony £82, 785-792. 



tov 7 T€pl rrjv yrjv tottov, vtto Se tov rjXLov £rjpaivo - 
ixevov to pJkv BiaTpLaav Trvevpbara Kal Tpoirds rjXLov 
Kal creXrjvrjs cfraal rroieZv, to Se XeufrOev daXarrav 
10 elvar Sto Kal iXarraj yLyveadai £rjpaivop,€vr)v 
oXovrai, Kal riXos reread at ttot€ rraaav £r)pdv t 
evLOi S’ avrcov depfJLawopLdvrjs (fraalv vtto tov r)X lov 
rfjs yrjs olov IBpcdra yiyvead ar Bid Kal aXpvpav 
elvai' Kal yap 6 IBpcbs aXpbvpos . ol Be rfjs aXp,vpo- 
rrjTOS air Lav rrjv yrjv eivaL (fra orev Kaddrrep yap to 
15 Sia tt)s Tecfrpas rjdovpbevov aXpbvpov ylyver at, tov 
avTov TpoTrov Kal ravTTjv aXpbvpav eirnt p,€ixdeLor)s 
avr fj TOLavTTjs yr}$- 

"Oti [ikv ovv rrrjyas Trjs OaXaTTTjg aSvva tov eivai. 
Sea tcov v7rapxdvTO)v rjBrj OzcopGZv Set. 

To tv yap TT€pl TTjv yrjv vSaTcov Ta pev pvTa Tvy- 
20 xavei ovTa Ta Se CTaacpa. Ta pev ovv pvTa rravTa 
TTTjyaia' rrepl Se tcov 7rrjycov elpyKapev rrpoTepov on 
Set voelv ox>x coot T€p ayyeiov Tapievopevcov 1 ttjv 

1 ra/ueuo/xcvcov E C orr ifi Thurot O.T. : Ta/uevaoiievcov (ut 
videtur) Ej : ra/tteuo/tevov Fobes. 

a Alex., on the authority of Theophrastus, attributes this 
view to Anaximander and Diogenes of Apolloma (cf. Diels 
12 A 27 and 64 A 9, 17) : though there is also perhaps some 
reminiscence of Thales and of Anaximenes (Diels 13 A 7 (5)). 
There are, however, two views of the cause of the solstices 
to be found m this and the following chapter : (1) that the sun 
is fed by moisture and the solstices are due to the lack of it, 
354 b 34 — 355 a 5 ; (2) that they are due to the resistance of 
the air 353 b 7, 355 a 22-25. The second view was held by 
Anaximenes (Diels 13 A 15) ; and also, according to Theo- 
phrastus, by Anaximander and Diogenes. Ideler ( 1 . p. 509) 
seems right m attributing the first view to Heracleitus : cf. 
Burnet, pp. 155-156, and especially the passage 



at first the whole region about the earth was wet, a and 
that as it dried up the water that evaporated became 
the cause of winds and the turnings of sun and moon, 6 
while what was left is the sea : consequently they 
believe that the sea is still drying up and becoming 
less, and that in the end a time will come when it is 
all dried up. Some c again believe that the sea is, as 
it were, the sweat of the earth which it sweats out 
when the sun heats it : which is the reason why it is 
salt because sweat is salt. Others d suppose that the 
earth is the cause of its saltness * just as water strained 
through ashes becomes salt, so the sea is salt be- 
cause earth with this property is mixed with it. 

(II) We must therefore now show by an examina- The sea 
tion of the facts that the sea cannot have sources. sources haVe 
A (1) The water on the earth’s surface is either 
running or standing. Running water flows from 
sources. (We have spoken about sources above and 
said that a source must not be supposed to be the 
point at which a supply of water flows out of a kind 

quoted from the I lepl kiairns. But Burnet, Diels and Heath 
all ignore the passage 354 b 34 — 355 a 5 in which this first 
view is given. 

b Heath, Aristarchus, p. 33 (following Zeller, Phil, der 
Griechen 6 , i. p. 298, note 1), doubts if rporrai can mean solstice 
here. But his doubts are partly based on his interpretation 
of 355 a 25 (on which see ch. 2, note b on p. 135), and of the 
reference to the moon here he says “ rporral could be used of 
the moon m a sense sufficiently parallel to its use for sol- 
stices.” It seems better, therefore, to take rpoTrat m what is 
its natural sense as referring to the limits of the variations 
in the course of the sun (solstices) and of the moon. Of. 

Burnet, E.G.P. 41 , p. 63, note 2. 

e Empedocles : cf. 357 a 24 and Diels 31 A 66. Also 
Democritus (Diels 68 A 99 A) and Antiphon (87 B 32). 

d Xenophanes : Diels 21 A 33 (4) ; Metrodorus ; Diels 
70 A 19 ; Anaxagoras : Diels 59 A 90. 



353 b 

a PXV V ** val TT'qyrjV, aAA 9 els fjv 1 del ycyvopevov Kal 
ovppeov drravrq? rrptorrjv. rcov 8e araalpcov ra 
pev crvXXoycpata Kal viroaraaeis, olov ra reApa- 
25 n ala Kal oaa XipvcoSrj, rTXfjdei Kal oXiyorrjrL 8ta <j>e- 
povra, ra 8e rrrjy ala. ravra Se rrdvra x^poKpyjra, 
A eyco S’ olov ra <j> peanala KaXovpeva- rravrcov yap 
a vcorepco Set rfjv rrrjy f\v etvat rfjs pvaecos. 8 lo ra 
p Lev avropara pel ra Kprjvala Kal rrorapia } ravra 
Se rexvr)s rrpooSelrai rfjs ipyacropevrjs. at pev oSv 
80 8ia<j>opal roaavrai Kal rotaurat rtov vSarcov elalv 
rovrcov S’ ovrco Suopicrpevov ahvvarov nrjyas etvai 
* rfjs daXdrrrjs' ev ovSerepco yap rovrcov olov r 
elvai rtov yevtov avrfjv ovre yap arroppvros eanv 
ovre x ei P° 'notrjros, ra Se rrrjyala rrdvra rovrcov 
darepov rrerrov8ev m avroparov Se oracnpov rocrovrov 
35 rrXfjdos ovSev opcopev rrrjyalov yiyvopevov. 

354 a "Ert S’ e77€t rrXeiovs elorl 8aXarrac 7Tpos aXXfjXas 

ov avppecyvvovcrai Kar ov Seva rorrov , J>v f] pev 
ipvdpa cfralveraL Kara piKpov Koivcovovaa rrpos rfjv 
e£co arrjXcov ddXarrav, fj S’ 'YpKavla Kal Kaorrla 
Kexwpwpevat re ravrrjg Kal rrepioiKovpevai kvkAco, 
5 door ovk dv eXdvdavov at rrrjyal, el Kara nv a 
rorrov avrcov fjaav. 

'Peouaa 8* fj daXarra <j>alverai Kara re ra$ 
crrevorrjras, ei rrov Stct rfjv rrepiexovoav yfjv els 
piKpov €K peyaXov avvayerac rreXdyovs, Sta to 

1 fjv E x 501 31 H Noon m i Thurot O.T. : ev Fobes. 

2 arravra Ei SB S0t 31 H N Ap Thurot O.T. : arravrav Fobes. 

a Aristotle’s language here, with the plural participles, 
implies, as Tarn remarks (Alexander the Great, u. p, 6, note 3), 
that the Hyrcanian and Caspian are separate seas. If this 



of vessel, but the point at which water which is con- 
tinually forming and trickling together first gathers.) 
Of standing water some collects and remains static, 
for instance swamps and lakes, which differ only in 
size ; some springs from sources, but is always made 
to do so artificially, as for instance the water in wells. 
For the source must always be higher than the stream 
it feeds : and hence water in springs and rivers runs 
of its own accord, but well-water always needs an 
artificial construction. This is a complete enumera- 
tion of the various species of water : and from this 
classification one can see that it is impossible for the 
sea to have sources. For water that has a source is 
either running or artificial : but the sea has neither 
of these characteristics, and therefore cannot fall 
into either class And we know of no volume of water 
of comparable size that has sources and yet stands 
of its own accord. 

(2) Besides, there are many seas that have no con- 
nexion with each other at any point ; for instance the 
Red Sea communicates with the ocean outside the 
straits by only a narrow channel, and the Hyrcanian a 
and Caspian have no connexion with the outer ocean 
and are inhabited all round, and so their sources 
would have been observed if they had any any- 

B (1) The sea, however, obviously flows in narrow 
places where a large expanse of water is contracted 
by the surrounding land into a small space : but this 

is Aristotle’s real view, and he is not merely confused by a 
single sea having two names (c/. Bunbury, Ancient Geography , 
1 . p. 401, and P. Bolchert, Arutoteles Erdkunde von Asien 
und Libyen , p. 10), then the seas in question must be the 
Caspian (Tp/caw'a) and Aral (Kaerm'a). See also Note on 
Aristotle’s Geography at end of Book I. ch. 13. 



354 a 

TaXavTeveadat S evpo KaKetcre ttoWolkls . rovro 8* 
iv pev ttoXXco rrXfjdet daXdrrrjs dSrjXov fj he hid 
10 rrjv arevorrjra rfjs yfjs oXLyov irrey^t tottov , ava y- 
kolov rfjv iv rto rreXayei piKpav raXavrcocrtv eKti 
<f)atvecrdat peydXrjs. 

e H S’ ivTos 'Hpa/cAetcov arrjXcdv d'naaa /card 
rrjv rfjs yfjs KOtXorrjTa pet, /cat rtdv rrorapcdv to 
TrXfjdos • f) pev yap MatcoTts els rov II ovrov pet, 
15 odros S’ els rov Alyatov r a S’ fjSr) tovtcov e£co 

TreXdyr) fjrrov rrotet tout* imSfjXcos. itcetvots he 
Sta re to rcov rrorapcdv TrXfjdos avpfiatvet tovto 
(rrXetovs yap els rov E v^etvov peovatv rroTapot /cat 
rfjv Matd>Ttv fj rrjv rroXXarrXaatav ^copay a VT"fj$) 
/cat Sta, rfjv fipaxvrrjTa rov fiadovs* del yap crt 
20 fiadvrepa (/>atverat ovcra fj daXarra, /cat rfjs pev 
MatamSos 6 II ovtos, tovtov 8’ o AlyaTos, tov 8* 
Alyatov 6 St/ccAt/cos* o Se Sap8ovt/co? /cat Tupp^- 
vtKos fiadvraroL rravrcov. rd S’ e£co aryjXcov fipayea 
pev Sta tov TrrjXov , drrvoa S’ icrrlv cos iv koIXco Trjs 
daXdrrrjs ovarjs. o>crrrep ovv /cat Kara pepos e/c 
rcdv viftrjXdjv ot rrorapol cj>atvovrat peovres, ovtco 
25 /cat Trjs oXrjs yfjs e/c rcdv vi/jrjXorepcov tcov rrpos 
apKTOv to pev pa ylyverat to rrXeiarov * (dare Ta 
pev Sta rfjv eKXvcnv ov j3adea, rd S* e£co TreXdyrj 
fiadea paXXov. rrepl Se rod rd rrpos apKrov etvat 
Trjs yfjs vi/jrjXa err) pe tov rt /cat to rroXXovs rretadfjvat 
30 t tov dpyatcov perecopoXoycov rov fjXtov pfj tj>ipecrd at 


It is not clear exactly what Aristotle means by this ebb 


is because the sea ebbs and flows frequently. In a 
large expanse this motion is unnoticeable ; but where 
the expanse is small because the shores constrict it 
the ebb and flow which in the open sea seemed small 
now seems strong a 

(2) The whole Mediterranean flows according to 
the depth of the sea-bed and the volume of the rivers. 
For Lake Maeotis flows into the Pont us and this into 
the Aegean. In the remaining seas the process is 
not so obvious. In the seas mentioned it takes place 
because of the rivers — for more rivers flow into the 
Euxine and Lake Maeotis than into other areas many 
times their size — and because of then shallowness. 
For the sea seems to get deeper and deeper, the 
Pontus being deeper than Lake Maeotis, the Aegean 
deeper than the Pontus, and the Sicilian sea deeper 
than the Aegean, while the Sardinian and Tyrrhenian 
are the deepest of all. The water outside the pillars 
of Heracles is shallow because of the mud but calm 
because the sea lies in a hollow. 6 As, therefore, rivers 
in particular are found to flow down from high places, 
so in general the flow is greatest from the higher parts 
of the earth which lie towards the north. So some seas 
are shallow because they are always being emptied, 
while the outer seas are deeper. An indication 
that the northerly parts of the earth are high is the 
opinion of many of the ancient meteorologists c that 

and flow (lit swinging to and fro) of the sea, for he had no 
real knowledge of the tides. 

6 “ i.e. it is shallow, yet the water does not flow back (as 
you might expect on the analogy of Maeotis, etc.) because 
the sea lies in a hollow as is proved by the calm (Alexander) ” 
(O.T.). For the shallowness of the sea beyond the Pillars of 
Heracles cf. Plato, Timaeus 25 d. 

c Anaximenes j Diels 13 A 7 (b) 14. 

f m 


3S4 a 

in to yrjv aXXa rrepl rrjv yrjv Kal rov rorrov rovrov, 
acfravl^eadac Be Kal rroceiv vvkt a Bed to vifjvjXrjv 
etvac 7 Tpos apKTOv rrjv yrjv . 

" 0 re pev ovv ovre rrrjyas olov r* etvac rrjs 9aXar- 
rrjs , Kal Bed rw alrtav ovrcos <j>alverac peovaa , 
rocavra Kal roaavO* rjpciv etpijadco. 



The sea ( continued ). (Ill) Its origin and saltness . Our 
predecessors regarded the sea as the main body of water ; and 
some thought that rivers flow out of it as well as into it (354 
b 1-18). But why then is it salt ? Water surrounds the earth 
just as air surrounds water : and the sun evaporates fresh 
water , which subsequently falls as ram (354 b 18-33). ( The 
sun cannot be fed by moisture as some have maintained, for 
(1) the analogy with flame which they use is not valid ; (2) fire 

354 bi II epl Be rrjs yeveaecos avrrjs, el yeyove, Kal rov 
XVP'OV, rls rj atria rrjs aXpvporrjros Kal rrcKporrjros , 
XeKreov . 

C H pev odv atria rj rrocrjaaaa rods rrporepov 
oceadac rrjv daXarrav dpxfjv ** VCLl K at ad)pa rov 
5 7 ravros vBaros rjB* early* B 6£ece yap av evXoyov 
etvac, KaOarrep Kal rd>v aXXcov aroiyeloov earlv 
rjdpocapevos oyKos Kal dpyrj Sta to rrXfjdos, o6ev 
perafiaXXec re pepc^dpevov Kal pelyvvrai rocs 
aXXocs — olov rrvpos pkv iv rocs' avco rorrocs, depos 
Be rrXrjdos ro perd rov rov rrvpos rorrov, yrjs Se 
10 ad) pea rrepl o ravra rrdvra Kecrat <f>avepd)S * ware 


the sun does not pass under the earth but round its 
northerly part, and that it disappears and causes 
night because the earth is high towards the north. 

So much then for our proofs that the sea cannot 
have sources, and for the reason why it seems to flow 
as it does. 

argument {continued) 

is not fed by the water which it heats ; (3) when water is 
evaporated an equivalent amount always condenses and falls 
again (354 b 33 — 355 a 32).) The fresh water , then, is 
evaporated , the salt water is left. The process is analogous to 
the digestion of liquid food. The place occupied by the sea is 
the natural place of water : and fresh water evaporates more 
quickly and easily when it reaches and is dispersed m the sea 
(355 a 32-b 32). Criticism of the account of rivers and the 
sea given in the Phaedo (355 b 32 — 356 b 2). 

(Ill) We must now deal with the origin of the sea, 
if it had one, and the reason for its salt and bitter 

The reason that made our predecessors think that predeces- 
the sea is the primary and main body of water is that sols * views - 
they thought it reasonable to suppose that what was 
true of the other elements must be true of water. 

For of each of them there is one mass which is primary 
because of its volume, and from which come those 
parts of it which change and are mixed with the other 
elements : thus there is a mass of fire in the upper 
regions, of air in the region beneath that of fire, and 
a main body of earth round which it is obvious that 



554 h 

8fjXop otl Kara top a vtop X oyop Kal nepl vBaros 
apayicr) £r)T€tP. tolovtop S’ ov8ep aXXo <f>atp€Tcu, 


X*mp> nXrjp to Tfjs 9aXa tttjs /, ieye9o$' to yap tc op 
noTapcdp ovt adpoop ovt€ OTaaiptOP, dXX cos yt- 
15 ypopepop del <f>alpeTat Kad 9 fjpepap . €K tgvt rjs S rj 
TTjs dnopias Kal apxv T &> v vypdop e8 o£ep elpat Kal 
tov irapTos vSaTos rj OaXaTTa. 8to Kal tovs ito- 
Tapovs ov popop els ra vttjp aXXa Kal Ik to. vt 7 }s 
<f>a(Ji Tipes petP‘ 8 tr}9ovpevop yap ytypeodat to 
aXpvpop noTtpop. dpTLKecTac 8e It 4 pa 7 rpos TamrjP 
20 tt]p 8d£ap an op la, tl 8rj 7 tot ovk 4 otlp to crwearos 
v8a )p TOVTO TfOTLfLOPy €17 T€p dpyf] T °V TTCLPTOS llSaTOS, 

aXX * aXpvpop. to S’ a ltlop apa TavTTjs re rrjs 
anoplas Xvgls eoTat, Kal nepl 9aXa tttjs ttjp TrpcoTTjp 
Xa pew vTToXrpjjip apayKalop opdws. 

Tov yap v8aTo$ Tre pi ttjp yrjp ireptTeTapePOV, 
25 Ka 9 diT€p nepl tovto fj tov aepos orcfatpa Kal nepl 
TavTrjp rj Xeyopevrj nvpos ( tovto yap eoTt ndprcov 
€0X aT °P> &S ot nXeiOToi Xeyovow eW * w$ 

Yjpets), <j)€pop, 4 pOV 8 e TOV TjXloV TOVTOP TOP TpOTTOP, 
Kal 8 ta TavTa Tfjs peTafloXfjs Kal yepeoe cos T€ Kal 
<j> 9 opds ovgyjs, to pep XenroTarov Kal yXvKVTaTOP 
30 avdyeTai Ka 9 9 eKaoTrjp fjpepap Kal <f>epeTat Sta- 
Kpipopepop Kal aTp%op els top avco tottop, eKet Se 
naXtp ovotop 8 l a ttjp i/jv£w KaTacfepeTat naXiv 
npos ttjp yrjp . Kal tovt del flovXeTat notetp fj 
<f>vats ovtcos, Ka 9 anep etprjTat npQTepop. 

Ato Kal yeXotot napTes oc rot tcop t TpoTepop u7r€Aa- 
pop top fjXtop Tpe<j)eo9ac Ttp vypco • Kal 8id tovt 
355 a eviol ye cf>aaLP Kal rroLetad at Tas t ponds a vtop % ov 



the other two lie. Clearly, therefore, we must look 
for something analogous for water. But there is no 
obvious single mass of water, as there is of the other 
elements, except the sea. For the water of the rivers 
is neither a single mass nor standing, but appears to 
change continuously from day to day. It was this 
difficulty which led people to suppose that the sea was 
the primary source of moisture and of all water. So 
some say that rivers not only flow into it but out of 
it,® and that the salt water becomes drinkable by 
being filtered. But there is a further difficulty in the 
way of this view — Why is not this body of water fresh 
and not salt, if it is the origin of all water ? A know- 
ledge of the reason for this will provide us with an 
answer to the difficulty and also ensure that our basic 
ideas about the sea are correct. 

Water surrounds the earth just as the sphere of air Water 
surrounds water and the so-called sphere of fire sur- earth!™^ 
rounds that of air — fire being the outermost both on 
the commonly accepted view and on ours. As the 
sun moves in its course — and by its movement causes 
change, generation and destruction — it draws up the 
finest and sweetest water each day and makes it dis- 
solve into vapour and rise into the upper region, 
where it is then condensed by the cold and falls again 
to the earth. This is the natural and normal course 
of events as we have said above. 6 

(So it is absurd to believe as some of our prede- The sun 
cessors have that the sun is fed by moisture. Indeed SoMm-e. y 
some say that this is the cause of the solstice,® as the 

° Xenophanes : Diels SI B 30. 

B Book I. ch. 9. 

c Heracleitus : ch. 1, note a on p. 124. It is not clear to 
whom, besides Heracleitus, Aristotle is referring in oaroi, 

354 b 33 ; possibly to Heracleitus’s followers. 



355 a 

yap alel tovs avrovs 8vvaa6aL tottovs rrapaoKeva- 
£ eiv av rep rr]v rpo^rjV' avayKaZov S’ elvai tovto 
crvpj 3 aiveiv 7 repl avrov rj cfrdeipecdai' Kal yap to 
(f)avepov 7 TVp, ecos av eyr\ Tpoffcrjv, p^XP 1 rovrov tfrjv, 
5 to S’ vypov rq> rrvpl Tpo(f>rjv elvai povov, — cborrep 
a<f>i Kvovpevov p^XP 1 tov tf^iov to avayopevov 

tov vypov, rj ttjv avoSov roiavrrjv ovorav oiavrrep 
rfj yiyvopevrj <j>Xoyl, St’ rjs to eltcos XafiovTes ovreo 
Kal rrepl rov rjXlov vrreXafi ov. to S’ ovk eortv 

opoiov' rj pev yap <f>Xo£ 81a avvexovs vypov Kal 
10 tjrjpov peTaftaXXovTWv yiyver at Kal ov r pecker ai (ov 
yap rj avrrj oficra Siapevei ov8eva xpovov <Ls elireZv), 
7T€pl Se tov rjXiov aSvvarov tovto ovpfiaiveiv, irrel 
Tpecf>opevov ye tov a vtov Tporrov, doavrep eKeZvoi 
cfracriv, SrjXov oti Kal 6 rjXios ov povov Kadavrep 
'Hpa/cAetTos* <f>7)cnv, veos e<£’ rjpeprj ioTiv, aAA’ ael 
15 veos ovvex&S- ert S’ rj vtto tov rjXlov avaycoyr) 
tov vypov opola tols deppaivopevois eortv vSaonv 
V7 TO TTVpOS * €t odv p 7 ] 8 e TO VTTOKaopeVOV Tp€<f>eTai 
nvp, ovSe tov TjXiov eiKOS rjv vvroXapeZv, ov S’ el rrav 
deppaivcov e^aTplaeiev to vScop. aronov Se /cat to 
povov (/>povTiaai tov rjXlov, tcov S’ aXXcvv aorpcov 
20 avTovs rrapiSeiv ttjv aooTTjplav, toctovtcov Kal to 
rrXfjdos Kal to peyedos ovrevv. to S’ a vto avp- 
fialvei Kal tovtois aXoyov Kal tols <f>acrKov<n to 
7 TpcoTov vypas ovcrrjs Kal rrjs yfjs> Kal tov Koapov 
tov 7 repl ttjv yrjv vtto tov rjXlov deppaivopevov, 
aepa yeveadai Kal tov oXov ovpavov ai^rjdrjvai, Kal 
25 tovtov wevpara Te Trapex^adai Kal Tas t port as 
avTov rroieZv' cf>avepajs yap del to dvaydev opcopev 


0 Diels m B 6. 


same regions cannot always provide it with nourish- 
ment yet nourishment it must have or of necessity 
perish, just as the fire w r e can see burns as long as it 
has fuel to feed it, and moisture is the only fuel that 
will feed fire. This supposes that the moisture which 
is drawn up reaches as far as the sun and that it rises 
in the same way as flame does ; for this theory of the 
sun is based on the analogy of fire But (1) in fact 
there is no such analogy. Flame is the result of a 
constant metabolism of wet and dry : it is not a thing 
that can be fed, for it can hardly be said to remain 
one and the same for any length of time. But this 
cannot be true of the sun : for if it were fed in the 
same way as a flame, as they say, clearly there would 
not only be, as Heracleitus a says, a new sun every 
day, but a new sun every second. (2) Besides, the 
drawing up of moisture by the sun is similar to the 
heating of water by fire : so that if the fire beneath 
is not fed by the water above it, there is no reason 
to suppose that the sun is fed by water either, even 
if its heat were to evaporate all the water there is. 
And it is absurd to think of the sun only and say 
nothing about the maintenance of the other stars, 
when they are so many and so large. (3) And they 
are open to the same objection as those who maintain 
that at first the earth also was moist, and that subse- 
quently the universe about the earth was heated by 
the sun ; that this produced air and led to the growth 
of the whole heaven, and that the air caused winds 
and the solstices. 5 For we can see clearly that the 

& See ch. 1, note a on p. 12 4. It seems unnecessary to 
take avrov to refer to ovpavov as Heath suggests (op. tit, p. 33). 
Neither rovrov (1. 24 ) nor avrov is unambiguous ; and it 
seems to give the best sense if rovrov is taken as referring to 
aipa and avrov to i}Atou : cf, Burnet, E.G,P.\ p. 64, note 1. 



855 a 

KarafSaZvov rrdXtv liScjp- Kav prj kclt evtavrov arro- 
St8a> /cat Ka6 * eKaarrjv opolcos ycbpav, aAA’ ev ye 
rtatv reraypevots ypovots arrohlScoat rrav to A rj<j)8ev J 
cos ovre rpe<j>opevcov rcov avcodev, ovre rod pev pe- 
so vovros a epos rjBrj pera rrjv yeveatv 3 rod 8e ytyvo - 
pevov /cat <j>6etpopevov rraXtv els vScop 3 aAA’ opolcos 
arravros StaA vopevov kcll avvtarapevov rrdXtv 

To pev ovv rrortpov kcll yXvKV Sta Kovcjoorrjra rrav 
avdyeraL, to S’ dXpvpov vrropevet Sta fiapos ovk ev 
35 rep avrod oIk€lco rorrep' rodro yap olrjreov drroprj- 
355 b Brjval re rrpoarjKovrcos ( aXoyov yap el prj rls eartv 
roTTos vSaros edanep /cat rcov dXXcov arotyelcov) /cat 
ravrrjv elv at Xvolv ov yap oped pev Kareyovoav 
rorrov rrjv BaXarrav, odros ovk eartv BaXarrrjs 
aXXa paXXov vSaros. (foalverat 8e BaXdrrrjs 3 or t 
5 to pev dXpvpov vrropevet Sta to jSapos*, to Se 
yXvKV /cat rrortpov avdyeraL Sta rrjv Kov<j)6rrjra y 
Kadarrep ev rols rcov lepcov acopaatv . /cat yap ev 
rovroLS rrjs rpo<f>rjs elaeXBovarjs yXvKeias rj rrjs 
vypas rpoc/)7js vrroaraats /cat to rreplrrcopa <j>al- 
verai rrtKpov ov /cat dXpvpov * to yap yXvKV /cat 
10 rrortpov vi to rrjs epejovrov Bepporrjros eXKvadev els 
rds aapKas /cat rrjv aXXrjv avvra£tv rjXdev rcov 
pepedv 3 cos eKaarov rrecjovKev . edarrep odv /ca/cet 

drorrov ei rLS rrjs rrorlpov rpocjorjs prj vo pilot rorrov 
elv at rrjv KotXlav, on rayecos a<j>av l^er at 3 aAAa rod 
rrepLrrd) paros, ort rodd 9 opa vrropevov 3 ovk av 
15 VTroXapfidvoL KaXcbs. opolcos Se /cat ev rovrois * 
ear iv yap 3 edarrep Xeyopev, ovros 6 r ottos ilSaros' 
S to /cat ot rrorapol peovatv els avrov arravres /cat 
rrav ro ytyvo pevov vScop’ ets re yap ro KotXorarov 
1 36 


water drawn up always falls again Even if the corre- 
spondence is not exact m any one year or any one 
place, yet in a certain fixed period what was taken 
is returned. So it cannot feed the heavenly bodies, 
nor can some of it become and remain air while some 
after becoming air turns into water again ; all alike 
is resolved into air and all condenses again into water ) 

The fresh and sweet water, then, as we said, is all Fiesh water 
drawn up because it is light, while the salt water |ait P water S 
because it is heavy remains, but not in its own natural remains, 
place. For this is a difficulty which may be properly 
raised (for it would be unreasonable that water should 
not have its natural place like the other elements) 
and its solution is as follows : The place which we see 
the sea occupying is not really its natural place a but 
rather that of water. But it seems to be the seas 
because the salt water gets left behind because it is 
heavy, and the sweet and fresh drawn up because 
it is light. Something similar happens in the bodies 
of living things. For here the food when it goes in 
is sw'eet, but the sediment and residue from liquid 
food is bitter and salty — for the sweet and fresh part 
of it is drawn off by the natural heat of the body and 
passes into flesh and the other constituent parts of 
the body as appropriate . 6 But it would be absurd 
not to regard the belly as the proper place of fresh 
liquid food because it vanishes so quickly, but of 
residue because this is observed to remain. Similar 
remarks apply in our present subject. The place 
occupied by the sea is, as we say, the proper place of 
water, which is why all rivers and all the water there 
is run into it : for water flows to the deepest place, 

° Of. above, 354 b 23 if., and note at end of Book I. ch. 3. 

& Qf, Book IV. ch. 1, note a on p. 994. 



355 b ? 

rj pvois, Kal 7) daXarra tov roiovrov irrex^t rfjs 
yrjs tottov aXXa to pev ava^eperac Tax'd Sid tov 
20 jjXiov array } to S’ vrroXelrreTai St a ttjv elprjpevvjv 
air lav. to Si £t)t€ iv ttjv ap^atav arroplav, Sta rt 
togovtov rrXrjdos vScltos ovSapov <f>aiveTai [kclQ' 
€KaGT7]v yap rjpepav rrorapcov peovTcov avapldpwv 
Kal to peyedos arrXeTCOv ovSev rj SaAarra yLyverai 
rrXelcov), tovto ovSev pev arorrov arroprjoal rtvas, 
25 ov fJLTjv imfiXeiftavTa ye ^aAeTrov ISelv. to yap 
a vto rrXrjdos vSaTOS els rrXaTos re SiaTadev Kal 
adpoov ovk ev io<p xp6v<p ava^rjpalveTai, aAAa 
Scacj)€pet togovtov a)GT€ to pev Siapeivai av oXrjv 
tt)V rjpepav, to S’ c oorrep el tis irrl Tparre^av pe- 
yaXqv rrepiTelveiev vSaros Kvadov, apa Stavoov- 
30 pevois av d<j>aviodeirj rrav. o 8rj Kal rrepl tovs 
rrorapovs ovpfialver ovvex&s yap peovTcov adpow 
del to a<f)LKVovpevov els axavrj Kal rrXaTvv tottov 
diva^rjpaiveTai Taxv Kal aSijXios . 

To S’ ev tco <PatSa>vt yeypappevov rrepl Te tcov 
rroTapcov Kal Trjs OaXarTYjs aSvva tov ear tv. Xe~ 
35 yerai yap cos arravra pev els aXXrjXa ovvTeTprjTat 
356 a vn to yrjv , apx^} Se rrdvTcov el rj Kal rrrjyrj tcov v8<xto)v 
6 KaXovpevos TapTapos, rrepl to peoov vSaros n 
rrXrjdos , ££ o3 Kal tol peovTa Kal tol prj peovr a ava- 
SIScogiv rravTa * ttjv S’ errippvoiv rroieiv ecff e/caora 
tcov pevpaTCov Sta to oaXeveiv del to rrpcorov Kal 
5 t rjv dpyrjv ovk e^etv yap eSpav, aAA’ aet rrepl to 
peaov elXeiodai' Kivovpevov S’ dvco Kal koto rroietv 
r rjv irrlxvGtv to is psvpaGiv. Ta Se rroXXaxov pev 
Xipva^eiv, olov Kal ttjv Trap 9 rjpiv etvai BaXarrav, 
rravra Se rraXtv kvkXco rrepiayeiv els ttjv a pXW> 



and the sea occupies the deepest place on the earth. 

But one part of it a is all quickly drawn up by the sun, 
while the other for the reasons given is left behind 
The old question why &o great an amount of water 
disappears (for the sea becomes no larger even 
though innumerable rivers of immense size are flow- 
ing into it every day) is quite a natural one to ask, 
but not difficult to answer with a little thought. For 
the same amount of water does not take the same 
time to dry up if it is spread out as if it is concentrated 
in a small space : the difference is so great that in 
the one case it may remain for a whole day, in the 
other, if for instance one spills a cup of water over a 
large table, it will vanish as quick as thought. This 
is what happens with rivers : they go on flowing in 
a constricted space until they reach a place of vast 
area when they spread out and evaporate rapidly 
and imperceptibly. 

Plato’s description of rivers and the sea in the The Phaedo. 
Phaedo 6 is impossible. He says they all flow into each 
other beneath the earth through channels pierced 
through it, and that their original source is a body of 
water at the centre of the earth called Tartarus, from 
which all waters running and standing are drawn. This 
primary and original mass causes the flow of the various 
rivers by surging perpetually to and fro ; for it has 
no fixed position but is always oscillating c about the 
centre, and its motion up and down fills the rivers. 

Many of them form lakes, one example of which is 
the sea by which we live, but all of them pass round 
again in a circle to the original source from which they 

* i.e. the fresh water. 5 Phaedo 1 II c ff. 

c On the meaning of dXtiod ai of. Cornford, Plato's Cos- 
mology, p. 122. 



356 a 

oOev rjp£avro pelv, rroXXa pev Kara rov avrov 
10 tottov , ra 8e /cat KaravriKpv rfj deoei rrjs eKpojjs, 
olov el pelv rjp^avro Karoodev, dvwdev elcrfiaXXeiv. 
elvai 8e p&XP 1 rov peoov rrjv Kadecrw' to yap Xomov 
TTpos avavres rjBrj irdcrw elvai rrjv <j>opav . rovs Se 
Xvpovs /cat ras XP° a $ ^X €LV T ° vStop Si otas av 
rvxaxn peovr a yfjs. 

15 l&vpfiawei 8e rovs rrorapovs pew ovk ini ravrov 
del Kara rov Xoyov tovtov errel yap els to peoov 
elapeovoav d(f> odrrep eKpeovow , ovSev paXXov 
pevaovvrai Kartodev rj a vcodev, aAA* icf > 5 onorep* 
av peifjrj Kvpawtov 6 T apropos. Kairoi tovtov ovp- 
fialvovros yevoir 9 av to Xeyopevov avto iroraptbv' 
orrep dSvvarov. 

20 TEri to ycyvopevov vScop /cat to rraXiv avayopevov 
7 ToOev ecrrai; rovro yap e^alpew oXov avayKalov, 
elrrep del oco^era t to tow* oaov yap e£to pec, iraXiv 
pel rrpos rrjv apxrjv. 

KatVot 7 rdvres ol rrorapol <f>aivovrai reXevrcovres 
els rrjv daXarrav, oooi prj els dXXrfXovs' els Se yrjv 
25 ov8els 3 aXXa kolv dcfravLcrdfj , rrdXw avaSvvovaiv. 
peydXoi Se ylyvovrai rtov rrorapcov ol pa Kpdv 
peovr es Sta KoiXrjs * rroXXtov yap Sexovrac pev para 
rrorapcov , vrrorepvopevoi r<o tottcq /cat rep prjKti 
ras oSoos 1 * Scorrep o r "Icrrpos /cat o NetA os pe - 
yioroL rtov TTorapwv eloiv rtov els rrjvSe rrjv 
so daXarrav e£i ovrtov. /cat rrepl rtov rrrjytov aAAot 
Xeyovow eKaorov rtov rrorapcov aXXas alrlas Sta 
to ttoXXovs els rov avrov ipj3gX\eiv. ravra 8 rj 
rravra <f>avepov cos dSvvarov ear t crvpfialveiv aXXtos 
re /cat rrjs daXarrrjs eKetdev rrjv dpyrjv exovorjs. 

"On pev ovv vSaros re 6 r ottos early oSros /cat 



flowed ; many return to it again at the same place, 
others at a point opposite to that of their outflow, 
for instance if they flowed out from below they return 
from above. They fall only as far as the centre, when 
once that is passed all motion is uphill And water 
gets its tastes and colours from the different kinds of 
earth through which it happens to flow. 

But (1) on this account rivers do not always flow Objections, 
in the same sense. For if they flow towards the centre 
and also away from it, they will flow uphill as much 
as down, according to the direction in which the surge 
of Tartarus inclines. And if this is so we have the 
proverbial impossibility of rivers flowing uphill 

(£) Besides, where is the water that forms as rain 
and is again drawn up to come from ? It must be 
entirely left out of account if equality is to be pre- 
served, for the same amount flows back to the source 
as flowed from it. 

(3) And again all rivers that do not flow into each 
other manifestly flow into the sea : none of them flow 
into the earth, and even if they do disappear under- 
ground they come up again. The great rivers are 
those which flow for great distances through valleys, 
but they are joined by many tributaries whose courses 
they intercept because of the length and position 
of their course. That is why the Istros and the Nile 
are the largest of the rivers flowing into our sea ; and 
because so many rivers flow into them different 
accounts are given of the sources from which they 
rise. But clearly none of these things could possibly 
happen on this theory, especially as it maintains that 
Tartarus is the source of the sea. 

This completes our proof that the place the sea Conclusioa. 



356 a 

35 ov daXdrrrjs, Kal 8ia tiv air lav to p,ev tt or ipov 
a8r]Xov rrX'rjv peov, to 8* vrropievov , Kal Scon reXevrr) 
356 b fiaXXov vSaros f) apyr) eanv rj daXarra, Kadairep 
to ev rots ocopbacnv nepirropia rrjs Tpo<f>7j$ Trdarjs , 
Kal piaXtara to rrj s vypds } elpiqado roaavd * rjptv. 



The sea {continued). If the universe as a whole had a be- 
ginning, then the sea had. But Democritus's theory that it 
will dry up is no better than a fable of Aesop. Evaporation 
and rainfall balance each other (356 b 4 — 357 a 3). The 
sea is not salt either (1) because it is a residue left by evapora- 
tion or (2) because of an admixture of earth : nor (3) is it 
any explanation to call it the sweat of the earth (357 a 3-b 21). 
The sea is constant m volume though the water composing it 
changes. Its saltness is due to the dry exhalation, of which 

356 b 4 Ylepl Se rrjs dXpivporrjros avrrjs XeKreov , /cat 
5 irorepov alel ianv rj avrrj, fj ovt rjv ovt earai 
aAA’ viroXeiiftei* Kal yap ovt cos oiovral rives. 

Tovro piev ovv ioiKaac ira vres opioXoyeiv, on 
yeyovev, eirrep Kal uas 6 Koafios' apia yap avrrjs 
rtoiovai rrjv yevecnv. ware BrjXov cos eiirep athiov 
to rrav, Kal Trepl rrjs daXdrrrjs ovt os viroXigirreov. 

10 to 8e vopiL^eiv eXdrro re yiyveodai to rrXrjdos, 
darrep cf>rj<xl Arj/JLOKpiros, Kal reXos viroXeiipeiv, 
tov A laorrov {ivdov odSev 8ia <f>epeiv eoiKev o ire - 
ireicrfJievos ovt cos' Kal yap eKeZvos ipbvdoXoyrjcrev 


Diels 68 A 99 a, 100. 


occupies is the natural place of water and not of the 
sea, and our explanation of why fresh water is always 
running water, salt water standing ; and of why the 
sea is the terminus rather than the source of water, 
being analogous to the residue of all food, and par- 
ticularly of liquid food m living creatures. 


argument ( continued ) 

we have already spoken , which is analogous to the residues left 
in combustion and digestion , and like them salty . This dry 
exhalation is mixed with the moist exhalation , is carried 
down with it in ram , and so makes the sea salt (3 57 b 21 — 

358 a 27). Hence south winds and autumn winds are 
brackish (358 a 27-b 12). So the sea increases in saltness , 
for little or no salt is lost in the process of evaporation (358 b 
12-34). Examples to show that saltness is due to an admix- 
ture of an appropriate substance (358 b 34 — 359 b 26). 

The sea s saltness is our next subject ; this we must Cosmos and 
discuss, and also the question whether the sea remains 3611 coevaL 
the same for all time, or whether there was a time 
when it did not exist, or will be a time when it will 
cease to exist and disappear as some people think. 

It is, then, generally agreed that the sea had a 
beginning if the universe as a whole had ; for the 
two are supposed to have come into being at the same 
time. So, clearly, if the universe is eternal we must 
suppose that the sea is too. The belief held by Democritus 
Democritus * that the sea is decreasing in volume and 
that it will m the end disappear is like something out 
of Aesop's fables. For Aesop has a fable about 



356 h 

<hs Sts* pev rj XapvfiSis avappo<f>rjoacra to pev 

TTpUJTOV ra OpT] €7TOL7]Cr€V <j)aV€pd, TO §€ SeVT€pOV 
15 Tas vrjvovsy to Sc TeXevTaiov po^aaaa £rjpav 
'TTOcrjaec Trapirav. eKelvcp pev ofiv rjppoTTev opyi- 

tyOpiivep TrpOS TOV TTOpOpia T OlOVTOV e’lTTeiV fJLvdoV, 

rots* Se ttjv dXrjdeiav tpjTOvaiv $}ttov' S i rjv yap 
OLLT Lav €peiV€ TO TTpCOTOV, CtTC Sid fidpOS 3 djC 7 T€p 

20 ttjv alTiav ISeiv), ctrc Kal Si 9 aXXo ti, SrjXov oti Sia 
tovto Siapeveiv dvayKaiov Kal tov Xoittov xpovov 
a vtt\v. rj yap XeKTeov a vtols oti ovSe to a vayffev 

« \ * t\ f t/f- /\ « v <->»»/ 

vocop V7TO TOV TjAlOV 7]£<=l TTaAlV, Tj CtTTCp TO VT €GTai } 
dvayKaiov t]toi del rj pexp** oSvep dv fj tovto vtto- 
Xelrreadai ttjv OaXaTTav, Kal rraAtv dvayS^vai i.Keivo 
25 rrpoTepov Serjoei to rroTipov. a)<JT€ ovSerroTe £r}pa- 
veiTai rraXiv yap e/cetvo cf>6rj acrat KaTafiav els Trjv 
avTTjv to rrpoaveXdov Sia <f>epei yap ovSev arrai; 
tovt elrreiv rj ttoXXolkis. el pev ovv tov r\Xiov 
rravoei tis rrjs <f>opag, ti eoTai to ^rjpaivov; el 
S’ iacrei elvai ttjv rrepi^opav, del rrXrjcndlwv to 
30 rroTipov, KadaTrep elrropev, dva £ei, d<f>rjGei Se rraXiv 
dvax<*>p&v. eXafiov Se TavTTjv tt)v Siavoiav /caret 
Trjs OaXaTTTjs €K tov rroXXovs toitovs <j>alveadai 
£rjpoT€povs vvv rj rrporepov rrepl ov ttjv air lav 
eirropev, oti tojv /car a tiv a xpdvov vrrepfioXcov yi- 
yvopev o)v vSa to$ tovt eartv to rrados > dXX 9 ov Sia 
35 ttjv tov rravTos yeveaiv Kal tcov popiayv* Kal rraXiv 
357 a y* carat rovvavTiov • Kal orav yevrjTai, ^rjpaveirai 
7raAtv* /cat tov9 9 ovtoos /caret kvkXov dvayKaiov del 


Charybdis in which he says that she took one gulp 
of the sea and brought the mountains to view, a 
second one and the islands appeared, and that her 
last gulp will dry the sea up altogether. A fable like 
this was a suitable retort for Aesop to make when the 
ferryman annoyed him, but is hardly suitable for 
those who are seeking the truth. For whatever cause 
originally made the sea come to rest where it does — 
whether it was its weight, as some even of these 
earlier thinkers say (for it is obvious that this is the 
reason), or whether some other cause — the same 
cause must clearly make it stay where it is for all 
time. For they must either say that the water drawn Evapora- 
up by the sun does not fall again, or if it does, that rainfall** 
the sea must remain, either for ever or at any rate as balance, 
long as the process goes on, and that the fresh water 
must continue to be drawn up first. It follows that 
the sea will never dry up : for before it can do so the 
water that has left it will fall again into it, and to 
admit that this happens once is to admit it continues 
to happen. If, then, you arrest the sun’s course, what 
is there to dry the water up ? But if you let it con- 
tinue in its course it will, as we have explained, always 
draw up the fresh water when it approaches and let 
it fall again when it retires. This idea about the sea 
drying up arose because many places were observed 
to be drier than they were formerly ; and we have 
already explained a that the cause of this phenomenon 
is an excess of rain at certain periods, and that it is 
not due to the growth of the universe as a whole and 
its parts. Some day the opposite will happen, and 
after that the earth will again dry up. And so the 
process must go on in a cycle. For this is a more 

* Book I. ch. 14, 3 52 a 25 if. 


357 a 

/JaS t£etv fidXXov yap ovrcos eiiXoyov vrroXafieiv rj 
Sta ravra rov ovpavov oXov p,eraj3dXXeiv, 

*AXXa rrepl fiev tovtcov rrXelco rrjs at; Las iv 8ta- 
5 rerpicj>ev 6 Xoyos * rrepl 8e rrjs aXjavporrjros, rot? 
piev arrat; yevvrjoaai /cat oXcos avrrjv yevvcoow aSv- 
va rov ianv aXpivpdv rroieiv. el yap rravros rov 
vypov rov rrepl rrjv yrjv ovros /cat dvaydevros irro 
rov rjXLov ro vrroXei<f>6ev iyevero daXarra, elr 
evvrrrjpxe ro govt os x v H'^ * v r 4 ) noXXcp vSan /cat 
10 yXvKet Sta to avpbpLecxSrjval nva yrjv roiavrrjv, 
ov8ev rjrrov iXdovros rraXiv rov Starjittaavro? 
v8a ros avayKTj, t oov y ovros rov rrXrjdovs, Kal to 
7 Tpcorov’ rj el pirj8e ro rrpdvrov, jirj 8’ vurepov aXpv- 
pav avrrjv eivai . el Se /cat ro rrpcorov evdvs rjv, 
XeKriov ris rj alrLa, Kal apia Sta ri ovk el Kal rare 
15 avrjxOrj Kal vvv rracr^et ravro . aAAa pirjv Kal ocrot 
rrjv yrjv alnwvrac rrjs aXpivporrjros ipLp.eiyvvp.evrjv 
(ex^w yap <j>a<n rroXXovs X V / Jb °as avrrjv, a>cr8' vtto 
rcov rrorapbojv crvy Karate pojievrjv Sta rrjv pettjiv 
rroieiv aXfWpav), drorrov ro pvrj Kal rovs rrorapovs 
aX fjivpovs elvai* rrtbs yap Svvarov iv rroXXw pev 
20 rrXrjdei vSaros irrL8rjXov ovrcos rroieiv rrjv pei^iv 
rrjs roiavrrjs yrjs> iv eKaarco 8c pirj; 8rjXov yap 
on rj daXarra icrnv array ro rrordpuov v8a )p* ovhevl 

a Anaxagoras (Diels 59 A 90 ; Aetius iii. 16. 3), Diogenes 
(Diels 64 A 17). 

b Anaxagoras (Diels 59 A 90 ; Alex. 67. 17), Xenophanes 
(Diels 31 A 3 (4)), Metrodorus (Diels 70 A 19). 



reasonable way of accounting foi the facts than to sup- 
pose that the whole universe is m process of change. 

But we have spent longer talking about these 
things than is really justified. To return to the sea’s The sea's 
saltness. Those who make it come into existence all three^ews 
at once, or for a matter of that those who make it dismissed, 
come into existence at all, cannot account for its salt- 
ness. For it is all the same whether they maintain 
(1) that sea is what is left of the moisture on the earth 
after evaporation by the sun,® or (2) that the taste 
inherent in the great mass of naturally sweet water 
is due to a suitable admixture of earth.* For (1) on 
the first view, 0 since the volume of water that falls 
as rain is equal to the volume evaporated, the sea 
must either have been salt in the first place, or if 
it was not it cannot have become salt subsequently. 

But if it was salt at first the reason for this should be 
given, and also the reason why if salt water was sub- 
ject to evaporation then it is not now. While (2) as 
for those who attribute the seas saltness to an ad- 
mixture of earth, saying that the earth has many 
tastes and so when carried down by the rivers and 
mixed with the sea it makes it salt — if that is so it is 
odd that the rivers are not salt also. For how is it 
possible that the admixture of earth of this kind 
should have so obvious an effect in a large volume of 
water, but not in each individual river ? For it is 
clear that on this view the sea is composed of water 
from the rivers, as it does not differ from the rivers 

6 Thurot points out that the clause beginning ov8h> Jjrrov 
deals only with the first of the two views put forward in the 
previous sentence, and that the passage makes better sense 
if it is supposed that some words have dropped out after 
Toiavrrjv. But neither mss. nor commentators give any in- 
dication of a lacuna. * 



3 5 7 a 

yap St e<f>epev aAA’ t) to) dXfivpa etvai twv TrorapLcw' 
rovro S’ iv €K€u>ois epx^rai els tov tottov els ov 
ddpooi peo vaiv. 

25 'Opiolws 8e yeXoiov Kav el ns elrrwv ISpcora rrjs 
yrjs etvai rrjv daXarrav oleral tl aacf>es elprjKevai , 
Kadarrep 5 E piTreboKXrjs • TTpos* Trolrjaiv piev yap ovnos 
elrrwv laws elprjKev iKavws (r) yap pberacfropa rroirj- 
tlkov) 9 rrpos 8e to yvwva t rrjv <j>vaiv oi>x t/cavair 
ovbe yap ivravda brjXov rrws if c yXvKeos rov 
30 TropLaros aXfivpds yiyveTai 6 Ibpws, rrorepov aneX- 
dovros tivos j uovov olov tov yXvKvrdrov, rj avp- 
p,eixdevros tivos, Kadarrep iv tols Sta rrjs ri^pas 
rfdovpievois vbaacv. <j>aiverai be to alnov Tamo 
/cat Trepl to els rrjv kvotlv rreplrTWpia avXXcyopevov 
/cat yap etceZvo TriKpov /cat aXpivpov yiyveTai tov 
357 b mvopievov /cat tov iv rfj Tpocf>fj vypov yXvKeos 
ovtos . €t brj warrep to Sta Trjs Kovtas rjdovpevov 
vbwp yiyveTai rriKpov, /cat rai/ra, to> piev ovpw 
ovyKaTacfrepopievrjs TotavT7]s tivos bvvapiews ota 
/cat <j> alveTai v<j>iarapevrj iv tols ay ye lots aXpvpls, 
5 TW S’ Ibpwn OVV€KKpiVOp,eV7)S €K TWV OapKCOV } OLOV 
KaTarrXvvovTos to tolovtov e/c tov a cb paros tov 
itjiovTos vypov, brjXov ort Kav Trj daXaTTTj to €K 
t rj§ yrjs ovyKarapiayopevov tw vypw alnov Trjs 
aXfjivpoTrjTOS- iv piev ovv tw aw pan yiyveTai to 
tolovtov rj Trjs TpO(j>rjs vrrooTaois Sta t rjv arrei/jlav' 
10 iv be Trj yfj TtVa Tporrov vrrrjpx £> XeKTeov, bXws 
be rrws olov T€ ToaovTOV vbaTOS rrXrjdos £r}pat- 
vopLevrjs /cat deppiaivofjievrjs eKKpiOrjvai; ttoXXoljtov 
yap bei piepos av to tov XeiftdevTOS etvai iv Trj yfj « 
ert Sta tl ov /cat vvv OTav £ rjpaivopievr] tvxxi yy> 
€*It€ rrXelwv eiTe iXdrTWv, lb lei; f rj yap vyporrjs 


except m being salt and the salt is carried down in 
them to the place into which they all flow. 

It is equally absurd (3) for anyone to think, like Em- 
pedocles,® that he has made an intelligible statement 
when he says that the sea is the sweat of the earth. 
Such a statement is perhaps satisfactory in poetry, for 
metaphor is a poetic device, but it does not advance 
our knowledge of nature. For it is by no means clear 
how salt sweat is produced in the body from sweet 
drink — whether, for example, it is simply by the loss 
of its sweetest constituent or whether it is due to the 
admixture of something else, as m the case of waters 
strained through ashes. The cause appears to be the 
same as that which makes the residue that collects 
in the bladder bitter and salty though our drink and 
the liquid in our food is sweet. If then the cause in 
both cases is the same as that which makes water 
filtered through ashes bitter, and if some substance 
like the salty deposit we see in chamber-pots is 
carried through the body with the urine, and secreted 
m sweat from the flesh, being washed out of the body 
as it were by the water on its way out, then the 
admixture of some substance from the earth must be 
responsible for the saltness of the water in the sea 
also. Now in the body the sediment of food caused 
by failure to digest is such a substance. But we still 
need to be told how anything of the kind is produced 
in the earth. Besides, more generally, how can the 
drying and heating of the earth cause the secretion 
of so large a volume of water ? And this can only 
be a small proportion of what is still left in the earth. 
Again, why does not the earth still sweat to-day when 
dried in larger or smaller quantities ? [For sweat and 

• Diels 31 A 66 . 


35 7 b 

16 Kal 6 ISpcbs yiyver ai rriKpos .f 1 eirre p yap Kal rare , 
Kal vvv ixPW- °v <f>atverai Se rovro crvpflaivov, 
aAAa £r)pa piev oSaa vypaiverai, vypa S’ otJcra oz58ev 
Tracr^et roiovrov. rrcos ofiv otov re rrepl rrjv rrpdorrjv 
yeveaiv, vypa? ovorjs rrj? yrjs, ISieiv tjrjpaivo- 
pievrjv; aAAa paXXov elKos, doarrep <f>aoi rives, 

20 aireXdovros rov rrXeiarov Kal pierecopiodevros rov 
vypov Sid rov rjXiov , to X ei<f)9ev etvai QaXarrav 
vypav S’ oScrav ISLeiv aSvvarov, 

Ta piev o6v Xeyopieva rrjs aXpiv porrjros atria Sta- 
cjyevyeiv <f>atverai rov X oyov‘ rjpieis Se Xeyoopev 
a PXW Xapovres rrjv avrrjv rjv Kal rrporepov. 

'KrreiSrj yap Keirai SirrXrjv etvai rrjv avadvpitaaiv, 
25 rrjv piev vypav rrjv Se £rjpdv, SrjXov -ort r avrrjv 
olrjreov dpx^jv etvai rcov roiovrcov. 

Kal Srj Kal rrepl ofi drroprjorai rrporepov avay- 
Kaiov, rrorepov Kal rj daXarra del Siapievei rcov 
avrcov ovcra piopi cov dpiOpcp rj rep eiSei Kal r& 
rroocp pLeraftaXXovroov del rcov piepcov, Kaddrrep arjp 
30 Kal to rronpiov vSc op Kal rrvp (del yap dXXo Kal 
aXXo yiyverai rovrcov eKaorov, to S’ elSos rov 
rrXrjdov s eKaarov rovrcov pievei, Kaddrrep to rcov 
pedvrcov vSdrcov Kal to rrjs cf>Xoyo$ pevpia) * (f>a vepov 
Srj Kal rovro Kal rriOavov, dbs aSvvarov pirj rov 
avrov etvai rrepl 7rdvroov rovrcov Xoyov, Kal Sia- 
358 a <f>epeiv raxvrrjn Kal fipaSvrfjri rrjs pLerajSoXrjs, irrl 

1 i J yap vyporyjs om, H x N x Thurot : ff . . . mKpos om. 

a These words do not fit into the argument. “ The point 
is not that the earth secretes moisture but not salt moisture ; 
but, as the following lines show, that it does not secrete any- 


moisture are both bitter.] * For if it used to happen 
once it should happen now. Yet in fact it does not 
happen, but when earth is dry it absorbs moisture, 
when it is moist it shows no sign of sweating. How 
then can the earth when it first came into being and 
was moist have sweated when dried ? The view that 
most of the moisture left it and was drawn aloft by 
the sun and that the sea is what was left is more 
plausible. But it. cannot possibly sweat when it is 

Thus none of the current explanations of the sea’s 
sal tn ess appear to stand examination, so let us offer 
our own, starting from the principle already laid 

We have assumed that there are two kinds of Saitness 
exhalation, one moist and one dry ; and of these the ^ ex- thB 
latter must clearly be the origin of the phenomena halation, 
in question. 

But there is a difficulty which we must discuss first. 

Does the sea always consist of identically the same 
parts ; or does it remain the same in quality and 
quantity though the parts are continually changing, 
as in air, fresh water and fire ? For each of these is 
in constant process of change, though the character- 
istic qualities of any aggregate of it remain the same, 
as for instance with running water and a burning 
flame. It is then obviously plausible to assume that 
the same account must hold good of all of them, so 
that they differ only in that their speed of change 

thing at all under the conditions supposed ” (O.T.). The 
O.T. omits the words altogether : but if the passage is to be 
emended it seems better to follow Thurot and to omit 77 yap 
vypoTrjs and read IMa, teal 6 Ihpws ylyverai irixpos; “ Why 
does not the earth still sweat . . . and that sweat taste 
salt ? ” 

1 51 


358 a 

7T(xvtcov re <f>6opav etvaL Kal yeveaLv, ravrrjv pevroi 
TeTaypevws ovpfdalveLV Tract lv a vtols. 

Tovtcov S’ ovtcos cxovt(jjv 3 TTCipariov arrohovvai 
ttjv alrLav teal rrepl Trjs aA pvpOTr]TO$. <j>avepov § rj 
5 Sea rroXXcov orjpeicov on ylyverac tolovtos 6 x v P>os 
Sta ovppeL^w twos . ev re yap rots crdipacrt to 

aTrcTTrorarov dXpvpov Kal mKpoVy cjcrirep Kal 7 rpo- 
repov CLTropeV (XTT€77TOTaTOV yap TO TTepUTTCOpa TVj$ 
vypas Tpo(j>rjs * roLavrrj Se Traaa pev 7] viroaraais, 
jU-aAtcrra Se rj els rrjv kvgtlv ( orjpelov S’ on Xcttto- 
10 Tarrj ictTLV' ra Se rreTTopeva rravra ovvlaraadaL 
TT€<f)VKC.v) * eVetra ISpws [aet] 1, iv ols to avTO crcbp a 


Se Kal iv tols KaopevoLS" ov yap av prj KpaTrjcrrj to 


iv Se tols Kaopivocs Tecf>pa. Sto Kal ttjv daXanav 
35 Tives if c KaTaKCKavpivrjs <j>acrl yeviadac yrjs. o 

aXrjdis' d>arrep yap Kal iv tols elprj pivots, ovtcd 
K al iv tco oXco €K re twv <j>vopiv(x)v Kal ytyvopivcov 
Kara <f>vaLv a el Set voeev, djorrep ii< TreTrvpcopivcov 
to Xetiropevov TOLavTYjv etvaL yrjv, Kal Srj Kal ttjv 
20 iv Tjj £rjpa avadvpLacrw Traaav a vttj yap Kal . 
TrapixcTat to ttoXv tovto rrXrjdos. pepetypivrjs 
8* ovarjs, cSorrep elrropeVy rrjs re dTptdcbSovs ava- 
OvpLacrecos Kal Trjs £rjpas, orav ctWLGTrjTat els 
vi<f>r) Kal vScopy avayKatov ipTrepiXapfidveuSat tl 
rrXrjdos del TavTrjs Trjs 8vva pecos, Kal crvyKaTa- 
25 <f>ipecrdaL rraXtv vovtos, Kal tov t* del ylyveoBai 


differs. In all the process of decay and generation 
is taking place, though m all it takes place in a fixed 

This being so, let us try and give the reason for the 
sea’s saltness There are many indications that this 
kind of salty taste is due to the admixture of some- 
thing For in living bodies it is the least digested 
matter that is salty and bitter, as we have remarked 
before. For the residue of liquid food is least 
digested ; this is true of all waste products, princi- 
pally of that which collects in the bladder (whose 
extreme lightness proves it to be a waste product, 
as digestion naturally condenses), but also of sweat. 
In both of these the same substance is secreted and 
produces this taste. Something similar happens in 
combustion. What the heat fails to master becomes 
residue m living bodies, ash in combustion. So some 
have maintained that the sea is made of burnt earth. 
Thus expressed their opinion is absurd : but it is true 
that something of this sort makes it salt. For we 
must suppose that something happens in the world 
as a whole analogous to what happens in the pheno- 
mena just described : just as in combustion there is 
a residue of earth of this kind, so there is in all natural 
growth and generation, and all exhalation on dry 
land is such a residue. And it is dry land that pro- 
vides the great bulk of the exhalation. Now since, 
as we have said, the moist and vaporous exhalation 
is mixed with the dry, when it condenses into clouds 
and rain it must necessarily include a certain amount 
of this property a which will subsequently be carried 
down in rain. The process follows a regular order, 
a i fi the dry exhalation which being a residue is salty. 

1 seel. Fobes. 



358 a 

Kara rtv a rd^tv, eLs evSe'^erat perex^tv ra ivravda 
raljecos* oBev pev ovv rj yeveots eveortv rod 
aXpvpov iv ra> t/Sart, elprjr at. 

Kat Sta rovro ra re vorca vSara rrXarvrepa /cat 
ra rrpeora redv peroTTOopLvdjv 6 re yap vdros /cat 
30 rep peyeBe t /cat rep nvedpart 1 aXeetvoraros avepos 
ianVy /cat met am rorrcov £rjpcdv /cat Beppedv, cSare 
per* oXlyrjs arplSos. Sto /cat Beppos eortv el yap 
/cat prj roiovrosy aXX ’ oBev a/^erat rrvetv faxpos, 
ovSev rjrrov rrpo'Cehv Sta to avprreptXapfidveiv ttoX- 
Xrjv avadvplaenv £rjpdv e/c redv ovveyyvs rorrcov 
35 Beppos iorev 6 Se j3opeas are a<f>* vypeov rorrcov 
358 b drpi8el)Srjs' Sto ifjvypos * rep S’ drraBelv aWpcos 
evrauOa, iv Se rots evavTtots* vSarcLSrjs. 6 polios 
Se /cat 6 voros alBptos rots rrept rrjv Atfivrjv, iro\v 
ovv iv rep Karaefoepopevcp t/Sart avpfidXXerai roiov- 
roVy /cat rod peroireJopov rrXarea ra vSara • avdyKrj 
5 yap rd [iapvrara rrpwra <f>epeo9 at. coot’ ev oaot? 
eveort rrjs rotavrrjs yrjs rrXrjdos, perre t ra^terra 
/caTa> ravra. Kal Bepprj ye rj BaXarra Sta tooto 
ear iv % rrdvra yap ocra rrerrv poor at, e^et Svvapei 
Bepporrjra iv avrols. opdv S’ eveort /cat rrjv 
Kovlav Kal rrjv reef>pav Kal rrjv vrrooraenv redv £ epcov 
10 /cat rrjv £rjpav Kal rrjv vypav * Kal redv Beppordroov 
ye Kara rrjv KoiXiav £<pcov ovpftalvet Bepporarrjv 
elvat rrjv vmoraenv. 

Tlyverat pev ovv del re rrXarvrepa Sta ravrrjv 
rrjv air lav y av dyer at S’ del rt pepos a vrrjs per a 
rov yXvKeos (aAA’ eXarrov rocrovrep oerep Kal iv rep 

1 Kal rq> fieyeOei Kal ra> 7rv€Vfj,aTi om, O.T. 



so far as things in this world admit of regularity. 

This then accounts for the presence of salt m sea 

This explains why the rams from the south and the Southerly 
first rains of autumn are brackish For the south autumn* * 
wind is the warmest of winds (both m size and rams 
strength °) and blows from regions that are dry and brac sh 
warm, and so contains little moist exhalation, which 
is the reason why it is hot. And even if it is not 
naturally hot but starts as a cold wind, it none the 
less becomes hot because it picks up large quantities 
of hot exhalation from the places that lie on its way. 

The north wind, on the other hand, carries moist 
vapour because it comes from damp places. So it 
is also cold. And it brings fine weather here because 
it drives the clouds away ; but in the south it brings 
rain. Similarly the south wind brings fine weather 
in Libya. There is then a great deal of this substance 
in the rain which falls ; and the rains of autumn are 
brackish because what is heaviest must fall first and 
so rain which contains any quantity of earth of this 
sort falls quickest. And this is the reason why the 
sea is w r arm. For everything which has been exposed 
to fire contains heat potentially. We can see this 
in ash, in cinders and in the excrement of animals, 
both solid and liquid. For the excrement of animals 
that have the hottest bellies is hottest. 

This cause is always operating to make the sea Salt is left 
more brackish. A certain amount of the salt water ^ n ® vapord " 
is always drawn up with the sweet, but this amount 
is always the less in the same proportion as the salt 

0 It is difficult to make sense of these words, which the 
O.T. omits. Alex. (84. S3) does not appear to have had them 
in his text. 



and brackish element is less than the sweet in rain 
water s so that on the whole equality is preserved.® I 
have proved by experiment that salt water evaporated 
forms fresh and the vapour does not when it con- 
denses condense into sea water again. The same is 
true in other cases. For wine b and all other tasting 
liquids which can be evaporated and subsequently 
condensed to liquid again become water on condensa- 
tion. For the qualities they have other than those 
of water are due to admixture, and the taste varies 
according to what is mixed with the water. But we 
must investigate these subjects on another and more 
suitable opportunity. For the present let us confine 
ourselves to saying that a certain amount of the 
existing sea water is always being drawn up and 
becoming fresh ; and that it subsequently falls down 
in rain m a different form c to that m which it was 
drawn up, and because of its weight sinks below the 
fresh water. So the sea like the rivers never dries 
up, except locally (as both sea and rivers alike must on 
occasion) ; nor do the same parts always remain sea, 
the same land, though the whole bulk of each remains 
constant (for we must suppose that the same thing 
is true of land as of the sea). For part of the sea rises 
up, part of it falls again, and both that which rises and 
that which falls change their positions/ 

That saltness consists in an admixture is evident Saltness an 

admixture : 

c Because of the inclusion of dry exhalation, 3 58 a 33. 

d Of. 358 b 25-27 : it seems to make better sense to take 
to \Uv ... to <k', 11. 31-32, as meaning the water of the sea 
and as referring to 358 b 25-27, with Samt-Hilaire, than to 
take them with the preceding sentence kcu yap . . . vTroXafietv 
with the O.T. I have repunctuated Fobes’ text accordingly. 

Ideler i. p. 83 punctuates as Fobes does, but translates m the 
same sense as Saint-Hilaire, 



358 b > / 

35 OV pLOVOV €K TOOV elpTj fJL€VO)V , aXXa. koI iav Tl$ 
359 a a yyelov nXdoas dfj KrjpLVOv els rrjv daXarrav, nepi- 
Stfoas to crrofia tolovtols ojcrre pbrj napeyx&oBai 
rrjs daX(XTT7]s % to yap eloiov Sta tcov tol^ojv t&v 
Krjplvatv ylyveT at noTLpbov ilScop' atone p yap 8i 
rjOpbov to yedtSes anoKplveTai teal to noLovv rrjv 
5 aXjuvpoTTjTa Sta r rjv ovpbpueL^LV. tovto yap arnov 
Kal t ov fidpovs ( nXeov yap eXhcet to dXpbvpov rj to 
noTcpiov) Kal tov ndxovs * Kal yap to naxos Sta - 
<f)epei tooovtov c ooTe to, nXola an 6 tov avrov rm 
dycoylpuov fid povs iv pbev tols norapiols oXlyov 
10 Karahvveiv , iv Sc rfj daXdrrrj pier plats c^ctv KCL ' L 
nXevoTLKdts * 8 tone p evioi rdtv ev rots norapoZs 
yepu^ovTCov Sta ravrrjv rrjv dyvoiav i^rjpLchBrjoav. 
TeKp,rjpiov Sc tov pbetyvvpbevov to nayoTepov elvai 
tov oyKov iav yap tls vSatp aXpivpov noirjorj 
o(f>68pa p,el£as aXas, enmXeovoi tol (ha, kolv fj 
15 nXrjpr) • cr^cSov yap atonep nrjXos ylyveTav tooovtov 
e^et ocopiaTchhes nXrjdos rj 0aAarra. tovto S e tovto 
Spoocrt Kal nepl tols Ta^t^ctas. 

Et S’ eoTLV atonep pbvdoXoyovol Tives iv IlaAat- 
OTtvrj tolovttj Xlpbvrj, els rjv edv tls ififidXrj ovvSrjoas 
avdpatnov f) vno^vytov imnrXeZv Kal ov KarahveoBai 
20 zcara tov vSa tos, papTvpiov av eiTj tl tols elprj- 
pLevoLS' XeyovoL yap mKpdv ovtojs elvai ttjv Xlpvrjv 
Kal aXpLvpav aScrrc pbrjSeva lyditv iyylyveodaL, ra 

0 Cf, Hist An. vni. 2. 2, 590 a 24. As the O.T. notes, 
facts do not bear out Aristotle’s statement, which makes it 
appeal that he has not tried the experiment, but was taking 
it on hearsay. Plmy xxi. 37 and Aelian ix. 64 repeat Aris- 


not only from what has now been said but also from 
the following experiment. Make a jar of wax and 
put it into the sea, having fastened its mouth in such 
a way as to prevent the sea getting m. It will be 
found that the water which gets through the wax 
walls is fresh, for the earthy substance whose admix- 
ture caused the saltness is separated off as though 
by a filter . 0 This substance is also the cause of its 
weight (for salt water weighs more than fresh) and 
of its density. For there is so great a difference in 
density between salt and fresh water that vessels 
laden with cargoes of the same weight almost sink in 
rivers, but ride quite easily at sea and are quite sea- 
worthy And an ignorance of this has sometimes 
cost people dear who load their ships in rivers. The 
following is a proof that the density of a fluid is greater 
when a substance is mixed with it. If you make water 
very salt by mixing salt in with it eggs will float on 
it, even when unblown, for the water becomes like 
mud. The sea contains a like quantity of earthy 
substance. The same thing is done in salting fish . 6 

If there were any truth in the stories they tell 
about the lake in Palestine c it would further bear 
out what I say. For they say if you bind a man or 
beast and throw him into it he floats and does not sink 
beneath the surface ; and that the lake is so bitter 
and salty that there are no fish in it, and that if you 

totle’s statement, mpapivov (“ earthenware ”) has been 
conjectured for Krjpivov ( cf \ O.T. note on Hist. An, loc . cit .) : 
but there is no ms. support for this and Pliny and Aelian have 
“ wax.” 

& Alex (88. 5) connects this with the statement about eggs, 
saying that the salt solution in which fish were salted was 
tested by floating an egg in it : when the egg floated the 
solution was strong enough. c The Dead Sea. 



859 a 

Se Ifidna pvrrreiv, eav ns Stave tor) f3pe£as. ecm 
he Kal tcl roiavra arjpieia rravra rov elprjpevcov } 
on to aXpivpov t Toiei acopid n 9 Kal yeoBes icmv 
25 to ewTrapyov' ev re yap rrj Xaovta Kprjvr} rls eanv 
vharos rrXarvrepov, amp pet S’ avrrj els mrapov 
rrXrjalov yXvKvv piev, lydvs 8 s ovk eyovra' etXovro 
yap Stf, cos ol e/cet pivSoXoyovaiv , e^oval as hodelarjg 
m to rov * HpaKXeovs , or 9 rjXdev a yoov £k rrjs ’E pv- 
6elas ras fiovs, aXas dvrl rcov lyOvcov, ot ylyvovrai 
30 a vroZs £k rrjs Kprjvrjs * rovrov yap rov vBaros 
acfreifsovres n ptepos ndeaai, Kal ylyverai tfivydev, 
orav arrarpilarj to vypov apta rep deppio, aXes, ov 
yovhpol aAAa x a ^ VOL Ka ' L Xerrrol oarrep yidov. 
elalv re rrjv re hvvapuv aodeviarepoi rcov aXXcov 
Kal nXelovs rjhvvovaiv epLpXrjdevres, Kal rrjv ypoidv 
35 ovy opto loos XevKoi . roiovrov S’ erepov ylyverai 
359 b Kal ev 9 0 pifipiKols' eon yap ns roms ev <p ire- 
</)VKacri KaXapiOL Kal ayolvos * rovrov KaraKaovai , 
Kal rrjv recf>pav epipdXXovres els vS op d(f>eifjovaiv 
orav he Xlrrool n piepos rov vSa ros 3 rovro i/joyBev 
aXov ylyverai rrXrjdos • 

5 w Oaa 8* eanv dXpivpd pevpiara mrapicov ?} Kprjvcbv, 
ra rrXeiara 6eppi a n Tore elvai Set vopil^eiv, elra rrjv 
piev dpyrjv arreofteaQai rov rrvpos > hi fjs he St- 
rjdovvr ai yfjs, en pieveiv ovaav olov Kovlav Kal 
re<f>pav, elcrl he mXXayov Kal Kprjvai Kal pevpiara 
mrapicov rravrohamvs eyovra yypiovs, ov rravnov 
10 alnareov rrjv ev ovaav rj eyyiyvopievrjv 1 hvvapiv 
rrvpos’ Kaopievr) yap rj yrj ro pidXXov Kal ‘rjrrov 
rravroharrds Xapifidvei piop<f> as Kal XP° a s X v P , ^v’ 
arvrrrr]plas yap Kal Kovlas Kal rov dXXov rcov 
roiovrov ylyverai rrXrjprjs hvvapieov, hi 9 (Lv ra 


wet clothes in it and shake them out it cleans them. 
The following facts also all support our contention 
that it is the presence of a substance that makes 
water salt, and that the substance present is earthy. 
In Chaonia there is a spring of brackish water 
w T hich flow's into a neighbouring river that is sweet 
but contains no fish. For the inhabitants have a 
story that when Heracles, on his way through with 
the oxen from Erytheia, gave them the choice, they 
chose to get salt instead of fish from the spring. For 
they boil off some water from it and let the rest 
stand ; and when it has cooled and the moisture has 
evaporated with the heat salt is left, not m lumps 
but m a loose powder like snow. It is also rather 
weaker than other salt and more of it must be used 
for seasoning, nor is it quite so white. Something of 
a similar sort happens also in Umbria. There is a 
place there where reeds and rushes grow : these they 
burn and throw their ashes into water and boil it till 
there is only a little left, and this when allowed to 
cool produces quite a quantity of salt. 

Most salt rivers and springs must be consideied to 
have once been hot ; subsequently the fiery prin- 
ciple in them was extinguished, but the earth through 
which they filter retains qualities like those of ash 
and cinders. And there are in various places many 
springs and streams with many different tastes, the 
cause of which is always a fiery element inherent or 
produced in them. For the earth when subject to 
combustion takes on to a greater or lesser degree all 
kinds and shades of taste. For it becomes full of alum 
and ash and substances of like qualities, and sweet 

1 4yyevofjLevr)v J O.T. 




359 b 

rjdovfjieva vSara ovtol yXvKea /xera/3aAAet, /cat ra 
15 fJL€V o£e a ylyverac , Kadarrep iv rfj HcKdvrj rrjs 
St/ceAtas’* e/cet yap otjaXpcrj ycyverac, /cat xp&vrui 
Kadarrep o£et rrpog evia rcov iBeapcdrov avrw. 
€<7Tt Se /cat rrepl A vyKov Kpfjvr) rcg vSarog ogeog, 
rrepl Se rrjv HjKvOiKrjv m/cpa* to 8 9 arroppeov avrrjs 
rov rrorapcov els ov elafiaXXec rrocet rriKpov oXov. 
20 at Se 8ca<f>opal rovroov eKetdev SfjXac, rroioc xypol 
e/c rroicov ycyvovrac Kpdaeojv etprjr ac Se rrepl avrcov 
XO)pl$ aXXots . 

Ilept \iev ovv vSaros /cat daXarrrjg, St* as air lag 
alec re avvey cos €tat /cat Tra/s pcerafidXXovoc /cat rtV 
<f>v<jcs avTcov, ere 8* oo-a rrddrj Kara cf>vacv avroeg 
25 wpcflalveL rrocecv rj rraax^LV, ecprjrac a^eSov ^/xtv 
rrepl rcov rrXecarcov. 

a Of. Eichholz m C.Q. xliii (July-Oct. 1949), p. 145 on 
this passage. 



The causes of winds. There are , as we have said , two kinds 
of exhalation from the earthy dry and moist. These are 
caused by the sun , whose movement m the ecliptic gives me 
to seasonal changes. The moist exhalation produces rain, 
the dry exhalation wind (359 b 27 — 360 a 17). So ram and 
wind differ m substance : and we cannot regard wind as air 
m motion (360 a 17-21, 27-33). Air then is made up of two 
exhalations , one moist and cold , one hot and dry , and is itself 
in consequence moist and hot. The predominance of one or 

b 27 Ilept Se rrvevpcdrcov Xeyojfiev, Xafiovreg dpxty rrjv 
elprjfMevrjv rjpuv rjSrj rrporepov . ecm yap 8v elbrj 


water changes when filtered through them. a Some- 
times it becomes acid, as in Sicania in Sicily : for 
there it becomes both salt and acid and they use it 
as vinegar on some of their dishes And there is an 
acid spring also at Lyncus, and a bitter one in Scythia 
the water from which makes the whole river into 
which it flows bitter. 6 These differences are clear 
from a knowledge of the different tastes produced by 
different mixtures, a subject which has been dealt 
with separately elsewhere. c 

We have now dealt with the causes of the continued 
existence of water and the sea and of their changes, 
with their nature, and with most of their various 
natural characteristics active and passive. 

b Cf. Herod, iv. 52, 81. 
c De Seniu, ch. 4 ; or a lost work. 

argument ( continued) 

other exhalation accounts for variations in rainfall from 
year to year (860 a 21-27, 33-b 26). Why wind occurs after 
rainfall , rainfall when wind drops (360 b 26 — 361 a 4). 

Why the prevailing winds are northerly or southerly (361 a 4- 
22). Winds originate from the earth {as exhalation ), but 
their movement is determined by that of the celestial region , 

The exhalation of which they are composed collects gradually 
(361 a 22-b 8). 

{With chs . 4-6 cf. Problems wxm.) 

Let us now give an account of winds, on the lines we Two kinds 
have already laid down. For we have said 0 that there tionfvrajd 

* Cf Book I. ch, 4, 341 b 6 ff. 


359 b 


Trjs avadvfuac reoos, cos fiapev, 7) piv vypa rj Se 
30 iypd* KaXelrai S’ rj pev dr pig, rj Se to pev oXov 
dvwvvpog, rep S 5 €7Tc pepovg dvdyKTj ypcopevovg 
KadoXov 7rpoaayopev€iV avTTjV otov kottvov eon 
8’ oiire to vypov dvev tov £rjpov oiire to £rjpov 
dvev tov vypov, aAAa irdvra ravra Xeyerat Kara 
TTjV vrrepoyrjv . 

(S>€pOfJL€VOV &7] TOV TjXloV KVkXcO , KoX OTCLV p€V 
35 TrXrjGcdl^r) , rfj deppoTTjTL dvdyovros to vypov, vrop- 
360 a pcorepco Se ytyvopevov Sta rrjv ijjvlfiv avvcoTapevrjg 
TtaXiv rrjs dvaydelvyjs drplhos els vdcop (Sto yet- 
pcovog re paXXov ylyvercu ra vSara, koX vvKTeop 
i ) peQ' rjpepav aAA’ ov 8 0 KeZ, Sia to Xavdaveiv rd 

5 WKTZpivd TCOV peQ' TjpipC IV pbdXXov) , TO &7j KOTLOV 
vScop StaStSoTat rrav els tt)v yrjv, VTrdpyet S’ ev Tjj 
yfj ttoXv rrvp Kal rroXXrj OeppoTTjg, Kal 6 rjXtog ov 
povov to imnoXa^ov Trjs yrjs vypov eX Kei, aAAa 
Kal ttjv yrjv avTTjv ^rjpalvet 9epp alvcov Trjs S’ ava- 
dvpadaecos , tbcnrep eiprprai, SiTrXfjs ovarjs, Trjs pev 
10 aTpuhcbSovs Trjs Se kclttvwSovs, dpcf>OTepas dva y- 
Kcuov ylyvecrd cli. tovtcov 8’ rj pev vypov ttX eov 
eyovoa rrXrjdos dvadvplaais dpyrj tov vopevov 
vSaros euTiv, cborrep elprjTai rrpoTepov, rj Se £rjpd 
tcov rrvevpaTCov apyrj Kal covens rravTOOv. Taura 
Se otl tovtov tov TpoTrov avayKaZov crvpfialveLV , 
15 Kal elf avTOJV tcov epycov hfjXov* Kal yap ttjv dva - 
dvplaoLv 8ia<f>€p€LV dvayKalov, Kal tov rjXtov Kal 
ttjv iv Trj yfj OeppoTTjTa TavTa rroielv ov piovov 
Suva tov dXX avayKaZov ioTiv . 

91 Ei7T€L8rj 8’ eTepov eKaTepas to etSos, (f>aV€pOV OTL 
Sea <j>ip£L, Kal oi>x rj avTTj ioTiv rj t € a vepov <j>vcns 

1 64 


are two kinds of exhalation — one moist and one dry : caused 
of these the first is called vapour, the second has no by ^ 
name that applies to it as a whole, and we are com- 
pelled to apply to the whole a name which belongs 
to a part only and call it a kind of smoke The moist 
exhalation does not exist without the dry nor the dry 
without the moist, but we speak of them as dry or 
moist according as either quality predominates. 

When, therefore, the sun in its circular course 
approaches the earth, its heat draws up the moist 
exhalation ; when it recedes the vapour thus drawn 
up is condensed again by the resulting cold into 
water (This is why there is more ram m the winter, 
and more at night than by day — though this is not 
commonly supposed to be so because rainfall at night 
more often passes unnoticed than by day.) The water 
thus formed falls and is all distributed over the earth. 

Now there is in the earth a large amount of fire and 
heat, and the sun not only draws up the moisture on 
the earth’s surface but also heats and so dries the 
earth itself ; and this must produce exhalations 
which are of the two kinds we have described, namely 
vaporous and smoky. The exhalation containing the 
greater amount of moisture is, as we have said before,® 
the origin of ram water : the dry exhalation is the 
origin and natural substance of winds. That this 
must be the case is evident from the facts. For the 
exhalations that produce rain and wind must differ 
and it is not only possible but necessary that the sun 
and the warmth in the earth should produce the 

Since the two exhalations differ in kind, it is clear Bain and 
that the substance of wind and of rain water also wind differ> 

Book I. ch. 9. 



360 a 

20 /tat rj rov vopevov vBaros, Kaddrrep rives Xeyovcnv 
rov yap avrov depa Kivovpevov pev avepov etvai, 
crwiarapevov Se rraXiv vB cop. /cat yap drorrov el 

28 6 rrepl eKaarovs rrepiKexvpevos a rjp ovros yiyverai 

29 Kivovpevos rrvevpa, /cat o8ev av rvxu Kivrjdeis , 
avepos earai, aAA 9 ov Kaddrrep rovs rrorapovs vrro - 

30 Xapfiavopev ovy orrcocrovv rov vBaros etvai peov - 

31 to?, ouS’ av exil 71 Xrjdos , aAAa Set rrrjyatov etvai 

32 to peov* ootco yap /cat rrepl rd)v avepcov e^et* /ctv^- 

33 0et7j yap av ttoAu rrXrjdos aepos vrro nvos peyaXrjs 
rrraxjecos, ovk eyov dpx'Xjv °^Se rrrjyrjv. 

21 c O pev ovv arjp, 1 Kaddrrep ev rots rrpo rovrojv 

22 Xoyois elprjKapev, yiyverai e/c rovrcov rj pev yap 

23 arpt? vypov Kal ipvypdv ( evopiarov pev yap c os 

24 vypov , Bid Be to vBaros etvai ijjvxpdv rfj ot/ceta 

25 <f>voe t, djcrrrep vBcop prj depp av8ev), 6 Se Karrvos 

26 deppov Kal ijrjpov’ toore Kaddrrep e/c ovpfioXcov, 

27 avviarairo av 6 arjp vypos Kal deppos . paprvpet 

34 Se Ta yiyvopeva rots elprjpevois' Bid yap ro crvv- 

35 eydos pev pdXXov Se /cat rjrrov Kal rrXeico Kal 
360 b eXdrroy yiyveodai rrjv dvadvpiaoiv , aet ve<f>rj re Kal 

rrvevpara yiyverai Kara rrjv djpav eKaarrjv cos 
rre<j>VKev‘ Bid Be ro eviore pev rrjv arpiBcoBrj yi- 
yveada t rroXXarrXaaiav ore Be rrjv fyjpdv Kal /ca- 
rrvtvBrj, ore pev erropppa ra errj yiyverai Kal vypd , 
5 ore Se dvepcoBrj Kal avypoi. ore pev ovv ovpftaivei 
Kal rovs avxpovs Kal ras erropfipias rroXXovs dpa 
Kal Kara avvexrj yiyveodai ycopav, ore Be Kara 
peprj- rroXXaKis yap rj pev kvkXco x^P a Xapfiavei 

1 6 fiev o$v arjp 1. 21 . . . depyJ>s 1. 27 post m^yrjv 1. 33 coll. 




differ and are not the same, as some a maintain : for 
they say that the same substance, air, is wind when 
in motion, water when condensed again . 6 Yet it is 
absurd to suppose that the air which surrounds us 
becomes wind simply by being in motion, and will be 
wind whatever the source of its motion ; for we do not 
call a volume of water, however large, a river whatever 
its flow but only if it flows from a source, and the same 
thing is true of the winds, for a considerable volume 
of air might be set in motion by some large falling 
body, and have no origin or source. 

Air then, as we have said before , 6 is made up of Variations 
these two components, vapour which is moist and cold inrainfa11 ' 
(it is unresistant because it is moist, and is naturally 
cold because derived from water, which is cold unless 
heated) and smoke which is hot and dry ; so that air, 
being composed, as it were, of complementary factors, 
is moist and hot. The facts confirm this vievr. For 
because the exhalation continually increases and de- 
creases, expands and contracts, clouds and winds are 
always being produced in their natural season ; and 
because it is sometimes the vaporous exhalation that 
predominates, at other times the dry and smoky one, 
years are sometimes rainy and wet, at others windy 
and dry. And sometimes drought or ram is wide- 
spread and covers a large area of country, sometimes 
it is only local ; for often in the country at large the 

® Metrodorus of Chios (Diels 70 A 19). 

& The first sentence fronvthe next paragraph follows here 
in the accepted Greek text : I have transposed it, following 
Thurot (see critical note), as the transposition seems to make 
better sense of the passage. 

0 Cf. Book I. ch. 3, 340 b 14-32 and note a on p. 20, ch. 

4, 341 b 6 if.; also De Gen . et Corr . u. 4, and Joachim’s 
note on 331 a 24. 



rovs aopaiovs opbfipovs rj Kal ttXsl ovs, iv Si tivi 
10 pbipec ravTTjs avxp^og icmv * ore Se rovvavrlov rrjs 
kvkXco TraGT}? fj {lerpLois xP co H'^ vr ) s vSacnv rj Kal 
pbaXXov avxp'Worjs, ev n pboptov v&aros a<f)dovov 
Xapb^avet TrXrjQos, olriov S’ oVt c os pbiv ra rroXXa 
to a vro Trados iirl nXeico StrjKeiv zikos x^pav, 
Sta to 7rapa7rXr]GLa)$ Ketadat npos tov rjXcov ra 
15 crvveyyvs, idv pbrj tl Sid<f>opov I^oxtiv tStov* ov pbyv 
aXX 9 ivloT€ /cara to St pbiv to pbipos rj £rjpa dvaOv- 
fjiiaoLS iyivero TrXeioov, Kara Se to aXXo rj drpa- 
ScoSrjs, ot€ Se Tovvavriov koX avTOv Si tovtov 


Xa>pas avadvp,iaaw , olov rj pbiv £rjpa Kara ttjv 
20 oiKeiav pel xwpav, ^ 8 ’ vypa rrpos ttjv yebTVidoaav , 

rj Kal €LS TCOV TTOppQ) TLVOb TOTTCOV a7T€(JL)adrj V7T0 
7TV€Vp(XTCOV‘ OT€ Si aVTTj pb€V €pb€LV€V, Tj S’ eVCLVTLa 
TCLVTOV €7rolrjO€V. Kal GVpbfiabVZb TOVTO TToXXoLKlS, 
a><77 rep ini tov acop.aTOSy iav rj avoo kolXlcl tjrjpd fj, 
TTj v Karoo ivavTLOJS StaKeto*0at, Kal Tavrrjs £ rjpds 
25 oiiorjs vypdv etvai ttjv avoo Kal ifjvxpav, ovtoo Kal 
7T€pl T0V9 T07TOVS (XVT ITT €pLLGT acSaC Kal pb€TafSdXXeLV 
ras dvadvpuacreLS. 

^Ert Se pbera re tov$ opbfipovs avepbos d>s ra noXXa 
ylyverab iv iKeivois tols ronois Ka8 9 ov$ av on yx- 
Triorj yeveadai tovs opbftpovs, Kal ra Trvevpbara 
30 naverai vSa tos yevopbivov ravra yap avdyKTj 
crvpbfialvGiv Sta ras* eiprjpbivas apxas’ vaavros T€ 
yap rj yrj ^rjpatvopbivr] vrro re tov iv avrfj deppbov 
Kal v7ro tov avoodev avadvpudTac, tovto S 9 rjv 
avipbov adopba m Kal otov tj TOiavTTj drroKpbais fj Kal 
avejaot Karc^cocrt, 7ravopbivoov Sta to 6moKpLveu8ai 



seasonal rainfall is normal or even above the normal, 
while in some districts of it there is a drought ; at other 
times, on the other hand, the rainfall m the country 
at large is meagre, or there is even a tendency to 
drought, while in a single district the rainfall is 
abundant m quantity. The reason is that as a rule 
a considerable area may be expected to be similarly 
affected, because neighbouring places he in a similar 
relation to the sun, unless they have some local 
peculiarity : at the same time it may happen that 
at times the dry exhalation predominates m one 
district, the vaporous in another, while at times the 
opposite is the case. And the reason for this again 
is the movement of either of the two exhalations 
across to join that of the neighbouring district ; the 
dry, for instance, may circulate m its own, the moist 
flow to a neighbouring district or be driven by winds 
still farther afield, while on other occasions the moist 
exhalation may remain and the dry retire. Thus it 
often happens that just as in the human body if the 
upper belly is dry the lower is m the opposite con- 
dition, and if the lower is dry the upper is cold and 
wet, so the exhalations undergo reciprocal replace- 
ment a and change of place. 

Moreover, wind as a rule occurs after rain m those 
places in which the rain has happened to fall, and 
when rain falls the wind drops. These are necessary- 
consequences of the principles we have stated. For 
after rain the earth is dried by its own internal heat 
and the heat from above and gives off exhalations 
which are the substance of wind. And when this 
separation is in process winds prevail ; when they 
drop, because the hot element is constantly being 

a See Book I. ch. IS, note b on p. 82 . 






35 to deppov del teal dva<f>epeadai els rov ava> rorrov 
crvvlararai rj dr pis ipvxopevr] Kal ylyverai v8cop- 
/cat orav els ravrov avvoadcocri r a ve<f>rj /cat avn- 
361 a rrepiarfj els avrd rj iltv£is, v8cop ylyvercu /cat Kara - 
ijjvyei rrjv tjrjpav dvadvplaatv . rravovol re oSv ra 
vSara yiyvopeva rovs a vepovs, Kal rravopevcov 
aird ylyverai Sta ravras ra s air las, 

5 u En Se rov ylyvecdat paXiora rrvevpara an to re 
rrjs apKrov Kal pear) pfip las to a vro atVtov* nXeiuroi 
yap fiopeai /cat voroi ylyvovr at rtov avepuov 6 yap 
rjXios rovrovs povovs ovk errepXGrai rovs ronrovs , 
aXXa Trpos rovrovs Kal arro rovrojv, irrl Svorpas 
Se Kal err* avaroXas del <f>eperar Sto Ta vec[>7] 
10 ovvlorarai ev rots TrXaylois, Kal ylyverai Trpocr- 
tovros pev rj dvadvpiacis rov vypov, dmovros Se 
rrpos rov evavrlov rorrov v8ara Kal xeip&ves. Sta 
pev ovv rrjv <f>opdv rrjv irrl rponr as Kal aird rponrcov 
depos ylyverai Kal xetpcov, Kal avayeral re avco 
15 to v8a>p Kal ylyverai naXiv errel Se rrXei orrov pev 
Karafialvei vScop ev rovrois rots rorrois ecfS ovs 
rperrerat Kal a <f> Sv 3 ovroi Se etertv o re Trpos 
apKrov Kal pecrrjpftplav, ottov Se rrXelorov vScop 
7] yrj heyerat, evravda TrXelorrjv avay/catov yt- 
yveerd at rrjv avadvplacnv 7TaparrXrjolajs olov e/c 
xXcvpcdv £vX cov KarrvoVy rj 8 s dv ad v places a vrrj 
20 avepos eanv, evXoyovs dv oSv evrevdev ylyvoiro ra 
rrXeiara Kal Kvptwrara rd)v rrvevpdroov . KaXovvrai 
8 9 ol pev an ro rrjs apKrov [iopeai , ot Se an to rrjs 
peer] p^p las voroi . 

*H Se <f>opa Xotjr) avrcov eernv' rrepl yap rrjv yrjv 
Trveovuiv els op6ov yiyvopevrjs rrjs dvadvpiaaecvs , 
25 or t rras 6 kvkXcv drjp cvverrer at rfj <f>opa , Sto Kal 


separated out and rising to the upper region,® the 
vaporous exhalation is cooled and condenses and 
becomes water. And when the clouds are driven 
together and the cold is compressed within them , 6 
water is formed and cools the dry exhalation. For 
these reasons, therefore, when rain falls the wind 
drops, and when the wind drops the rain falls. 

The same cause again accounts for the prevalence 
of winds from north and south c — for most winds are 
in fact either northerly or southerly. For over these 
regions alone the sun does not pass, but only ap- 
proaches them or recedes from them ; but its course 
always passes over the east and west. So clouds form 
in these regions bordering on its couise, and when it 
approaches it causes exhalation of moisture, when it re- 
cedes to the opposite side, rain and storms. The sun's 
movement m the ecliptic is thus the cause of summer 
and winter, and the water is drawn up and falls again. 
Now the largest amount of rain falls m the regions 
beyond the tropics, that is, the regions north and south 
of them ; and where the earth receives the most rain- 
fall the exhalation must be correspondingly greatest, 
like the smoke from green sticks, and this exhalation 
is wind ; so it is only to be expected that the majority 
of winds and the most considerable should come from 
these quarters. Those that come from the north are 
called Boreae, those that come from the south Notoi. 

Winds blow horizontally ; for though the exhala- 
tion rises vertically, the winds blow round the earth 
because the whole body of air surrounding the earth 
follows the motion of the heavens. So one might 

° Of. 341 a 4 and Book I. ch. 3, note a on p. 22. 
b See Book I. ch. 12, note 1 on p. 82. 
c Cf. ch. 5, 363 a 2-20. 


of northerly 



sphere the 
cause of 


drroprjueiev av tls rroTepodev rj a pxq tcov 7tv<ev- 
pedrcov earl, irorepov dvcodev rj KOiTcode v rj peev yap 
KLvrjcns avoid ev Kal TTplv 7 rveiv 6 [S 9 ] 1 arjp irriSr) Xos, 
Kav fj vecfios r\ ayXvs • urj^alvei yap Kcvovpeevrjv 
rrvevpearos apxrjv rrplv cfiavepcos iXrjXvdevai tov 
30 avepeov, cos avcodev avrcov eyovroiv ttjv apyrjv. 
ezret S* iarlv dvepeos rrXrjdos tl Trjs tjrjpas e/c yrjs 
avadvpeeauecos Kivovpeevov rrepl rrjv yrjv, SrjXov otl 
Trjs peev Kivrjuecos rj apXV avcodev, rfjs Se vXrjs Kal 
Trjs yeviuecos Karcodev fj peev yap pevuetrat to 
a viovy €K€iQ<zv to a ltlov rj yap <j>opa tcov i T oppooTCpco 
35 Kvpt a Trjs yfjs‘ Kal dpea Karoodev pekv els opdov 
avacfylperat, Kal rrav taxvei peaXXov eyyvs, rj Se Trjs 
36ib yeveuecos apXV § fjXov d>s e/c rfjs yrjs euTiv . 

"On 8* e/c ttoAAcov avadvpetauecov uvviovucov Kara 
puKpoVy courrep a l tcov rroTapecbv ap^al ylyvovrai 
voTityOverqs Trjs yrjs, 8 fjXov Kal errl tcov epycov 69 ev 
yap e/cacn-ore rrveovaiv, eXdx^aroi rrdvres etui, 
5 rrpoCovTes Se /cat rroppoo Xaperrpol rrveovaiv. ert Se 
Kal ra rrepl ttjv apKTov ev tco ^etftcovt vrjvepia Kal 
anvoa, /car* av tov eKeivov tov tottov' aXXa to 
Kara puKpov drrorrveov Kal Xavddvov e£c o rrpoiov 
rjSrj rrvevpi a ylyverai Xapirrpov. 

T is piev ovv iuTtv rj tov a vepiov cfivais Kal rrcos 
io ylyverac, €ti Se avxfjLcov re rrepi Kal erropeppias, 
Kal Sta tiv air lav Kal rravovrai Kal yiyvovTai /xera 
tovs op,j3povs> Sea tl Te ft opeai Kal votoi nXetaroi 
tcov avepi cov elalv, eiprjrai * rrpos Se tovtois Kal 
rrepl rrjs <j>opas avrcov. 

1 om. J con O.T 



raise the question whether winds originate from above 
or below, for their movement is derived from above, 
and even before they actually start to blow the air 
reveals their approach, even if there is cloud or mist ; 
for these show that a wind has started to blow even 
before its arrival is perceptible, which seems to 
indicate that winds originate from above. But since 
a wind is a body of dry exhalation moving about the 
earth, it is clear that though their motion takes its 
origin from above the material from which they are 
produced comes from below Thus the direction of 
flow of the rising exhalation is determined from above, 
as the motion of the heavens controls things whose 
distance from the earth is considerable * at the same 
time the exhalation rises vertically from below, since 
any cause operates more strongly on its effect the 
nearer it is to it and the exhalation is clearly produced 
originally from the earth. 

The facts also make it clear that winds are formed 
by the gradual collection of small quantities of 
exhalation, in the same way that rivers form when 
the earth is wet. For they are all least strong at 
their place of origin, but blow strongly as they travel 
farther from it. Besides, the north, that is the region 
immediately about the pole, is calm and windless in 
winter ; but the wind which blows so gently there 
that it passes unnoticed becomes strong as it moves 
farther afield. 

We have thus given an account of the nature and 
origin of the wind, and of drought and rainfall. We 
have given the reason why winds fall and rise after 
rain and why the prevailing winds are northerly 
and southerly : finally we have dealt with the motion 
of the winds. 





Extreme heat and cold prevent the rise of winds , which 
occur when the seasons are changing (361 b 14-35), This is 
shown by the Etesian winds and the fair weather winds which 
correspond to them (361 b 35 — 362 a 31). The south wind 
blows , not from the pole , but from the torrid zone. This is 

36ib 14 f O S’ yAtos kcu Travel Kal avve^oppta ra rrvev- 
15 ptara* aaOevets ptiv yap Kal oXlyas oiioas ras ava- 
dvpttdaeis flap alvei ray TrXelovt depfia) to iv rfj 
dvadvptiaaet eXa ttov ov , Kal Sta Kplvet. en Si 

avrrjv rrjv yrjv cjydavei £rjpalva>v rrplv yevead at €/c- 
Kpicnv adpoav, warrep els ttoXv rrvp eav oXlyov 
ipmecrrj VTreKKavfia, (f>9dvei ttoXXolkis rrplv Karrvov 
20 rroirjaai KaraKavOev. Sta ptiv oSv ravras ras 
ahrias Karairavei re ra rrvevptara Kal i£ dpyyjs 
ylyveadat KoyXvei, rfj ptiv ptapavaet Kararr avow, rep 
Si rayei rfjs ^rjporrjros ylyveadat kcoXvojv* S to 
7 repl 'Clplojvos avaroXrjv ptdXtara ylyverat vrjveptla, 
Kal pteypt irrjalwv Kal rrpoSpoptajv. oXcos Si 
25 ylyvovr at at vrjveptlat Sta Sv 9 air las* rj yap Sta 
iffvxos dsrroafievvvpiAvrjs rrjs dvadvptidoeens y olov orav 
yevgrat rrdyos laxvpos y rj Karaptapatvoptevqs vt to 
rod TTvlyovs . at Si rrXeiarat Kal iv rats dva ptiaov 
djpats, rj rco p,rjrra) dvadvpiaodai, rj rep rjSrj i£- 
30 eXrjXvdevat rrjv ava9vptiaatv Kal aXXrjv firjTra) 
imppe Tv. 

*A Kptros Si Kal xvAerros 6 ’£lptcov elvat SoKet, 
17 4s 


argument ( continued ) 

shown by a consideration of the two habitable zones of the 
earth ; one , in which we live, lies m the northern hemisphere , 
the other m the southern , and each has an analogous disposi- 
tion of winds. The prevailing winds m our hemisphere are 
northerly or southerly (362 a 31 — 363 a 20). 

The sun both hinders and encourages the rise of Extreme 
winds. For when the exhalations are feeble and few coMpre- 
its greater heat scorches up the lesser heat of the ex- vent the 
halation and disperses it. Also it dries up even the winds, 
earth too quickly to allow the exhalation to gather in 
any quantity, just as a small amount of fuel thrown 
into a large fire is burnt up before it can produce any 
smoke. For these reasons, then, the sun hinders the 
rise of winds or prevents it altogether . it hinders it 
by scorching up the exhalation s heat ; it prevents it 
by the speed with which it dries the earth. Therefore 
the period from about the rise of Orion® to the coming 
of the Etesian winds b and their precursors is gener- 
ally calm. There are two general causes of calm 
weather : either the exhalation is quenched by cold, 
as in a hard frost, or it is scorched up and stifled by 
the heat. Calm weather in the intervening periods c 
is mostly caused by lack of exhalation or by the 
exhalation having passed away and not yet being 

The reason why Orion is commonly regarded as a 
constellation which brings uncertain and stormy 

0 Early July : the morning rising. 

* Of 361 b 35 below. 

c i.e. between the cold of winter and the heat of summer. 




Kal 8vvcov Kal 4ttit4XXcov 3 8ia to iv peTafioXfj copas 
avpfiaiveiv ttjv 8vcnv Kal rrjv avaroXr\Vy 94povs rj 
Xetpcovos, Kal Sta to p4ye9os 1 tov aaTpov rjpepcov 
ylyveTat 1 nXrj9os a l 8e peTafioXal ndvTCov Tapa- 
35 ^coSet? Sta ttjv aopLOTtav elalv. 

Ot 8’ eTrjcrlai irviovcn peTa Tponds Kal kvvos 
incToXrjv, Kal ovt€ TrjviKavTa ot€ paXtara TrXrjGid^ei 
362 a 6 vjXcos, ovt€ ore noppco • Kal tols pev rjpdpas 
Trviovcri, Tas 8e vvKTas rravovTai . oItlov 8 s otl 

rrX'qaLov pev a>v <j>9avei {jrjpalvtov Trplv yev4o9ai 
ttjv avadvpLaaiv' otov S’ drr4X9rj puKpov, avp- 
peTpos TjSrj ylyveTai rj dva9v plants Kal rf 9eppoTrjs, 
5 <jqot€ ra TrenrjyoTa v8ara TrjKeaOai, Kal ttjs yrjs 
£r)pat,vop4vrjs vno t€ rrjs otKelas depporrjTOS Kal 
vtto Trjs tov rjXlov olov TV<f>en9 at Kal 9vpian9ai . 
TTfS Se vvktos Xcocf>coat 8ta to ra nenriyoTa tt\k6~ 
peva naven9ai Sta ttjv ipvxpOTrjTa tcov vvktcov. 
dvpi&Tai S’ OVT€ TO 7T€7T7]yOS OVT€ TO p7]84v €%0V 
10 tjrjpov, aXA* OTav eyrj to £rjpov vyporrjra, tovto 
9eppatvopevov 9vptaTat. 

9 A nopovni 84 Ttves Sea tl /3op4at pev yiyvovTai 
avveyeis, ovs KaXovpev irrjnlas, peT a ra? Oepivas 
t ponds, votoi 8e ovtcos ov yiyvovTai peTa Tas 
XeLpepwds. e^et $e °^ K dXoycos* yiyvovTai pev 
15 yap oi KaXovpevot XevKovoTot ttjv dvTiKeipevrjv 
djpavy ovx ovtcos 8 e ylyvovT at nvvex^ls • 8 to Aav- 
OdvovTes rrotovniv em^rav. a it to v S 9 or t 6 pev 
f3op4aS d/TTO TCOV VTTO TTJV dpKTOV Ttvet T07TCOV, Ot 

nX'qpets oSotos* Kal x^dvos etcrl TroXXrjs, Sv tvjko - 
p4vcov tino tov rjXlov peTa Tas depivds rponds 

1 “ scribe Sum Sia to fieyeBos ant pro ytverai corrige ytve- 
odai ” (Ideler). 2 ava&vfjtlacris Kai rj om. E 2B Ap 01 Ideler. 


weather when it rises and sets is that its rising and 
setting a occur at a change of season (summer or 
winter), and, owing to the size of the constellation, 
last many days : and all changes are uncertain and 
so unsettled. 

The Etesian winds blow after the summer solstice The 
and the rise of the Dog-star h ; they do not blow when 
the sun is at its nearest nor when it is far off. They 
blow in the day-time and drop at night. The reason 
for this is that when the sun is closer it dries the earth 
too quickly for the exhalation to form : when it with- 
draws a little, the balance between its heat and the 
exhalation is restored, with the result that frozen 
water melts and the earth, dried by its own internal 
heat and by that of the sun, gives off smoke and 
fumes. 6 These winds cease at night because the 
coldness of the nights stops frozen water melting. 
Moisture that is frozen or that contains no dry con- 
stituent does not give off fumes ; but a dry substance 
that contains moisture does so when heated 

Some people find it difficult to see why the north The fair 
winds which we call Etesian blow continuously after and^trd 
the summer solstice, but there are no corresponding ™<*s. 
south winds after the winter solstice. But this is 
not without reason. For the so-called fair weather 
winds do blow from the south at the corresponding 
time in winter, but as they do not blow so continu- 
ously, they escape notice ; and thus the difficulty 
arises. The reason for this is that the north wind 
blows from the polar regions, which are full of water 
and large quantities of snow ; so the Etesian winds 
blow when the sun melts these, which it does just 

0 Mid-November : the morning setting. 

6 Late July. c Cf. 362 a 1 6-22 below. 



20 pdXXov rj iv clvtols nviovaiv oi irrjcrtar ovrco yap 
Kal ra nvLyr) yLyverai, ovx orav paAiora nArjcna^r) 
rrpos apKTOVy aAA 5 orav nAeicov pev rj xpdvos deppai- 
vovn, en Se iyyvs . opolcos Be /cat jaera X€iju,e/>ivas‘ 
r ponds TTveovcnv oi opviOicLi • /cat yap otfrot irrjolai 
slow acrdevecs' iXarrovs Si /cat oifjtaLrepoi rcov 
25 irrjGLWV nviovcrur ifiSoprjKourfj yap apyovrat rrvelv 
Sta to nop pea ovra rov rjAiov evto^t/etv ffrrov. ov 
<ruv€X€LS S’ opolcos rrviovoij Sion ra piv imnoXrjs 
Kal aadevrj rore anoKplverai, ra Be pdXXov 776- 
7 rrjyora nXetovos Seirai Oepporrjros* Sio StaAet- 
novres oStol TTveovcnv, ecus* dv irrl rponais naXiv 
30 rats* depivais nv^vococnv ol irrjorlai, inzl deXei ye 
ort paXiora avv^x ivrcudev del nveiv avepos. 

e 0 Be voros and rrjs Oepivrjs rponrjs nve i } /cat ou/c 
a 7 ro rrjs ire pas apKrov. Svo yap ovrcov rprjparojv 
rrjs Svvarrjs olk€ to 6 at ycopas*, rrjs piv npos rov 
a vo) noAov, Kad 5 rjpas, rrjs Si npos rov izrepov Kal 
35 npos peorjpfiplav, Kal ovcrqs otov rvpndvov (roiov- 
362 b rov yap oyrjpa rrjs yrjs iKripvovoiv at e/c rov 
Kevrpov avrrjs ayopevai , /cat noiovoi Svo kwvovs, 
rov piv ex°vra j3acnv rov rponiKov , rov Si rov Sid 
navros (f>a vepov, rrjv Se Kopv<f>r)v ini rov pioov 

a Alex. 99. 11 identifies these with the A ev/covoroi “ fair 
weather winds ” of a 14 above. Thus the whole passage 
362 a 12-31 deals with the winds which blow after the winter 
solstice and correspond to the Etesian winds. They must be 
southerly winds, and are called “ feeble Etesian ” winds not 
because they are northerly but because they correspond to 
the Etesians. The name Bird wind seems to indicate a 
southerly wind, with which the migrant birds return in early 
spring. Yet Be Mundo 395 a 4 refers to the Bird winds as 



after the solstice to a greater extent than at it. In 
the same way the most stifling heats occur not 'when 
the sun is at its most northerly point, but when it 
has had longer to make its heat felt and is still fairly 
close. Similarly after the winter solstice the Bird 
winds a blow. These are feeble Etesian winds, 
blowing later and with less force than the Etesian 
winds proper. They do not begin to blow till the 
seventieth day after the solstice, because the sun is 
then farther off and so has less power. They do not 
blow so continuously because at that time evapora- 
tion is confined to surface substances easily evapo- 
rated, and what is frozen to a greater degree requn es 
a greater degree of heat. So they blow intermittently 
until the Etesian winds rise again at the summer 
solstice ; for from then onwards the wind tends to 
blow almost constantly. 

Rut the south wind blows from the summer tropic The habi- 
and not from the south pole. For there are two orfche earth, 
habitable sectors of the earth's surface, one, in which 
we live, towards the upper pole,* the other towards 
the other, that is the south pole. These sectors are 
drum-shaped — for lines running from the centre of 
the earth cut out this shaped figure on its surface : 
they form two cones, one having the tropic as its 
base, the other the ever- visible circle, 0 while their 
vertex is the centre of the earth ; and two cones 

6 But cf, De Caelo ii. 2, 285 b 15. 

c Strictly, this should mean the circumpolar stars, which, 
as the O.T. points out, and as Aristotle must surely have 
known (cf De Caelo n. 14, 297 b 30 if.), vary with latitude, 
and therefore do not “ serve the purpose of delineating zones 
at all well.” Aristotle probably means the Arctic circle 
(Ideler ii. p. 562), though this way of referring to it is con- 



rrjs yrjs* tov avrov Se Tpouov rrpos tov Kara) uoXov 

5 6T €pOL SlJO KCOVOL TTJS ytjs il<TfArj[JL(LTa TTOLOVCn. 

Tavra S’ oIk€lo 9 at piov a SvvaTOv, Kal ovt eui- 
Keiva rcov Tpoucbv (a Kid yap ovk dv fjv i rpos aptcrov, 
vvv 8* doiKrjroL Ttporepov yiyvovrai oi toitoi uplv 
rj vuoXeiueuv 77 neraflaXXeiv rqv cnciav upo$ pt,e- 
arjpbfiplav) ra 9 * vu 6 Try apKTov vuo xf/vyovs 

10 [Qiperac Se Kal 6 GTe<j>avos Kara tovtov tov 
touov (j&cuVerac yap vuep Ke^aXrjs yiyvop,evos rjpuv, 
or av fj Kara tov pbearjpLppLvov.] 1 

A to Kal yeXoLO)$ ypafovcn, vvv ras nepcoSovg 
ttjs yrjs • ypa<j>ovai yap KVKXoTeprj ttjv olkov[M€V7]v, 
tovto S’ eanv dSvva tov Kara re ua cfraivofieva Kal 
15 Kara rov Xoyov. 6 re yap Xoyos 8 eiKwow on iul 
1 seclusit O.T. 

a It is difficult to give sense or point to this remark, which 
the O.T. brackets as a “ learned interpolation ” : cf. Heidel, 
op. cit. p. 96, note 204. 

b Cf. Thomson, Ancient Geography , pp. 97-99. 



constructed in the same way towards the lower pole 
cut out corresponding segments on the earth's 

N Pole 

These are the only habitable regions ; for the lands 
beyond the tropics are uninhabitable, as there the 
shadow would not fall towards the north, and we 
know that the earth ceases to be habitable before 
the shadow disappears or falls towards the south, 
while the lands beneath the Bear are uninhabitable 
because of the cold. 

[The Crown too passes over this region, for it 
appears to us to be directly overhead when it is on 
our meridian.] a 

The way in which present maps of the world are The dimen- 
drawn is therefore absurd. For they represent the these zones, 
inhabited earth as circular, 6 which is impossible both 
on factual and theoretical grounds. For theoretical 


rrAaros fiev wpiarac, to Se kvkXco orvvdrrretv eVSe- 
yeTat Sta rrjv Kpdaiv, — ox 5 yap vrrepfidXXec ra Kav- 
puaTCL /cat to xjsvyos Kara prjKoSy aXX €7rt rrXdros, 
war el prj rrov KOjXvei daXa rrrjs rrXrjdoSy array 
elvai rropevaipov , — /cat Kara ra <j>aivopeva rrepl re 
20 t ovs rrXovs /cat rds rropelas * rroXv yap to prjKos 
Siatpepei rod rrXarovs . to yap a770 'Hpa/cAetW 
arrjXcbv jaeypt ’IvSt/CTjs* to£ AWiorrlas rrpos 
rrjv Matamv /cat tous* eayarevovras rtfs TiKvOlas 
rorrovs rrXeov fj rrevre rrpos rpla to peyedos eanv, 
eav re tls rovs rrXovs Aoyitprjr ai /cat ras oSovs, cos 
25 evSeyerat Xapfiavecv rcbv rocovrcov ras aK pi fie las* 
Kalroi errl rrAaros pev peypt rcbv aoiKrjrwv lopev 
rrjv olKovpevrjv evda pev yap Sea ipvyos ovKen 
KaroLKOvcriv s evua be bia rrjv aAeav. ra be rrjs 
TvSt Krjs e£co /cat rcbv arrjXcbv rcbv 'Hpa/cAetcor 8ta 
rrjv daXarrav ov <f>alverai avvelpeiv rcb 1 avvexebs 
30 elvai rraaav otKovpevrjv ) . 

9 E7ret S s opolojs lyetv dvayKrj rorrov nva rrpos 
rov erepov rroXov ebarrep ov rjpeis olKovpev rrpos 
rov vrrep rjptbv, SrjXov d>s dvaXoyov egec ra r aAAa 
/cat rcbv rrvevpdrcov rj ar dais' (bare Kadarrep ev- 
ravda fiopeas early, KaKelvois arro rrjs e/cet a pKrov 
35 ns avepos ovreos &v > ov ovSev Svvarov Siexeiv 
Sevpo, errel ovS* 6 fiopeas oSros els rrjv evravda 
363 a olKovpevrjv rrdadv [eortv] 2 eanv yap ebarrep arro - 
yeiov to rrvevpa to fiopei i [ca>s* 6 fiopeas ovros els 

1 crvvdpeiv, ra> Fobes. 2 io nv om. E x O.T. 



calculation shows that it is limited m breadth but 
could, as far as climate is concerned, extend round the 
earth in a continuous belt for it is not difference of 
longitude but of latitude that brings great variations 
of temperature, and if it were not for the ocean which 
prevents it, the complete circuit could be made. And 
the facts known to us from journeys by sea and land 
also confirm the conclusion that its length is much 
greater than its breadth. For if one reckons up these 
voyages and journeys, so far as they are capable of 
yielding any accurate information, the distance from 
the Pillars of Heracles to India exceeds that from 
Aethiopia to Lake Maeotis and the farthest parts of 
Scythia by a ratio greater than that of 5 to 3. Y et 
we know the whole breadth of the habitable world up 
to the unhabitable regions which bound it, where 
habitation ceases on the one side because of the cold, 
on the other because of the heat ; while beyond India 
and the Pillars of Heracles it is the ocean which 
severs the habitable land and prevents it forming a 
continuous belt round the globe. 0 

Since, then, there must be a region which bears to winds in 
the other pole the same relation as that which we lones™ 
inhabit bears to our pole, it is clear that this region correspond, 
will be analogous to ours in the disposition of winds 
as well as in other respects. Thus, just as we have a 
north wind here, so they have a similar wind which 
blows from their pole, and which cannot possibly 
reach us ; for our own north wind does not blow 
right across the region in which we live, & being in 

° So the disproportion of length and breadth may be still 
greater : of, De Caelo li. 14, 298 a 9. 

6 Omit icrriv and understand from b 35 : it seems 
unnecessary to alter (b 35) to Su/jKew with the Q.T. as 

foexeiv can bear the meaning required, to reach to. 



363 a 

rrjv ivravda olKov{ievrjv rrvei]. 1 aXXa Sta to rrjv 
oIktjglv KeioScu ravrrjv rrpos apKrov, rrXeiaroi 
fiopeai rrveovGiv. ojicos 8e Kal ivravda eXXeirrei Kal 
5 ov Svvarai rroppco St rjKeiv, irrel rrepl rrjv e£co 
At fivrjs daXarrav rrjv vorLav, coorrep ivravda ol 
fiopeai kal ol voroi rrveovGiv, ovreos e/C€t eSpoi Kal 
£ 4<t>vpoi 8ia8eyo{ievoi owlets del rrveovaiv. 

"Ore piev oSv 6 voros ovk eanv 6 arro rod iripov 
rroXov rrvecov dvejios, 8rjXov. irrel S’ ovr €K€ivo$ 9 
10 ovre 6 arro xeipbepivrjs rporrrjs (Scot yap dv aXXov 
arro depcvrjs elvai rporrrjs' ovr cos yap to avaXoyov 
arroScbaei' vvv S’ ovk iarar els yap fiovos <f>aiverai 
rrveojv iK redv iKeldev rorrcov )* coot’ avayKrj rov 
arro rov KaraKeKavfievov rorrov rrveovra dve/iov 
elvai vorov . iKeivos S’ 6 rorros Sta rrjv rov rjXiov 
15 yeirvlaaiv ovk eyei vSara Kal vofias , 2 at Sta rrjv 
rfj^iv* TToirjGovGiv irrjGias* aAAa Sta to rov rorrov 
elvai rroXv rrXeico eKelvov Kal dvarrerTrapievov } fiel^cov 
Kal 7rAetcov Kal pidXXov aXeeivos avejios o voros 
iarl rov fiopeov , /cat SirjKei pidXXov 8evpo rj oSros 


Tt? fiev ovv air la rovrcov iarl rd>v avificov 9 Kal 
20 rrebs eyovGi rrpos aXXrjXovs , eiprjrai. 

1 ggd, FobtS 

2 xtovas O.T : cf. 362 a 18, 364 a 8-10. 
3 Trrjgtv Ap Ol Fobes : tt}£lv codd. 



this like a land wind. But because our region of 
habitation lies towards the north, most of our winds 
aie north wmds. a Yet even in our region they fail 
and are not strong enough to travel far ; for in the 
sea south of Libya east and west winds & alternate 
with each other continuously, just as here it is north 
and south winds that blow. 

This proves that our south wind is not the wind 
that blows from the south pole. But it does not blow 
from the winter tropic any more than from the south 
pole. For there would have to be a wind from the 
summer tropic c if the correspondence is to be com- 
plete ; but m fact there is no such wind, but one wind 
only that blows from this region. The south wind 
must therefore be the wind that blows from the torrid 
zone. This region because of its proximity to the sun 
has no streams or pasture land to produce Etesian 
winds by thawing d ; but because the region is greater 
in extent and open, the south wind is greater, stronger 
and warmer than the north and reaches farther 
northwards than the north wind southwards.® 

So much for the cause and mutual relations of these 

a Of. 361 a 5. 

6 Perhaps the Trade Winds m the Indian Ocean. 

c Blowing southwards. 

d The O.T.’s TTj&v is supported by 362 a 18 and 364- a 8-10, 
and has ms. authority : but though the parallel passages 
also suggest ^tova? for voids', ms. authority foi this change 
is lacking. 

e Cf, 361 a 5 if. ; and contrast 364 a 5-10. 





The different winds and their directions are enumerated 
with the aid of a diagram (363 a 21 — 364 a 4). Why most 
winds are northerly (364 a 4-13). A more general classifica - 

363 a 21 Ilcpt Be deaeoos avrtbv , teal rives evavrioi ricn, 
/cat TTotovs dfjb a rrveiv eVSe^erat /cat rroiovs ov 3 eVt 
Se /cat rives /cat ttogol rvyxdvovcnv ovres, /cat irpos 
rovrocs rrepl roov aXXoov rradigpidroov ocra prj cnz/x- 
25 fief}7]Kev iv rocs rrpo^XrjpsaGiv elprjcrdcu rois Kara 
fjieposy vvv XeyajfjLev . 

a With this chapter cf. Be Mundo , ch. 4 and Vent. Sit . et 
App . ; and see D’Arcy Thompson, “ The Greek Winds,” in 
C.JR. xx\ii (1918), pp. 49-56. 

b Cf. Problems xxvi. passim. 


argument ( continued ) 

tion of the winds by the mam points of the compass (364 a 
13-27). Miscellaneous characteristics of the winds described 
(364 a 27-— 365 a 13). 

Let us go on to the positions of the winds a and their 
mutual relations of opposition, and describe which Diagram- 
kinds can blow simultaneously and which cannot and exposition, 
what are their names and numbers, besides dealing 
with any other of their characteristics that have not 
already been treated as separate “ problems,” 6 



The Vent. Sit. supplies at M Leuconotos, the De Mvndo 
Libonotos . while for the doubtful (c/. 364 a 3) Phoemcias 
De Mundo 393 b 33 has Euronotos, which should also 
probably be read in Vent. Sit . 973 b 7 (O.T. note ad loc.). 



363 a 

Aet Se 7 repl rfjs deaecos apta tovs X oyovs e/c rfjs 
V7roypa<f>7]s Oecopeiv. yiypaTrrai ptev odv , tov /x aA- 
A ov evorjptos eyetv, 6 rod opL^ovros kvkXos * Sto 
/cat oTpoyyvXos . Set Se voetv avrov 1 to erepov 
eKTptnjpta to v <f> 9 rjpt&v oIkovjll€vov‘ carat yap /ca- 
30 /cetvo SteAetv tov avrov rpoTrov. vnoKetadco Se 
77 pcorov ptev ivavrta /card tottov elvat ra TrXetGrov 
arriyovTa /card tottov , djorrep /car 9 etSo? ivavrta 
rd TrXetGrov aTreyovra /card to etSos** nXeta top 8 s 
aTreyet /card tottov ra /ce tpteva 7rpos“ aXXvjXa /card 

"Earco o5v to ptev e</> 9 <3 A Svaptr) tor)pteptvrj, 
363 b ivavTtos Se tovtco tottos, i<j) y ov to B, dvaroXrj 
iGr)p,€pivri‘ dXXrj Se htapterpos Tavrrjv rrpos opdrjv 
riptvovoa, fjs to e\/> 9 ov H earco apKros * tovtco S 9 
ivavTcov e£ evavrias, to e<j> 9 ov 0, pteorjptppta- to 
5 8 9 e<£ 9 ov Z avaroXrj deptvrj, to S 9 e<£ 9 <5 E Svoptr} 
deptvrj, to S 9 e<£ 9 ov A dvaroXrj yet pteptvrj, to S* 
e<£ 9 ov r S vaptrj yetpteptvrj <xtto Se tov Z Tjydco 
Staperpos* €77 1 to r. /cat a770 tov A €77t to E. eVet 
ovv Ta pev TrXetGrov arreyovra koto, tottov ivavrta 
Kara tottov, TrXetGrov S 9 drreyet Ta /card St apterpov, 
10 avay/catov /cat tcov TTvevptdrcov t avra aXXrjXots ev- 
avrta elvat, ooa /caTa Sta pterpov iartv . 

KaAetTat Se /caTa t tjv Oiotv tcov tottcov tol 
Trvevptara eSSe- £e<f>vpos ptev to otto tov A* tovto 
yap SvGptr} larjpteptvrj . ivavrios Se tovtco awr}- 
Ate ottjs a7ro tov B* tovto yap dvaroXrj lorj ptep wtf. 
is fiopeas Se (/cat) 2 arraptCTtas arro tov H • evravda 

1 avrov F x H N O.T, : avrov cett. Fobes. 

2 Aral habent Erec. SB s o /tat Free, : om. cett. 



The treatment of their position must be followed 
with the help of the diagram. For the sake of clarity 
we have drawn the circle of the horizon ; that is why 
our figure is round. And it must be supposed to 
represent the section of the earth’s surface in which 
we live ; for the other section could be divided in a 
similar way. Let us first define things as spatially 
opposite when they are farthest removed from each 
other in space (just as things formally opposite are 
things farthest removed from each other in form) ; 
and things are farthest removed from each other in 
space when they lie at opposite ends of the same 

Let the point A be the equinoctial sunset, and the 
point R its opposite, the equinoctial sunrise. Let 
another diameter cut this at right angles, and let 
the point H on this be the north and its diametrical 
opposite 0 be the south. Let the point Z be the 
summer sunrise, the point E the summer sunset, the 
point A the winter sunrise, the point T the winter 
sunset. And from Z let the diameter be draw to T, 
from A to E. Since, then, things spatially farthest 
removed from each other are spatially opposite, and 
things diametrically opposed are farthest removed, 
those winds must be mutually opposite which are 
opposed diametrically. 

The names of the winds corresponding to these 
positions are as follows : Zephyros blows from A, for 
this is the equinoctial sunset. Its opposite is Apehotes 
which blows from B, the equinoctial sunrise. Boreas 
or a Aparctias blows from H, the north. Its opposite 

a Omitting teal the O.T. translates “ the true north wind 
called Aparctias.” 



363 b 

yap rj apKTO$. evavrto? Sc rovrco voro? ano tov 

0 • ptea^pt/Spia re yap olvtyj a<j>* rjs 7 rvet, /cat to © 
ra> H evavrtov Kara Sta perpov yap . ano Sc rod 
Z KaiKtag- avrrj yap avaroXrj Oeptvtf. evavTio? 8* 

20 odro? yap ano Svoptrjs xctptcptv')??, evavrto? Sc 
tovtco (/card Stapierpov yap /cctrat). cwro Sc Tod 
A cdpo?* odro? yap an avaToXrjs ^ctptcptVTj? nvzt, 
yctrvtcdv tw votco * Sto /cat ttoXX&kls evpovoTOt 
Xeyovrat nveiv. evavrto? Sc tovtco oi>x o ano tov 
r At^r, aAA’ 6 ano tov E, ov /caAodatv oi ptcv 
25 dpyeoTrjv, ot S’ oXvfjtntav, oi Sc OTCtpa/va* ovtos 
yap ano Si lar/jLfjs deptvrjs nvet, /cat /caret Stapierpov 
aoTa) /cctrat ptovo?. 

OStol ptcv ovv oi /card Sta fitTpov re /cetpievoi 
aveptot /cat oi? ctatv evavriot* erepot S’ eicrtv /cad’ 
od? od/c ccrr tv evavrta nvevjJtara. ano ptcv yap tov 

1 ov KaXovoi dpaoKiav * odro? yap ptecro? apyecrTov 
30 /cat anapKTtov * afro Sc rod K ov koXovglv ptdorjv 

oStos yap ptcao? kolklov /cat anapKTtov. rj Sc rod 
IK St apterpo? fiovXeTat ptcv /card rov Sta navros 
ctvat <f>atvop,€vov > ovk a/cptjSot Sc. evavrta Sc rod- 
rot? od/c cart rot? Trvevptaotv, ovtg tcx> ptecr# (cVvct 

364 a yap av rt? c<£’ od to M * rodro yap /card Stapierpov) 

odre ra> I, ra> dpacr/cta (cttvci yap av a7ro rod N* 
rodro yap /card Stcipi crpov ro arjfjtetov, et fJtrj an* 
adrod /cat err* oAtyov 7rvet rt? avepto?, ov koXqvoiv 
oi nepl tov Tonov c/cctvov <f>otvtKiav ) . 

5 Ta ptcv odv KvpuoTara /cat Stcoptcrptcva Trvedptara 
TavT* ioTt /cat rodrov rera/crat rov Tponov* tov S* 
ctvat nXetovs dvepovs ano twv npos dpKTOV Toncov 



is Notos which blows from 9, the south, 0 and H 
being diametrically opposed. From Z blows Caecias, 
that is, from the summer sunrise. Its opposite is not 
the wind blowing from E, but the wind from F, Lips, 
which blows from the winter sunset, and so is opposite 
to Caecias, being diametrically opposed to it. From 
A blows Eurus, for it blows from the winter sunrise 
and is the neighbour of Notos ; so people often speak 
of the Euronotoi blowing. Its opposite is not Lips, 
the wind from F, but the wind from E called some- 
times Argestes, sometimes Olympias, sometimes 
Sciron. For it blows from the summer sunset and 
is the only diametrical opposite to Eurus. 

These, then, are the winds which have diametrical Most winds 
opposites ; but there are others which have no winds norfcherl> ' 
opposite them. From I blows the wind they call 
Thrascias, which lies between Argestes and Aparctias : 
from K the wind they call Meses, which lies between 
Caecias and Aparctias. The chord IK nearly corre- 
sponds to the ever-visible circle a but fails to do so 
exactly. There are no opposites to those winds : 
neither to Meses, otherwise there would be a wind 
from the point M diametrically opposite, nor to 
Thrascias at I, otherwise there would be a wind from 
N, the point diametrically opposite, which there is 
not, except perhaps a local wind called by the inhabi- 
tants Phoenicias. 

These, thgn, are the most important different winds 
and their positions. There are two reasons for there 
being more winds from the northerly than from the 

Of \ ch. 5, note c on p. 179. 



384 a , »• 

fj rov 7 Tpos peorjpfiplav alnov to re rrjv olkov- 
pevrjv vnoKetodat rrpos rovrov rov rorrov, Kal on 
noXXo rrXeov vSop kcu X i( ^ v dnoOetrai els rovro 
10 to pepos Sta to eKeiva vno rov rjXcov elvat Kal rrjv 
eKelvov <f>opav, ov TTjKOfjLevwv els rrjv yrjv Kal 
Oeppatvopevcov m to rov rjXlov Kal rrjs yrjs avay- 
Kalov rrXelo Kal h rl nX elo rorrov ylyveod at rrjv 
avaOvplaotv Sta ravrrjv rrjv air lav. 

’'EcrTt Si rov elprjpevov nvevparov fiopeas piv 
o r arrapKnas Kvpubrara, Kal dpaoKtas Kal 
15 peejr)s’ 6 Si KaiKias kolvos dTrrjXtcvrov Kal fiopeow 
voros Si o re Wayevrjs 6 otto peorjpfiplas 'Kal Xhfr 
dnrjXtedrrjs Si o re air’ avaroXrjs loppeptvrjs Kal 
o evpos * o oe epotvLKtas kolvos ' L,e<pvpos be o re 
Wayevrjs Kal 6 apyeorrjs KaXovpevos . oXeos Si rd 
piv fSopeia rovrov KaXetrat , ra Si vona rrpoo- 
20 rlderai Si ra piv £eef>vpLKa rep fiopea (i/jvxporepa 
yap Sta ro arro Svopedv nvetv), vorep Si ra dnr\- 
Atam/ca (deplore pa yap Sea to drr avaroXrjs nvelv ) . 
Siopiopevov ovv rep ijjvxpcp Kal rep Oepptp Kal 
aXeetvo rov nvevparov ovros eKaXeoav. deppo- 
25 repa piv rd a no rrjs eo rov arro Svoprjs, on 
nXeio xpdvov vno rov rjXiov eon rd an avaroXrjs * 
Ta S’ a7ro Svoprjs dnoXetnei re d dr rov Kal nXrj- 
OLa^ei rep ronep oifnalrepov. 

Ovreo Si reraypevov rov avepov, SrjXov on 
dpa nvelv rods j aiv eva vrlovs ovx olov re (Kara 
S taper pov yap • dr epos ovv rra vaerai anofiiaodels) , 
SO rods Si prj ovros Keipevovs rrpos aXXrjXovs ovSiv 
KwXvet, olov rov Z Kal A. Sta rovro dpa rrveovcnv 



southerly regions a First, our inhabited region lies 
towards the north ; second, far more ram and snow 
is pushed up into this region because the other lies 
beneath the sun and its course. These melt and are 
absorbed by the earth and when subsequently heated 
by the sun and the earth’s own heat cause a greater 
and more extensive exhalation & 

Of the winds thus described the truest north Classifica- 
wmds are Aparctias, Thrascias and Meses. Caecias pomts y of 
is pait east and part north. South are the winds that compass 
come from due south and Lips. East are the winds 
that come from the equinoctial sunrise and Eurus. 
Phoemcias is part south, part east. West is the wind 
from due west and also the wind called Argestes. 

There is a general classification of these winds into 
northerly and southerly : westerly winds are counted 
as northerly, being colder because they blow from 
the sunset ; easterly winds are counted as southerly, 
being warmer because they blow from the sunrise. 

Winds are thus called northerly and southerly accord- 
ing to this division into cold and hot or warm. Winds 
from the sunrise are warmer than winds from the 
sunset, because those from the sunrise are exposed 
to the sun for longer ; while those from the sunset 
are reached by the sun later and it soon leaves them/ 

This being the arrangement of the winds, it is clear Misceliane- 
that opposite winds cannot blow at the same time, ^eristics, 
for one or other w r ould be overpowered and stop 
blowing ; but there is nothing to prevent two winds 
not so related blowing at once, as, for instance, the 
winds from Z and A. So two winds may sometimes 
« Of. 361 a 4, 363 a 2. 

6 Of. 361 a 6 if., 362 a 3, a 17 * contrast 363 a 15. 
c “ A poor aigument even for a flat-earth man ; and for 
Aristotle with his round earth lamentable. Perhaps the 
sentence should be condemned ” (O.T.). 




be favourable to ships making for the same point, 
though they are not blowing from the same quarter 
and are not the same wind. 

As a rule, opposite winds blow in opposite seasons : 
for instance, at the time of the vernal equinox Caecias 
and winds from north of the summer sunrise prevail ; 
in the autumn Lips ; at the summer solstice Zephyros, 
at the winter Eurus. 

Aparctias, Thrascias and Argestes are the winds 
that most often interrupt and stop others. For be- 
cause their source is nearest to us they blow with 
the greatest frequency and strength of all winds. 
They therefore bring the fairest weather of all, for 
blowing from near at hand they foice other winds 
away and stop them, and by blowing away any 
clouds that have formed make fair weather. If, 
however, they happen also to be very cold they do 
not bring fair weather ; for if they are cold rather 
than strong they freeze the clouds before they can 
drive them away. Caecias is not a fair-weather wind 
because it turns back on itself a — hence the proverb 
“ Drawing it to himself as Caecias clouds.” 

When a wind drops it is succeeded by its neighbour 
in the direction of the sun’s movement ; for what 
lies next to the source of a movement is set in motion 
first and the source of the winds moves round with 
the sun. & 

Opposite winds produce either the same or opposite 
effects : for instance, Lips and Caecias (wiiich some 

a Qf. Problems xxvi. 1 and 29. Caecias, “ descending from 
above, sweeps in a circular course up into the sky, and thence 
returns to the point fiom which it started ” (O.T. note ad 
Problems xxvi. 1). 

& Presumably because the sun is the controlling cause 
of the exhalation which produces wind. 



364 b 

20 KdXovarw [/cat edpos, op ai TrjXuoTrjv']. 1 £rjpot Si 

dpyecrrrjs /cat evpos ‘ cwr’ &€ oStos £r)pos 3 

TeXet n&v Se vSaTCoSrjs- 

Nt<f>€TcoSrjs Si pearjs /cat a^ap/crtas* paAtora* 
ovtol yap i/jvxporaroL. ^aAa^coSets* Si airapKTLas 
/cat dpauKias /cat dpydcrrrjs, KavpaTdoSrjs Si votos 
/cat £ £(f>vpos /cat edpos- P€<f>eac Si ttvkvovgl top 
25 ovpavop /cat/ctas’ pip orcf>6Spa , Xhft Si apaioripois , 
/cat/ctas* piv 8ta re to avaKapirrew irpos avrov /cat 
8ta to kolpos elpat fiopeov /cat evpov, ajcrre Sta p iv 
to iftvxpos that 7 rrjypvs top arpi^ovra aepa avv- 
lott]gl t Sta Si to tco tottco dTrrjXtcoTLKOs etvat e^et 
TToXXrjv vXtjp /cat arplSa rjp Trpocodel. atdptoi Si 
30 aTrapKTias, dpaoKtas, dpyearrjS' rj S’ atVta etprjTat 
TTpoTepov. doTparras Si ttolovglp paAtora ovtol 
t€ /cat o peorjs' Sta pev yap to iyyudep ttp€lv 
ifsvxpol elatp, Sta Se to ijjvxpov doTpa7Trj ylyveTat * 
e/c/cptVeTat yap owtovTcuv to/v ve<j>cov. 8 to /cat 

365 a evtot tcop ai>Tcop tovtcop ^aAa£d>8 ets 1 etcrtV* ra^a 

yap 7rrjyvvovoLv . 

’E/cve^tat Se ylypoPTai peTomopou pip paAtora , 
e!ra eapos, /cat paAtora drrapKTLas /cat dpaoxtas 
/cat dpyecTrjs. air lop S’ oVt ot e/a/etj&tat yiyvovTCLt 
paAtora oTav tcop aXXcop rrveovTOJv ipTrurTTCOotv 

TTpiovatP' rj S’ atTta etp^Tat /cat tovtov irpoTepop . 

Ot 8 s er^crtat 7T€pu<JTaPTaL tols piv rept Svcrpas 
oIkovglp £k tcop drrapKTtcop els dpaaKtas /cat 
1 seclusit O.T. 



call Hellespontias) are both wet winds.® Dry are 
Argestes and Eurus — the latter, however, though it 
starts by being dry, ends up by being ramy. 

Meses and Aparctias are the most snowy, because 
they are the coldest. Aparctias, Thrascias and 
Argestes bring hail. Notos, Zephyros and Eurus 
bring heat. Caecias fills the sky with thick clouds, 
lips with thinner. Caecias does this because it turns 
back on itself, and because it is part north and part 
east and so, being cold, collects and freezes the vapo- 
rized air, and being easterly m position has a great 
deal of vapour as material which it drives before it 
Aparctias, Thrascias and Argestes are fair-weather 
winds for the reason we have given before. 6 They 
and Meses most often produce lightning. For they 
are cold because their origin is near, and lightning 
is produced by cold, being driven out by the con- 
densation of the clouds c For this reason some of 
these same winds sometimes biing hail, for they 
freeze quickly. 

Hurricanes occur most often in autumn, and next 
in spring : and Aparctias, Thrascias and Argestes 
most often cause them. The reason for this is that 
hurricanes are usually the result of one wind falling 
on another while it is still blowing, and these are the 
winds that do this most often. Why they do it we 
have already explained.** 

The Etesian winds veer round, for people living 
in the west, from Aparctias to Thrascias, Argestes 

* I omit th% words /cat efipos, ov drrTjXtc (m)v with the O.T., 
since the argument requires that pairs of contrary winds 
should be named and the introduction of a third wind makes 

6 364 b 7. 

0 Of. below, ch. 9. d 364 b 3. 



365 a 

a pyearas Kal £erf>vpovs [(o yap aTrapKrlas 
£e(f>vpos ecrriv),] 1 apxdpevoL pev dr to rrjs dpKrov } 
10 reA evrcovres S 9 els rovs r Toppco* rots Se rrpos ecu 
rre pilar avrai pe xpi rov drrYjXuorov . 

IT epl pev ovv dvepojv } rrjs re apXV$ cvurcov 
yeveaecos Kal ovalas Kal rcov avpftaivovrcov Koivfj 
re rra8r]pdra)y Kal rrepl eKaarov, rooavd' rjplv 



Earthquakes . The views of Anaxagoras (3 65 a 18-35), 

365 a 14 II epl 8e aeiapov Kal Kivtfoecos yrjs pera ravra 
15 XeKreov fj yap air ia rov rrdOovs eyopevr) rovrov 
rov yevovs early. 

v E<m Se ra 7rapeiXrjppdva peypi 7 e T0 # v w 
Xpovov rpla Kal rrapa rpicov . 9 Avatjayopas re yap 

6 KAa ^opevios Kal rrporepov 5 Avatjipevrjs 6 M 1 A 77 - 
oios ame^yqvavro , Kal rovrcov varepov ArjpoKpiros 
6 9 Af$8r}plrrjs. 

20 9 Ava£ayopas pev ovv cfuqai rov al&ipa rre<f>vKora 
<f>epeo6 ai avco, eprrinrovra 8 * els ra Kara} rrjs yrjs 
Kal Koika KLveiv avrojv ra pev yap avco avvaXrj- 
XeZ <j>9ai 8ia rovs opfipovs (errel <f>voee ye arraaav 
opoiajs elvai aop<j>ijv), cos ovros rov pev avco rov 
8k Karco rrjs oXrjs <r<f>alpas, Kal avco pev rovrov 


Diels 56 A 1 (9), 42 (12), 89. 


and Zephyros, beginning from north and ending 
farther south ; for people living in the east, they veer 
from the north to Apeliotes. 

This completes our account of winds, their original 
genesis, their substance, and the attributes common 
to all and peculiar to each. 

1 seclusit O.T. 

argument ( [continued ) 

Democritus (365 b 1-6), and Anammenes (365 b 6-20) are 
stated and criticized. 

We must next deal with earthquakes and earth 
tremors, a subject which follows naturally on our last, 
as the cause of these phenomena is akin to that of 

Up to the present three theories have been put Three 
forward by three separate men. For Anaxagoras of views : 
Clazomenae and before him Anaximenes of Miletus 
both published views on the subject, and after them 
Democritus of Abdera. 

Anaxagoras a says that the air, whose natural Anaxa- 
motion is upwards, causes earthquakes when it is goras ; 
trapped in hollows beneath the earth, which happens 
when the umper parts of the earth get clogged by 
rain, all eartn being naturally porous. For he regards 
the globe 1 as having an upper and a lower part, the 

& a<f>aipa presumably means the earth : but Anaxagoras 
thought the earth was flat : Diels 59 A 43 (3). 



365 a 

25 OVT OS TOV (JLOpLOV i<f>* ov Tvyxdvopev oIkovvt€$, 
Kara) he daripov. 

Updg p>ev ovv tovttjv rrjv alriav ovhev lacog §6? 
Xeyeiv cog Xlav aTrXcbg elprjpLevrjv' to Te ydp avco 
Kal to Karoo vo pei^eiv ovtcos ex €lv c ^ crT€ l^V rrpog 
pev ttjv yrjv Trdvrrj cj>epe adai ra fiapos e^ovra tcov 
acopsdrcov, avco he ra Kov<j) a Kal to rrvp y evades, 
30 Kal Tavd 9 opcdvTag tov opi^ovTa ttjv OLKOvpevrjv 
ocrqv r/pieig iop,ev y eTepov del yiyvopievov p,e6iOTa~ 
pievcov, cog ovarjg KvpTrjg Kal crfiaipoeihovg' Kal to 
Xeyeiv [iev cog hid to pt,eye6og errl tov aepog pieveiv, 
aeieadai he <j)doKeiv TvrrTopievrjv KaTcoBev avco Si* 
oXrjg , rrpog he tovtols ovhev arrohihcoai tcov crvp~ 
35 jSa lvovtcov rrepl tov g oeiop,ovg' ovTe ydp ^a>pat 
ovTe cbpai a i Tvxovaai pieTexovcn tovtov tov rra- 
9ovg . 

365 b A rjpbOKpcTog he cf>7j(n TrXrjprj ti )v yrjv vhaTog oboav, 
Kal ttoXv hexopcevrjv eTepov opifipiov vhcop y vr to tov- 
tov Kivetodac • ttX elovog Te ydp yiyvopievov hid to 
pirj hvvaodai hex^adai Tag KoiXlag aTrofiia^opievov 
5 TTotelv tov aeiopiov, Kal ^rjpaivopuevrjv eXKovoav elg 
Tovg Kevovg Torrovg €k tcov rrXrjpeoTepcov to peTa~ 
fiaXXov ipuTTiTTTov Kiveiv. 

’Avagipievrjg he c^rjcnv Ppexopbdvrjv ttjv yrjv Kal 
tjrjpaivopievrjv prjyvvcr9ai y Kal vrrd tovtcov tcov drrop - 
prjyvvpievcov koXcovwv epmmTOVTCov oeieoQai' hid 
Kal ytyveaQ ai Tovg aeiapiovg ev Te Tofc a vxP'Oig Kal 
10 rraXiv ev to eg irro [Appeals' ev Te ydp tois avxpois, 

a Aristotle is here criticizing Anaxagoras for a mistake of 
which he himself has often m turn been accused, that of 


part on which we live being the upper part, the other 
the lower. 

It is perhaps hardly necessary to say anything to 
refute this very elementary account. For it is very 
silly to think of up and down as if heavy bodies 
did not fall down to the earth from all directions and 
light ones ( e.g . fire) rise up from it, especially when 
we see that throughout the known world the horizon 
always changes as we move, which indicates that we 
live on the convex surface of a sphere a It is silly, 
too, to think that the earth rests on the air because 
of its size, and that it is jarred right through by a 
shock from below. Besides, he fails to account for 
any of the peculiar features of earthquakes, which 
do not occur in any district or at any time indis- 

Democritus 6 says the earth is full of water and Demo- 
that earthquakes are caused when a large amount of crltu8; 
rain water falls besides this ; for when there is too 
much for the existing cavities in the earth to contain, 
it causes an earthquake by forcing its way out. 
Similarly, when the earth gets dried up water is drawn 
to the empty places from the fuller and causes earth- 
quakes by the impact of its passage. 

Anaximenes c says that when the earth is in process Anaxi- 
of becoming wet or dry it breaks, and is shaken by mene8, 
the high ground breaking and falling. Which is why 
earthquakes occur in droughts and again m heavy 
rains : for in droughts the earth is dried and so, as 

supposing that up and down are absolute and not relative 
terms. The absoluteness m Aristotle’s own use of the terms 
is due to his belief that the centre of the earth is the absolute 
centre of the universe 

6 Diels 68 A 97, 98. 

* Diels 13 A 7 (8), 31. 



365 b / < / 

courrep eLpyraL, £ rjpaivopLevrjv p'qyvvad ai, Kal vrro 
rcbv vSarcov vTrepvypaivopiivrjv hiarrLrrreiv 
,/ E8e6 Se rovrov ov^fiaLvovros vTrovoorovcjav ttoX - 
Xaxfj <f>alv€adai rrjv yrjv. en Se 8td riv air Lav 
7T€pi tottovs riv a ? ttoXXolkis yCyverai rovro to 
15 rrddos ovBefua 8ia<j>£povra$ VTrepfioXfj roiavrrj rrapa 
rovs aXXovs; Kairoi £xPV v - dXcog 8e rocg ovtcds 
v7ToXap,f$avovGiv avayKalov rjrrov del rovs crecapovs 
<j>av at, yLyvecrOai, Kal reXos Travaaodal wore creio- 
fj,ev7]v to yap aarrofievov roiavrrjv ex €l <f>vcnv. 
a> err 9 el tout’ dhvvarov, SrjXov on aSvvarov Kal 
20 ravrrjv etvai rrjv air Lav. 



Earth quakes {continued ) . The cause of earthquakes is wind 
(i.e. dry exhalation) when it gets trapped in the earth (365 
b 21 — 366 a 5). So most earthquakes occur m calm weather , 
having exhausted all the available wind * if an earthquake is 
accompanied by a wind it is likely to be less violent as the 
motive cause is divided (366 a 5-23). Earthquakes are severest 
in places where the earth is hollow (366 a 23-b 1) ; and most 
frequent m spring and autumn and during rains and 
droughts, since exhalation is produced in the greatest quan- 
tities at these times (366 b 1-14). Analogies from the human 
body and confirmatory examples (366 b 14 — 367 a 20). 
Various concomitants and signs of earthquakes all confirm 
our theory (367 a 20-b 19). Earthquakes anfc eclipses (367 
b 19-33). After a severe earthquake the shocks may last for 
some time (367 b 33 — 368 a 14). Wind the cause of sub- 
terranean noises (368 a 14-25). Earthquakes are sometimes 
accompanied by an outbreak of water . but their cause is 


just explained, breaks, and when Ihe rains make it 
excessively wet it falls apart 

But (i) if this is so the earth ought to be sinking 
obviously in many places, (11) and why do earthquakes 
occur often m some places which, compared with 
others, are by no means conspicuous for any such 
excess of drought or rain, as on this theory they 
should be * (iii) Besides, on this theory it must he 
maintained that earthquakes are getting progres- 
sively fewer, and will some day cease altogether. For 
this would be the natural result of the packing down 
process it describes. But if this is impossible, then 
this account of their cause must be impossible too. 


argument (continued) 

nevertheless air (368 a 26-33). Why tidal waves accompany 
earthquakes (368 a 33-b 12). Why earthquakes are confined 
to one locality , while winds are more general (368 b 12-22). 
Two types of earthquake shock (368 b 22-32). Earthquakes 
rare m islands at a distance from the mainland (368 b 32 — 
369 a 7). Conclusion (369 a 7-9). 

Note. — In this chapter the word normally translated 
“ wind ” is Trvevpa : but on occasion avepos is wed as an 
alternative , and twice , apparently , afip (367 a 11, 20). More 
strictly , arjp is atmospheric air , a combination of the dry 
and moist exhalations . irvsvpa and avtpos, both translated 
“ wind,” andjboth composed of dry exhalation, are closely 
similar ; but avepos is the narrower term , meaning wind in 
the strict sense, whereas % Tvevpa, both m this and the following 
chapters (it. 8, 9, in. 1), is used in a wider sense to mean the 
dry exhalation in so far as it is the material which, manifests 
itself not only m wind in the strict sense, but in earthquakes, 



thunder , lightning , •parallel with the human 

body drawn in 366 b 14 ft compare fthahespeare, Henry IV, 

Pt. I . w . i : 

Diseased nature oftentimes breaks foith 
In strange eruptions ; oft the teeming earth 

365 b 21 ’AAA’ irreiSrj cfiavepov on dvayKatov Kal ai to 
vypov Kal am? £ rjpov yiyvead at dvadvplaaiv, cdarrep 
eirropev iv rots rrporepov , a vdyKrj rovrcov vrrap- 
yovroov yiyvead at rods aeiapovs. vrrapxei yap rj 
25 yrj Kad ’ avrrjv pev (jrjpd, Sia Se rovs opftpovs 
exovaa iv avrfj vorlSa rroXXrjv, chad* vrro re rod 
rjXlov Kal rov iv avrfj rrvpos deppaivopevrjs rroXv 
pev e£a) rroXv S’ ivros yiyvead at to rrvevpa • Kal 
rovro ore pev avvexes e^w pet rrav, ore S’ elaco rrav, 
iviore Se Kal pepl^er at. 

El Srj rovr aSvvarov aXXcos e^etv, to pera rovro 
30 aKerrreov dv eir) rrotov KivrjriKtbrarov el rj rcbv ao- 
parcov dvdyKr) yap rd irrl rrXetarov re rre<j>VKos 
lev at Kal acjioSporarov pdXiara roiovrov elvai . 
a<j>oSporarov pev ovv avdyKrjs ro raxiara <j>epo- 
pevov • rrXrjoaei yap paXiara Sid rd raxos * irrl 
rrXetarov Se rre<j>VKe Suevai rd Sea rravros lev ai 
35 paXiara Svvdpevov , roiovrov Se rd Xerrrorarov. 

366 a edar eirrep rj rov rrvev paros <f>vais rotavrrj, paXiara 
rcbv awparov rd rrvevpa KivrjriKov' Kal yap rd 
rrvp orav pera rrvevparos rj, ylyverai <j>X o£ Kal 
<f>eperai raxecos. ovk dv odv xlScop ov Se yrj alnov 
eir) y aXXa rrvevpa rrjs Kivrjaeos, orayi eiaco rvyj) 
5 pvev rd e£o dvadvpicbpevov . 

A id ylyvovrai vrjveplas ol rrXetaroi Kal peyiaroi 
rcbv aeiapdbv ovvex^S ydp ovaa rj dvadvplaais 



Is with a kind of colic pinch’d and vex’d 

By the imprisoning of unruly wind 

Within her womb , which, for enlargement striving, 

Shakes the old beldam earth, and topples down 
Steeples and moss-grown toweis. 

Now it is clear, as we have already said, a that there The cause 
must be exhalation both from moist and dry, and Quakers 
earthquakes are a necessary result of the existence ^g^ ro “ 
of these exhalations. For the earth is m itself dry exhalation 
but contains much moisture because of the rain that 
falls on it ; with the result that when it is heated by 
the sun and its own internal fire, a considerable 
amount of wind is generated both outside it and 
inside, and this sometimes all flows out, sometimes 
all flows in, while sometimes it is split up. 

This process is inevitable. Our next step should 
therefore be to consider what substance has the 
greatest motive power. This must necessarily be 
the substance whose natural motion is most pro- 
longed and whose action is most violent. The sub- 
stance most violent in action must be that which has 
the greatest velocity, as its velocity makes its impact 
most forcible. The farthest mover must be the most 
penetrating, that is, the finest. If, therefore, the 
natural constitution of wind is of this kind, it must 
be the substance whose motive power is the greatest. 

For even fire when conjoined with wind is blown to 
flame and moves quickly. So the cause of earth 
tremors is neither water nor earth but wind, which 
causes thei*i when the external exhalation Hows 

This is why the majority of earthquakes and the Earth- 
greatest occur in calm weather. For the exhalation commonest 

in calm 

• Book I. ch. 4, 341 b 6. weather 



366 a ^ 

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</ if «/ i\ e ~ \ O) > / 

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ylyvecd ai Kal rrvevpaTOs ovtos oiiSev dXoyov opw- 
10 pev yap evloTe apa rrXelovs rrveovTas a vepovs, &v 
OTav els t rjv yrjv opprjorj 6aTepov y eoTai rrvev paros 
ovtos 6 oeiapos. eXa ttovs S’ oStol to peyeOos 

yiyvovTai Sia to Sirjprjadai ttjv dpxfy KCLL T V V 
air lav a vtcov. vvktos S’ ol rrXelovs Kal pel^ovs 

ylyvovrai tcov oeiopcov y ol Se ttjs rjpepas 7repl 
15 peor)p[}plav vrjvepcoTaTOV yap Igtiv tbs irrl to ttoAu 
ttjs rjpepas rj peorjpfipla (o yap rjXios or av pdXiOTa 
KpaTrj } KaTaicXelei ttjv avadvplaaiv els ttjv yrjv 
Kparet Se paXiura rrepl rrjv pearjp^plav) y Kal at 
vvKTes Se tcov rjpepcov vrjvepcoTepai Sid ttjv arrov - 
a lav ttjv tov rjXlov m coot 5 taco ylyverai rraXiv rj 
20 pvais, coorrep dprrtoris > els TovvavTiov ttjs e£co 
rrXrjppvplSos, Kal rrpos opdpov paXiOTa* rrjviKav ra 
yap Kal Ta rrvev para rre<f>VKev apyeodai rrvelv . 
eav ovv eloco Tvyrj peTafidXXovoa rj dpyr] avrcdv 
cborrep Evpivos, Sta to rrXrjdos laxvporepov rroiei 
tov oeiopov . 

w Ert Se rrepl tottovs toiovtovs ol loxvpoTaToi 
25 yiyvovTai tcov oeiopcov, orrov daXaTTa pocdSrjs rj 
rj x c ^P a cr opcf>r) Kal vrravTpos' Sid Kal rrepl 'EAA^cr- 
ttovtov Kal rrepl 'Ayaiav Kal HiKeXlav, Kal rrjs 
Evfiolas rrepl tovtovs tovs tottovs ' SoKei yap 
SiavX covl^eiv vrro ttjv yrjv rj daXarra • Sid Kal Ta 
deppd Ta rrepl AlSrjipov arro roiavrrjs air las yeyove . 
so rrepl Se rods elprjpevovs tottovs ol oeiopol ylyvov rat 
paXiGTa Sid rrjv orevoTrjTa* to yap rrvev pa yi - 
yvopevov o<f>oSpov Kal Sid to rrXrjdos rrjs daXaTrrjs 
rroXXrjs rrpoocfrepopevrjs arrcodeirai rraXiv els rrjv 


being continuous in general follows its initial impulse 
and tends either all to flow inwards at once or all 
outwards. There is, however, nothing inexplicable in 
the fact that some earthquakes occur when a wind 
is blowing ; for we sometimes see several winds 
blowing at the same time, and when one of these 
plunges into the earth the resultant earthquake is 
accompanied by wind. Rut these earthquakes are 
less violent, because the energy of their original cause 
is divided Most major earthquakes occur at night, 
and those that occur in daytime at midday, this being 
as a rule the calmest time of day, because when the 
sun is at its strongest it confines the exhalation within 
the earth, and it is at its strongest about midday ; 
and the night again is calmer than the day because 
of the sun’s absence. So at these times the flow turns 
inwards again, like an ebb as opposed to the out- 
ward flood. This happens especially towards dawn, 
for it is then that winds normally begin to blow. If, 
then, the original impulse of the exhalation changes 
direction, like the Euripus, and turns inwards, it 
causes a more violent earthquake because of its 

Again, the severest earthquakes occur in places Where 
where the sea is full of currents or the earth is porous are severit! 
and hollow. So they occur in the Hellespont and 
Achaea and Sicily, and in the districts in Euboea where 
the sea is supposed to run in channels beneath the 
earth. The hot springs at Aedepsus a are due to a 
similar cau%e. In the places mentioned earthquakes 
occur mostly because of the constricted space. For 
when a violent wind arises the volume of the inflowing 
sea drives it back into the earth, when it would 

a In Euboea. 



366 a 

yfjv, TO 7 T€<j>VKO$ OUTOTTVeiV €K rfjs yTjS at T€ X&pCU 

366 b ooai aopb<f>ovs exovai T °vs Kara) rorrovs, ttoXu Se^o- 
ptevat rrvevpa oelovrat piaXXov. 

Kat eapos Be Kal peroTrwpov ptaXtora Kal iv 
ir-oppplais Kal iv abyptois yLyvovr at Bed rrjv avrrjv 
air Lav at re yap Spat aSrac TrvevparevBeorarai* 
5 to yap depos Kal 6 to pe v Bid r ov 7rayov , 

to 8c Bid rrjv dXeav Troiei rrjv aKtvrjCjLav to pev yap 
ayav ifjvxpov , to S 9 ayav i^jpov iorr Kal iv pev 
rots abypots TTvevparevhrjs 6 ar\p * rovro yap avro 
ear iv 6 avypds, orav TrXelwv rj ava9v placets rj £rjpd 
ylyvrjrai rrjs vypds * iv Se Tat? vrrepopppLais rrXelev 
10 re TTOiel rrjv ivros avadvpLaatv, Kal rep ivarroXap- 
paveada i iv arevorepots rorrois Kal aTropia^eodai 
els iXarrco rorrov rrjv roiavrrjv avoKpienv , rrXrjpov- 
pevev v ra>v kolXlcov vBaros, orav dp^rjrac Kparetv 
Bid ro rroXv els oXLyov mXrjOrjvat rorrov, loxvpevs 
15 Kivet pecov 6 avepos Kal upoorr 'arrow ' Bet yap voeiv 
on a>G7Tep iv rep orevpan rjpcbv Kal rpopevv Kal 
aej>vypo)v alnov ianv rj rod rrvev paros ivarroXapb - 
fiavopevr} Bvvapts, ovrto Kal iv rfj yfj ro nvevpa 
TrapaTrXrjaiov Txotelv, Kal rov pev rd)v aetespevv otov 
r popov etvai rov S’ otov crcf>vyp6v, Kal Kadarrep 
20 ovppalvet ttoXXolkis pera rrjv ovprjobv (Sta rod 
oevparos yap ylyverai ebarrep rpopos ns avnped- 
torapevov rov rrvev paros e^evdev etaco aQpoov), 
roiavra [yap] 1 ytyveodai Kal rrepl rrjv yrjv. oarjv 
8* e'x^e ro Trvevpba Bvvapuv, ov povov iK*rcov iv rep 
dept Bel 6eo)pebv yiyvopivcvv {ivravOa pbiv yap Bid 
ro peyedos vnoXafioi ns av roiavra Svvaodab 
25 Troietv) aXXd Kal iv rots aeopaot rots rcbv £epcov 
ot re yap reravot Kal ol orracrpol rrvev paros pev 


naturally be exhaled from ifc. And places whose sub- 
soil is porous are shaken more because of the large 
amount of wind they absorb. 

For the same reason earthquakes occur most often when 
in spring and autumn and during rains and droughts, most^ 68 
since these periods produce most wind. For summer frequent, 
and winter both bring calm weather, the one because 
of its frosts, the other because of its warmth, the one 
thus being too cold, the other being too dry to pro- 
duce winds. But in times of di ought the air is full 
of wind, drought simply being an excess of dry over 
moist exhalation. In times of rain the exhalation is 
produced within the earth in greater quantity , a and 
when what has been so produced is caught in a con- 
stricted space and forcibly compressed as the hollows 
within the earth fill with water, the impact of the 
stream of the wind on the earth causes a severe shock, 
once the compression of a large quantity of it into a 
small space begins to have its effect. For we must Analogies 
suppose that the wind in the earth has effects similar i^an 16 
to those of the wind in our bodies whose force when body 
it is pent up inside us can cause tremors and throb- 
bings, some earthquakes being like a tremor, some 
like a throbbing. We must suppose, again, that the 
earth is affected as we often are after making water, 
when a sort of tremor runs through the body as a body 
of wind turns inwards again from without 5 For the 
force that wind has can be seen not only by studying 
its effects in the air, when one would expect it to be 
able to produce them because of its volume, but also 
in the bodies of living things. Tetanus and spasms 
0 Qf. S61 a 17. 

b Of. Problems vm. 8, 13, xxxiii. 16. 

1 yap seclusit Fobes. 



366 b 

etcrtv Kivrjoeis , Tocravrrjv 8e eyovonv Icryvv ajcrre 
TToXXoVS dpia TTeipCVpieVOVS OLTTOj 8ta£ea0at j u,rj Su- 
vclgBcll KparzZv rrjs KLvrjoews tcov dppcoarovvrcov. 
toiovtov 8 7] Sec voeiv to yiyvop,evov /cat iv rfj yrj, 
30 cos“ et/cacrat Trpos pUKpov pLel^ov. 

S^jLteta §€ tovtcov /cat TTpos ttjv rjpberepav aioQy}- 
giv TToXXayrj yeyovev * ^8^ yap aecapLOs iv tottols 
tlolv ytyvopievos ov Trporepov eXrj£e irplv eKprj^as 
els tov VTTep rrjs yyjs tottov cf>avepd)s dooTrep ec~ 
367 a ve<f>ias e^rjXOev 6 Kivrjoas avepos, olov /cat Trepl 
'Hpa/cAetav iyevero ttjv iv rep Hovrcp veojarl, 
/cat Trporepov Trepl ttjv 'lepav vrjaov (a vtt] S 9 icrrlv 
jttta tcqv AloXov KaXovpbivcov vrjooov) * iv ra vrrj yap 
dvq)8ec rt rrjs yrjs, /cat dvr\et olov Xo<f>cv8r)s oyKos 
5 jttera ijj6(f>ov reXos Se payevros i£r)X9ev Trvevp, a 
rroXv /cat tov (f)iifjaXov /cat ttjv T€<f>pav avrjKev /cat 
t??v T€ AtTrapacwv ttoXlv oficrav ov rroppo) Trdaav 
KaT€Te(f>ptooe /cat els ivias tcov iv TraAta rroXecov 
rjXOev /cat vvv ottov to ava<f>vor}fJLa tovto iyeveTo, 
SrjXov icTiv. Kal yap 8rj tov yiyvopievov Trvpos 
10 iv rfj yfj TavTTjv olrjreov etvau rrjv air Lav, orav 
K07TT0pLeV0V iKTTp7]<j9fj TTpOOTOV els piKpOL K€ppLa- 

TcodevTOs tov a epos- 

TeKpLrjptov S 9 ioTL tov peiv vtto yrjv ra nveypaTa 
/cat to yiyvopevov Trepl ravTas ra? vrjoovs' orav 
yap avep,os P'iXXrj TTveweladai votos, TrpooTjpLaLvei 
TrpoTepov- riyovcL yap ol tottol i£ &v ylyveTac tol 
15 ava<f>vcrrjpLaTa, Sta to ttjv OdXaTTav p,ev#Tpoa)9eiadat, 

7]8y) TTOppwdeV, VTTO §€ TCLVTTJS TO €/C TTjS yfjS OV 0~ 
(f>vad>pLevov aTTtodelodai naXiv etaco, rjTrep irrepyeTai 
rj ddXaTTa ravrrj . Ttoiel Se xpo<j>ov dvev aeiapLov 



are movements caused by wind, and are so strong 
that the combined strength and efforts of a number 
of men is unable to master the movements of their 
victims. And if we may Compare great things with 
small, we must suppose that the same sort of thing 
happens to the earth. 

As evidence we may cite occurrences which have Cou- 
been observed in many places. For in some places 
there has been an earthquake which has not ceased 
until the wind which was its motive force has broken 
out like a hurricane and risen into the uppei region. 
This happened recently, for instance, in Heracleia in 
Pontus, and before that in Hiera, one of the so-called 
Aeolian islands. For in this island part of the earth 
swelled up and rose with a noise in a crest-shaped 
lump ; this finally exploded and a large quantity of 
wind broke out, blowing up cinders and ash which 
smothered the neighbouring city of Lipara, and even 
reached as far as some of the cities in Italy The 
place where this eruption took place can still be seen. 
(This too must be regarded as the cause of the fire 
that there is in the earth ; for when the air is broken 
up into small particles, percussion then causes it to 
catch fire ) a 

And there is a proof that winds circulate beneath 
the earth in something else that happens m these 
islands. For when a south wind is going to blow* 
it is heralded by noises from the places from which 
eruptions occur. This is because the sea, which is 
being drive* forward from far off, thrusts the wind 
that is erupting out of the earth back again when it 
meets it. This causes a noise but no earthquake 

0 The warm and dry (and so inflammable) exhalation w 
one of the constituents of air. 



367 a 

Sta re rrjv evpvxo)plav rcov roTrcov (vrrepx^lrai yap 
20 els to axaves e£co) Kal B l oXiyorrjra rod drrcodov- 
pevov aepos . 

’'Etc to ylyveodai rov rjXiov dxXvcoBrj Kal apavpo- 
repov dvev ve<j>ovs> Kal rrpo rcov opdplcov oeiopcov 
evlore vrjveplav re Kal Kpvos loxvpov, orjpelov rtfs 
elprjpevrjs air Lag (orLv. rov re yap rjXiov dxXvcoBrj 
Kal dpavpov dvayKalov elvai vrrovoarelv apyopevov 
25 rov rrvevparos els rrjv ytfv rov BiaXvovr os rov depa 
Kal BiaKplvovros , /cat rrpos rrjv eco Kal rrepl rovs 
opdpovs vrjveplav re Kal iftvxos. rrjv pev yap vrjve- 
plav dvayKalov cos errl ro rroXv ovpjdalveiv, Kaddrrep 
elprjrai Kal rrporepov, olov perappoias eloco yi- 
yvopevrjs rov rrvevparos, Kal paXXov rrpo rcov 
30 pei^ovcov oeiopcov prj Biaoncopevov yap to pev 
e£a> ro S’ evros, aAA 9 adpocos <f>epopevov dvayKalov 
lax^eiv paXXov . to Be ijtvxos ovp^alvec Bid to 

rrjv avadvplaoiv et oco rperreoda i, cfrvaei depprjv 
ofioav Kad 9 avrrjv. ov Bokovoi S’ ot avepoi elvai 
deppol Bid to Kivelv rov depa rrXrjprj rroXXtfs ovr a 
367 b /cat ipvxp&S arplBos, toonep ro rrvevpa (ro) Bid 
rov oroparos cj>vodo pevov m Kal yap rovro eyyvdev 
pev eon deppov , coorrep Kal orav da^copev, aXXa 
St* oXiyorrjra ovy opolcos errLSrjXov, rroppcodev Be 
ipvxpov Bid rrjv avrrjv air Lav rols avipoig. eK- 
5 Xenrovorjs ovv els rrjv yrjv rtfs roiavrrjs Bvvdpecos, 
ovviovoa St 9 vyporrjra 1 rj arpiBcoSrjs drroppoia rroiel 
ro ifivyos, iv ols ovpfiaivei rorrois ylyveodai rovro 
ro rrados . to S 9 avrd ainov Kal rov elcodoros 
evlore ylyveodai orjpelov rrpo rcov oeiopcov. rj yap 



because there is plenty of room for the wind, of which 
tlieie is only a small quantity and which can overflow 
into the void outside 

Further evidence that our account of the cause of 
earthquakes is correct is afforded by the facts that 
before them the sun becomes misty and dimmer 
though there is no cloud, and that before earthquakes 
that occur at dawn there is often a calm and a hard 
frost The sun is necessarily misty and dim when the 
wind which dissolves and breaks up the air begins to 
retreat into the earth Calm and cold towards sun- 
rise and dawn are also necessary concomitants. Calm 
must usually fall, as we have explained, a because the 
wind drains back as it were into the earth, and the 
greater the earthquake the more this happens ; for 
the earthquake is bound to be more severe if the 
wind is not dispersed, some outside and some in, 
but moves m a mass. The reason for the cold is that 
the exhalation, which is by nature essentially warm, 
is directed inwards. (Winds are not usually supposed 
to be warm because they set the air in motion and 
the air contains large quantities of cold vapour This 
can be seen when wind is blown out of the mouth 
close by it is warm, as when we breathe with open 
mouth, though there is too little of it to be very 
noticeable, while farther off it is cool for the same 
reason as the winds.) So the warm element dis- 
appears into the earth, and wherever this happens, 
the vaporous exhalation being moist condenses and 
causes cold # The cause of a sign which often heralds 
earthquakes is the same. In clear weather, either 

0 366 a 5 ff. 

tory evi- 

1 St vypSrrjra om. O.T, 



367 b 

j aed 9 rjpipav rj piKpov p,era Svcrpas, aWplas ovorjs , 

10 V€<f>e XcOV X €7TTOV <f>OLLV€TaL 8 l<1T€IVOV /Cat paKpOV, 

olov ypapprjs ppKos evdvrrjn SirjKpificopivov , tov 


to 8* opocov ovpfiatvei /cat iv rfj daXdrrr) rrzpi tovs 
alyiaXovs * orav pev yap Kvpalvovoa c/cjSaAA^, a<j)6- 
8pa rraysZai /cat a/coAtat yiyvovrai at prjyp eves, 
15 orav 8e yaX'ijvrj fj, [Sta to piKpav rroieiadai rrjv 
eKKpco’cv] 1 Xerrrai elen /cat evdelai . orrep ofiv rj 

daXarra rroiel rrepl ttjv yrjv, tovto to rrvevpa rrepl 
TTjv iv rep dipt dyXvv, a>od 9 orav yivrjTat vrjvepla, 
rrdprrav zvdeiav /cat Xe7TT7)v KaraXeirreadai coorrep 
prjyptva ovoav dipos ttjv v€<j>iXr)v. 

20 Ata TavTa 8i /cat rrepl ray e/cAea/ret? ivtoT€ ttJs* 
aeA rjvrjs ovpfialveL yiyvecrQ at creicrpov orav yap 
rjSrj rrXrjoiov rj rj dvrl(f)pa^is } /cat prymo p iv rj 
7rdp77av aTToXeXoLTros to <j)<bs /cat to cltto tov rjXLov 
deppov €/c tov dipos, rjSrj S’ arropapaivopevov , 
vrjvepia ytyverat dvripeOiGTapivov tov rrvev paros 
25 zls ttjv yrjv, o 7rotet tov oeiapov rrpo tcov e/cAct- 
ip€0)v. ytyvovTCLL yap /cat avepoi rrpo tcov itcXeliftecov 
rrohXaKis, aKpovvyov piv rrpo tcov peaovvKTicov 
itcXeii/jecov, peoovvKTLOV Si rrpo tcov icpcov. 4 avp- 
/JatW 8e tovto Sta to dpavpovadao to 6eppov to 
di to Trjs creXtfvrjs, orav ttXtjolov rjSrj yiyvrjTai rj 
30 <f>opa iv <3 yevopivcw carat rj 1/cAet^ts*. aviepivov 
ovv <L Karelyero 6 arjp /cat rjpipei, rraXiv /ctvetrat 
/cat ytyvcTat rrvevpa Trjs difsiaiTepov inXeufjecos 
oipiairepov . 

°OTav 8 9 loyypds yivrjTac oecopos, ovk evOvs ov8 9 
1 8ta ♦ * . €KKpunv seclusit C XT. 

a Into the earth, c/. 367 a 26* 



by day or a little after sunset, a fine long streak of 
cloud appears, like a long straight line carefully 
drawn, the reason being that the wind is dying down 
and running away.® Something like it happens on the 
seashore too For when the sea runs high the breakers 
are large and uneven, but when there is a calm 
they are fine and straight [because the amount of 
exhalation is small]. 6 The wind produces the same 
effects on the cloud in the sky as the sea on the shore, 
so that when there is a calm the clouds that are left 
are all straight and fine like breakers in the air. 

For the same reason an earthquake sometimes Earth- 
occurs at an eclipse of the moon. For when the eSipses. and 
interposition is approaching but the light and warmth 
from the sun, 0 though already fading, have not 
entirely disappeared from the air, a calm falls when 
the wind runs back into the earth. And this causes 
the earthquake before the eclipse. For there are 
often winds also before eclipses, at nightfall before 
a midnight eclipse, at midnight before an eclipse at 
dawn. The reason for this is the failure of the heat 
from the moon when its course approaches the point 
at which d the eclipse will take place. Thus when the 
cause which held it quiet ceases to operate the air is 
set m motion again and a wind rises, and the later 
the eclipse, the later this happens. 0 

When an earthquake is severe the shocks do not Shocks con- 
tinue after 
& SGV6r6 

6 The O.T. omits these words as “ a misguided gloss on earthquake. 
yaXrjvv)” Alex, shows no sign of having had them m his 

c Reflected from the moon (Alex.). 

d “ Lit. ‘ at which, when the moon and its sphere (<f>opd) 
have got there ’ ” (O.T.) 

e With this somewhat obscure paragraph ef. Problems 
xxvi. 18, 942 a 22. 



367 b 

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7 T€pl rerrapaKovra rrpoeicji ttoXXolkis fjpepas, vare- 

368 a pov Se kcll i(f>’ ev Kal h n S vo err] imarjpalveL Kara 

rovs avrovs to 7 tovs . air lop Se rov pev peyedovs 
to ttA rjdos rov Trvevparos Kal rwv rorrwv ra (?xV m 
pLara 8 i olwv av pvfj fj yap av avrirvirrjor} Kal prj 
paBlws SteA drj, pdAiara re cretet /cat ey/caraAet- 
5 ireadai avay/catov ev rats hvayayplais, otov vSwp 
ev aKevei ov Bvvdpevov BtetjeXdelv. Sto KaOdrrep 
ev aw pan ol a<f>vypol ovk i£al<f)vr)$ rravovrai ov Sc 
rayews, aAA’ e/c npoaaywyrjs apa Karapapaivo- 
pevov rov 7radov$, Kal rj apyr) a<f> tfs ?) dvadvplaats 
eyevero Kal rj opptrj rov Trvevparos SrjXov on ovk 
io evdvs aVacrav avrjXwaev rrjv vArjv, ef fjs irrolrjae 
rov dvepov, ov KaXovpev aetapov. ea )s av ovv 
dvaXwdfj ra vrroXoLTra rovrwv, avdyKrj aetetv, rjp€~ 
patorepov Se /cat /zeypt rovrov ews av eXarrov fj 
to avaBvplwpevov r) coore Bvvaadai /ctvetv £m- 
SrjXcos . 

Ilotet Se /cat tovs* ift6<f)ov$ rovs vtto rfjv yrjv 
15 yiyvopevovs to rrvevpa, /cat tovs* 7rpo tcov aetop(hv 
Kal avev Se aeiapwv 77 S 77 7701 / yeyov acrtv 1/770 yo}v 
waTrep yap Kal pam^opevos 6 arjp rravroSarrovs 
dcfrlrjcn i/so<f>ovs, ovrws Kal tvtttwv avros* oiSev 
yap Stamper to yap rvrrrov apta Kal avro rvirrerai 
rrav. TTpoepyerat Se 6 ipo<f>os rrjs KLViqaews Sta to 
20 XerTropepearepov elvai Kal paXXov Sta tt avros levai 
too Trvevparos rov ipofiov. orav 8 9 JeAarrov fj fj 
ware Ktvrjaai rrjv yrjv Sta XeTrrorrjra, Sta /zev to 
pqSlws 8 tr] deled at ov Svvarat /ctvetv, Sta Se to 
TtpoaTTt'nretv arepeols oyKots Kal koIXols Kal iravro- 
Barrols (?xVP a(7t rravroBaTrrjv d<f>ir]OL <j>wviqv, war 


cease immediately or at once, but frequently go on 
for forty days or so in the first instance, and symptoms 
appear subsequently for one or two years m the same 
district The cause of the severity is the amount of 
the wind and the shape of the passages through 
which it has to flow. When it meets with resistance 
and cannot easily get through, the shocks are severest 
and air is bound to be left m the narrow places, like 
water that cannot get out of a vessel. Therefore, 
just as throbbings m the body do not stop at once or 
quickly, but gradually as the affliction which is their 
cause dies away, so the originating cause of the ex- 
halation and the source of the wind clearly do not 
expend all at once the material which produces the 
wind which we call an earthquake. Until, therefore, 
the rest of it is expended shocks must continue, their 
force decreasing until there is too little exhalation 
to cause a shock that is noticeable. 

Wind is also the cause of noises beneath the earth, Wind the 
among them the noises that precede earthquakes, gutter? 
though they have also been known to occur without 
an earthquake following. For as the air when struck 
gives out all sorts of noises, so also it does when it 
is itself the striker ; the effect is the same m either 
case, since every striker is itself also struck. The 
sound precedes the shock because the sound is of 
finer texture and so more penetrating than the wind 
itself When the wind is too fine to communicate any 
impulse to the earth, being unable to do so because 
of the ease with which it filters through it, neverthe- 
less when it strikes hard or hollow masses of all shapes 
it gives out all sorts of noises, so that sometimes the 



368 a 

25 ivcore SoKeZv orrep Aeyovoiv ol TeparoXoyovvres 3 
fjbVKaadaL rrjv yrjv . 

"HS^ Se kcll vSara dveppayrj ycyvopevcov aetapcov' 
aAA 9 ov Sea tovto olnov to iiSojp rr\s Ktvrjoetos, 
aAA 9 av fj imiroAfjs rj Karcodev jSta^rat to 
TTvedpea, eKeZvo to klvovv ioTLV, &arrep tcov kv(jl&- 
30 tcov oi dvepeot aAA 9 ov ra Kvpe ara tcov ave/xcov elolv 
ama, €7T€L Kal TTjV yrjv ovtcos av tls oItlwto to v 
rradovs • dvar perrer ai yap aeiopi^evr}, Kadarrep iSSojp 
(rj yap eKyvaes dvarpei/jls tls €Otlv). aAA 9 ama 
TavTa fjt,€v dpL<fxx> cog vXr) {naoyei ydp 3 aAA 9 ov 
7 tol€l)> to §€ 7TV€VfJLa d)s dpxfl' 
w O rrov S 9 apea kv[jl a creLcrpLcp yeyovev , oXtlov, OTav 
35 ivavrla yLyvrjrai ra TrvevpLara. tovto Se ytyverai 
368 b oVav to aelov ttjv yrjv rrvevpea (j>epopLevr}v vtt* dAAov 
rrvevfJbaTOS t rjv daXarrav arrwoai pt,ev oAcos perj 
SvvrjTae , rrpocodovv Se Kal crvGTeXXov els tovtov 
ovvadpoior) rroXArjV' tot€ yap avayKaZov rjTTrjdevTOS 
5 tovtov tov rrvevpLaTos adpoav wdovpeevrjv vrro t ov 
ivavTLOv TrvevpLaros eKprjyvvodai Kal Troieiv tov 
KaraKAvopLov . iyevero Se tovto Kal rrepl ^Ayatav 
eKel 1 peev yap rjv votos, o 1 Se j3ope as, vrjvepelas 
Se yevopeevrjs Kal pvevTOS eiaa) tov avepuov eyeveTo 
to T€ Kvpea Kal 6 aecapeos apea, Kal pedAXov Sea to 
io ttjv 6aAa ttov per) SiSovai Sea Trvorjv tco vtto ttjv yrjv 
(hppLrjpLevw rrvevpLaTi, aAA 9 avrufipaTTew aTrofha- 
tj>pev a yap dAXrjAa to peev rrvevpea tov ueiopov 
irroerjoev, rj S 9 vrroaTaois tov KvpeaTOS tov koto- 

1 steel — e£co O.T. : — eVa Fobes. 

a C/. L 34 below. 6 Cf. 343 b 2 and note. 



earth seems to bellow as they say it does m fairy 

Water has sometimes burst out of the earth when 
there has been an earthquake. But this does not 
mean that the water was the cause of the shock. It 
is the wind which is the cause, whether it exerts its 
force on the surface a or from beneath — just as the 
winds are the cause of waves and not the waves of 
winds. Indeed one might as well suppose that the 
earth is the cause of the shock as that the water is ; 
for in an earthquake it is overturned like water, and 
upsetting water is a form of overturning. But in fact 
both earth and water are material causes, being 
passive not active, but wind the motive cause. 

When a tidal wave coincides with an earthquake 
the cause is an opposition of winds. This happens 
when the wind which is causing the earthquake is 
unable quite to drive out the sea which is being 
driven in by another wind, but pushes it back and 
piles it together till a large mass has collected. Then 
if the first wind gives way the whole mass is driven 
in by the opposing wind and breaks on the land and 
causes a flood. This is what happened in Achaea . 6 
For in Achaea there was a south wind, outside a 
north wind c ; this was followed by a calm when the 
wind plunged into the earth, and so there was a tidal 
wave at the same time as the earthquake — an earth- 
quake which was all the more violent because the 
sea gave no vent to the wind that had run into the 
earth, but blocked its passage. So in their mutual 
struggle the* wind caused the earthquake, the wave 
by its subsidence the flood. 

e “ Transpose Ifco and exe t II. 6, 7. The map makes it 
clear that the received text is impossible ” (O.T.). 

21 9 

by earth- 

quakes and 
tidal waves. 

368 b 


Kara ptipos Se yiyvovrai ot oetoptol rrjs yfjs, Kal 
7ToXXaKts irrl puKpdv to7tov } ol S’ aveptot oil' Kara 
15 ptipos ptiv, orav a l avadvpttdoeis cti Kara rov ronov 
avrov Kal rov yetrvudvra ovviXOcootv els ev, ojcrmp 
Kal rods avxp*ovs ecf>aptev yiyveod at Kai rd s vnepop- 
fiptas rd s Kara ptipos. Kal ol ptev oetopol yiyvovrai 
Sta 1 rovrov rov rporrov, ol S’ dveptot oil * rd piev 
yap iv rfj yfj rrjv dpyrjv e^et, drrdoas 

20 opptav o S’ rjXtos 2 oi>x opoicvs Svvarai, ras Se 
pteredopovs fJbdXXov, ojcrre petv, orav dpyrjv Xaficooiv 
dr to rrjs rov rjXiov <f>opas rjSrj Kara ras htafiopas 
rcov rorrcovy e<£’ eV. 

r/ 0 rav ptev ovv fj rroXv to rrvevpta, Ktvet rrjv yrjv, 
coorrep Se o rpopos, em rrXdros' yiyverai S’ oXtyaKts 
to Kal Kara nv as rorrovs, otov ofoyptos, dvo) Karoodev 
8 to Kal iXarrovaKts oeiet rovrov rov rporrov ov 
yap [SiScocrtv] 3 pdStov oilroo TroXXrjv ovveXOetv dpxtfv- 
ini ptfjKos yap noXXanXaoia rrjs and rov fidOovs 
rj StaKpiots. orrov 8’ av yivrjr at rotovros oetoptos, 
inmoXa^et nXrjdos Xidcov , OJOTTep rZdv iv rots 
30 Xikvois dvafiparroptivoov rovrov yap rov rporrov 
yevoptivov oetoptov rd re nepl JUrrvXov dverparrrj 
Kal to QXeypaiov KaXovptevov neSiov Kal rd nepl 
rrjv A tyvortKrjv x<*>pciv. 

’Ey Se Tat? vrjoots rats rrovriats rjrrov yiyvovrai 
oetoptol rcdv npooyeiojv rd yap 7 rXfjdos rrjs 6aXar- 
35 rrjs Karaifsvxet ras dvadvpttdoeis Kal KCoXvet rev 

1 Kara 2B. 

2 opfjb av 6 rjXios O.T. 

3 seclusit Fobes. 

* Cf. 360 b 17. 

6 The O.T., following Thurot, regards the text of 11. 17-22 


Earthquakes are confined to one locality, often why earth- 
quite a small one, but winds are not. They areJ^J esare 
localized when the exhalations of a particular locality 
and its neighbour combine, which was what we said a 
happens in local droughts and ramy seasons. Earth- 
quakes are produced m this way, but not winds. For 
rains, droughts and earthquakes originate in the 
earth, and so their constituent exhalations tend to 
move all in one direction ; the sun has less power over 
them than it has with the exhalations in the air vrhich 
therefore flow on in one direction when the sun’s 
movement gives them an impulse, differing according 
to the difference of its position. 6 

So then, when the quantity of wind is large it causes Horizontal 
an earthquake shock which runs horizontally, like a shoe!2 rtlCdl 
shudder . occasionally m some places the shock runs up 
from below, like a throb. The latter type of shock is 
therefore the rarer, for sufficient force to cause it does 
not easily collect since there is many times as much 
of the exhalation that causes shocks horizontally as of 
that which causes them from below. But whenever 
this type of earthquake does occur, large quantities 
of stones come to the surface, like the chaff in a 
winnowing sieve. This kind of earthquake it was 
that devastated the country round Sipylos, the so- 
called Phlegraean plain and the districts of Liguria. 

Earthquakes are rarer in islands that are far outEarth- 
at sea than in those close to the mainland. For the^^ and 
quantity of the sea cools the exhalations and its 

as corrupt. In*my attempt to make sense of it I follow Alex.’s 
explanation (124. 28 ff.), taking ra pev 1. 18 to mean rams, 
etc., and understanding ras avadvfudaeis with andoas 1. 19. 

The general point of the paragiaph, as the O.T. remarks, is 
to contrast the local nature of earthquakes with the vide 
range of winds. 



368 b 

jSa pet /cat a7ro/Jta£eTat* €tl Se pet /cat ov aeterat 

369 a KparovfJLevr) w to tcov TTvevytaroov' /cat Sta to ttoXvv 

€7T€^€tr T07T0V OVK €LS TaVTTjV aAA’ €K TCLVT7]S at 
dvadvpnaaets ylyvovTat 3 /cat tclvtclis aKoXovdovcnv 
at e/c rrjs yfjs . at S’ eyyus* rrjs fjTretpov ptopiov 
5 etcrtv rrjs rjirelpov to yap p,€Ta£v Sta p,iKpoT7)Ta 
ovBe/Jbtav e^et SzWpttv* tols Se TrovTtas ovk eoTtv 
Ktvfjaat dvev rrjs 8aXa tttjs oXrjs, v <f>* fjs Kepie^o- 
ptevat Tvyx&vovcFtv . 

Uepl p>ev ovv oeiop,cov 3 /cat ris rj (j>vcns> /cat Sta 
rtva aiTiav ylyvovrat, /cat ire pi tcov aXAtov tcov 
avpifSatvovTCDv rrepl a vtovs, etprjTat cryeSof rrepl 
tcov pteytGTCov. 



Thunder is due to the forcible ejection of the dry exhalation 
trapped m the clouds in the process of condensation (369 a 10- 
b 3). The ejected exhalation usually catches fire, and this 
produces lightning (which thus occurs , m spite of appearance^ 

369 a 10 Uepl Se aaTpaTrrjs /cat fipovTrjs, ert Sc 7repl 
Tvcf)covos /cat TrprjGTrjpos /cat Kepavvcov Xeycopev' 
/cat yap tovtcov Trjv a vttjv apXV v vrroXafSetv Set 


T^s* yap dvadvpudaecos, coarrep eiVo/xev, ovcrrjs 
StTTrjs, Tvjs ptev vypas ttjs Se irjpas, /cat ttjs ovy- 
15 Kpicecos exovorjs apL<j>co TavTa Svvapet /cat ovv- 
tOTaptevrjs els ve<f>os, coarrep etprjTat rrporepov, ert 
Se mtcvQTepas ttJs avcrTacrecos tcov vecftcov ytyvo- 


weight crushes them and prevents their forming ; 
and the force of the winds causes waves and not 
shocks in the sea. Again, its extent is so great that 
the exhalations do not run into it but aie produced 
from it and joined by those from the land. On the 
other hand, islands close to the mainland are for all 
practical purposes part of it, the interval between 
them being too small to be effective. And islands 
out at sea can feel no shock that is not felt by the 
whole of the sea by which they are surrounded. 

This completes our explanation of the nature and 
cause of earthquakes, and of their most important 
attendant circumstances. 

argument ( continued ) 

after thunder) (369 b 3-11). Theories of Empedocles and 
Anaxagoras stated and criticized (369 b 11 — 370 a 10). 

Theory of Cleidemus and others (370 a 10-21). Summary and 
conclusion (370 a 21-34). 

Let us now explain lightning and thunder, and then Thunder 
whirlwinds, firewinds and thunderbolts : for the meforcibie 
cause of all of them must be assumed to be the same. ^ ec ^S a ja- 
As we have said, 0 there are two kinds of exhalation, tion from 
moist and d^ ; and their combination (air) contains clcmd * 
both potentially. It condenses into cloud, as we have 
explained before, 6 and the condensation of clouds 

fl Of 341 b 6 ff. 

6 Of 346 b 23 ff., 359 b 34 if. 



369 a 

ptevrjs mpos to eaywrov mi pas (fj yap e/cAeiWt to 
depptov 8ta Kptvoptevov els tov avco romov, ravrrj 
mvKVoripav Kal ifsvxporipav dvayKalov elvat rrjv 
20 avcrracrw 8 to Kal ol Kepavvol Kal ol iKve<f>tat Kal 
mavra ra roiavra fyiperai Kano, KatTot me<f)V kotos 
avco rod depptov <j>epea8at mavros * aAA’ els tov- 
va vtLov Trjs mvKVOTrjTOS avayKalov ytyveadat t rjv 
eKdXixjjLVy olov ol mvprjves ol €K tcov SaKTvXcov 
€K7Tr}8a)VT€S‘ Kal yap TavTa fid pos eyovra <f>epe Tat 
25 moXXaKLs avco) * rj ptev ovv iKKptvoptevrj depptOTrjs 
els rov avco StaametpeTat romov oar) 8’ iptmept- 
XaptfidveTat Trjs £r]pas dvadvpttaaecos iv rfj ptera- 
fioXfj ifjvypptevov rov diposy avrrj gvvlovtcov tcov 
ve<f>cov eKKpiveT at, fita 8e cjoepoptevrj Kal mpoamt- 
mTOvera tols mepteyoptevots vi^eat motel mXrjyrjVy fs 
30 6 if;6(f>os KaXelrat fipovrrj, ytyvem at S’ rj mXrjyrj 
tov avTOV Tpomovy cos mapeiKaoat ptet^ovt pttKpov 
md 9oSy too iv tt) <f>Xoyl ytyvoptevcp ifjocfxpy ov Ka- 
A ova tv ol ptev tov c/ H <f>atOTOV yeXdv, ol 8e r rjv 
hiOT lav, ol o ameiAriv tovtcov. ytyvemat o otov 
rj avadvpttaats els ttjv <f>Xoya avveoTpapiptevr) (j>i~ 
35 pr)Tat, pr)yvvptevcov Kal ijrjpatvoptevcov tcov £vXcov 
ovtcos yap Kal iv toIs vi(f>eat rj ytyvoptevrj tov 
mvevptaTos eKKptats mpos ttjv mvKvorrjTa tcov vecf>cov 
369 b iptmlmTOvaa motel rrjv fipovrfv. mavToSamol Sc 
ijso(j>ot 8ta ttjv avcoptaXtav Te ytyvovTat tcov vecjtcbv 
Kal 8ta tols pteTa^v KotXtasy fj to ovveyes eKXelmei 
Trjs mvKVOTrjTOS. 

f H ptev ovv fipovrrj tout’ eart, Kal ytyverat 8td 
5 Tavrrjv Trjv air Lav to Se mvevpt a to iKdXtfioptevov 
tcl moXXa ptev iKmvpovrat Xemrfj Kal aodevel mvpco- 
aety Kal tout’ ear tv rjv KaXovptev doTpamrjVy fj dv 


is thicker towards their farther limit. (Condensation 
must be denser and colder where the heat gives out 
as it radiates into the upper region. This is the 
reason why thunderbolts and hurricanes and all such 
phenomena move downwards ; for although all heat 
naturally rises, they must be projected away from the 
dense formation. Analogously, when we make fruit 
stones jump from between our fingers, they often 
move upwards m spite of their weight.) Heat a when 
radiated disperses into the upper region. But any of 
the dry exhalation that gets trapped when the air is in 
process of cooling is forcibly ejected as the clouds con- 
dense and in its course strikes the surrounding clouds, 
and the noise caused by the impact is what we call 
thunder. The impact is produced in the same way 
(to compare small things with great) as the noise you 
get in a flame, which some people call Hephaestus's 
or Hestia’s laugh, some their threat. This noise 
occurs when the exhalation is hurled bodily against 
the flame as the logs crack and dry ; similarly the 
windy exhalation in the clouds produces thunder 
when it strikes a dense cloud formation. Different 
kinds of sound are produced because of the lack of 
uniformity m the clouds and because hollows occur 
where their density is not continuous. 

This, then*, is what thunder is and this is its cause. Lightning 
As a rule, the ejected wind burns with a fine and same cause, 
gentle Are, and it is then what we call lightning, 

0 i.e. the dry, warm exhalation. 




369 b 

&<JTT€p GKTTLTrTOV TO 7TV€VfJia ){pC0[JLaTLo8€V 6c/)8fj. 

yiyverai Se pier a rrjv rrXrjyrjv /cat varepov rrjs 
fipovrfjs * aAAa (jialver ai rrporepov Sta to rrjv oiftiv 
10 7TpOT€p€LV rrjs aKOTjS . SrjXol S’ 67 T 6 T7]S elpeolas 

rdiv rpirjpaiv* 7)87) yap avacjiepovraiv rraXiv ras koi- 
rras 6 rr pcdros acfiiKveirai ifs6<f>os rrjs KoirrrjXaalas. 

Katrot rives Xiyovaw ais ev rots vecf)eaiv eyyl- 
yverdi rrvp • rovro S’ ’FtpirreSoKXfjs piev <f>rjc nv elvai 
to ijirrepiXapifiavopevov rcov rov rjXlov aKrlvaiv, 
16 *Ava£ayopas Se rov avoid ev aid epos, o Srj eKelvos 
/caAet 7 rvp Karevex^ev avoidev Kara), rrjv piev oSv 
SiaXapupiv darparrrjv elvai rrjv rovrov rov rrvpos , 
rov Se ipocjiov ivarrocrfievvvpievov /cat rrjv o*t£ iv fipov- 
rrjv, (hs Kaddarep (/> alverai /cat yiyvopievov ovrois 
/cat 7 rporepov rrjv acrrpa 7 rrjv ovoav rrjs fipovrfjs. 

”AA oyos Se /cat rj rov rrvpos ipnTeplXrji/ns, dfi<j) 0 - 
20 re pais piev, paXXov S’ rj Karaorraois rod avoid ev 
aW epos • rov re yap Karoi (fiepecrdai to rretjivKOS 
aval Set Xeyecrdai rrjv air lav, /cat Sta rl rrore rovro 
yiyverai Kara rov ovpavov orav imve<j>eXov fj jlovov , 
aAA* ov avvexdis ovrois* aldplas Se ovorjs ov yi- 
yverai . rovro yap rravrarraoiv eoiKev elprjodai 

25 TTpox^lpais. opiolois Se /cat to rrjv arro rcov aKrlvaiv 
deppiorrjra (f>ava t rrjv arroXapifiavofjLevrjv iv rots 
ve<j>eoiv elvai rovroiv air lav ov rndavov /cat yap 
oSros 6 X oyos drrpaypiovais eiprjr ai Xlav drroKeKpi- 
pievov re yap dvayKaiov elvai to ainov del /cat 
dipiapevov, ro re rrjs fipovrrjs /cat rrjs dorparrrjs 


which occurs when the falling wind appears to us as 
it were coloured. Lightning is produced after the 
impact and so later than thunder, but appears to us 
to precede it because we see the flash before we hear 
the noise. You can see this by watching the rowing 
of a trireme ; for the oars are already drawing back 
again when the sound of the stroke which they have 
made first reaches us. 

Some, however, say that there is fire in the clouds. Views of 
This Empedocles a supposes to be some of the sun’s 
rays trapped m the clouds, Anaxagoras 6 to be a part 
of the upper aether which he calls fire and which has 
descended into the lower atmosphere. Lightning 
they then suppose to be this fire flashing through 
the clouds, thunder the noise of it hissing when 
quenched ; so the apparent order of the two is the 
real order and lightning precedes thunder. 

The enclosure of the fire is difficult to account for and eriti- 
on both views. The difficulty is gi eater on the view cized * 
that it is drawn down from the upper aether. For 
we should be told the reason for the downward move- 
ment of something whose natural movement is up- 
wards, and further why this happens only when the 
sky is cloudy and not all the time, since it does not 
happen in clear weather. The theory seems alto- 
gether too hasty. It is, however, equally unconvincing 
to say that the cause is the heat of the sun’s rays cut 
off in the clouds, and this theory too must be pro- 
nounced to be ill-considered. For there must be a 
separate and distinct cause of the occurrence of each 
phenomenon, whether thunder or lightning or any- 

a Diels 31 A 62. 

6 Diels 59 A 1 (9), 42 (11), 84 : cf. 339 b 21 (Book I. ch. 3) 
for Anaxagoras on the aether. 



369 b 

30 Kal tcov aXXcov tcov tolovtcov, tea i ovreo ylyveod at. 
tovto Se 8ca<j>ipec TrXelarov * opocov yap Kav el ns 
olocto to #S cap Kal ttjv ycova Kal ttjv yaXa^av 
ivvTrdpyovra rrporepov varepov ibCKpiveadat Kal 
prj ylyveaBac, otov vtto X € ^P a irocovarjs dec rrjs 
(jvyKpcaews eKaoTOV avrtov cLoavraos yap eKelvd 
35 re crvyKpcoecs Kal ravra ScaKpcaecs vttoXt]ttt€ov 
etvac 3 cogt el darepa tovtcov prj ycyverac aAA 5 eon, 

370 a 7T€pl ap(f)OTepcov 6 a vros dppOGec X oyos. ttjv r 

ivaTroXrjifiLV n av dXXocorepov Xeyoc res rj Kadarrep 
iv rocs TTVKVorepocs ; Kai yap to vS cop vtto tov 
rjXcov Kal tov rrvpos ylyveTac Oeppov aAA’ opcos 
otov TrdXiv ovvcrj Kal ipvyrjrat to vSc op 7rrjyvvpevov t 
5 ovSepcav ovpfialvei ylyveodac TOiavTrjv eKirrojacv 
olav eKelvoc Xeyovocv* Kacroc 1 y eyprjv Kara Aoyov 
tov peyeSovs. ttjv 2 8e £eocv Trocelv to iyycyvo- 
pevov rrvevpa vtto tov Trvpos , rjv ovtc Suva tov 
ewTrapyecv npoTepov, ovt eKelvoc tov ifj6<j>ov £eocv 
ttocovgcv dXXa oct;cv eoTc 8e Kal rj olt;is pcKpa 
10 feats' fj yap to ttpogttitttov KpaTel ofievvvpevov, 
TavTrj £< eov TTocec tov ifjo<f>ov. 

Etal Se nves oc ttjv doTpaTrrjv, coarrep Kal 
KXecSrjpos, ovk ecvac (f>acrcv aXXa <f>acve aSac, napec- 
Ka^ovTes cos to rrddos opocov ov Kal otov ttjv 
OaXaTTav tls pdfiSqo tvttttj * cf>acveTac yap to vSoop 
' aTTooTiXfiov Trjs vvktos * ovt cos iv Tjj ve^>eXrj parte- 

1 XiyQvai* Katroi Fobes. 

2 fieyedovs. rrjv mterpunxit O.T. : Be E F x O.T., om, 

a I have followed the O.T. readings in 11. 5, 6, though 
Fobes’s text is that which Alex. had. On the readings I have 
adopted Aristotle seems to be making two points in 370 a 1-10 : 


thing else. But the cause proposed is far from ful- 
filling this requirement. It is rather as if one sup- 
posed that water and snow and hail emerged ready- 
made, and did not have to be formed because the 
atmosphere has a stock ready to hand for each occa- 
sion For we must suppose that the same is true of 
products of condensation, like water, snow and hail, 
and of products of ejection like thunder and lightning; 
so that if it is true of either that they are not formed 
but exist ready made, the same argument will apply 
to both Again, how are we to say that interception 
by cloud differs from interception by denser bodies > 

For water too is warmed by the sun and by fire. Yet 
when it contracts again and is cooled still further and 
freezes there is no ejection such as they describe, 
though on their theory there should be to a duly pro- 
portionate extent. And boiling is caused by the wind 
produced m water by fire and cannot exist in the 
water beforehand ; and though they do not call the 
noise boiling but hissing, yet hissing is boiling in 
miniature (for when the fire on impact is quenched 
yet masters the moisture, it boils and causes the 

There are some, for instance Cleidemus,*’ who say View of 
that lightning has no objective existence but is an£^ d oSera 
appearance only. They compare it to the visual stated and 
experience one has when the sea is struck with a 
stick at night and the water seems to flash, and say 

(1 ) Fire ought also to be intercepted by water when heated and 
a noise analogous to lightning therefore be produced when it 
is cooled. (2) We know that boiling is not produced by fire 
already in water ; yet hissing, to which thunder is compared, 
is merely boiling m miniature (and so hissing cannot be 
produced by fire already m water either). 

> Diels 62. 1. 



37° a 

15 £opdvov tov vypov ttjv <f)dvracnv Trjs XapTrporrjTos 
elvac rrjv daTparTr\v . oStol pkv ofiv ovttoj ovvrjQsi $ 
rjaav rats irepi Trjs dvaKXdaeoos 86 £cll$, oVep ainov 
8 ok€l tov tolovtov nddovs elvar <j>aLverai yap to 
v8 op OTiXfieiv TVTTTopLevov dvaKXcopevrjs an t avrov 
rrj $ oxjjecvs rrpos tl tcov Xaprrpcov. 8 to Kal yi- 
20 yverai paXXov tovto vvKrcop' Trjs yap rjpepas ov 
(f > atverat Sea to rrXeov ov to <j>eyyos to Trjs rjpepas 

Tex pev ofiv Xeyopeva rrepl fipovTrjs T€ /cat aarpa - 
7 rrjs rrapd tcov aXXcov Tavr ecrrl, tl ov pev otl 
dvd / cAaats , r\ dcrTparrrj , tcov S ’ ort Trvpos p£v r) 
doTpairr] 8cdXapifjcs } rj 8e fipovrrj aliens* ovk eyyt- 
25 yvopevov nap 9 eKaarov 7 rados tov Trvpos aAA 9 ev- 
VTrapxovTos. rjpeZs 8e <f>a pev ttjv a vttjv etvai (/>vcnv 
errl pev Trjs yfjs avepov, £v Se Trj yfj aetapov, ev 
8e Tot ? v£(j)e(n fipovTrjV' t rdvra yap etvai raura ttjv 
over lav tovtov, dvadvplacriv tjrjpav, rj peovaa pev 
7 reus avepos eanv, d>8l Se 7tol€l tovs oei crpovs, £v 
30 8 € tols vec/>eai peTa^dXXovcn 1 eKKptvopevrj , 2 avv~ 
lovtcov Kal ovyKpivopevoov a vtcov els v8cop } fipovras 
T€ Kal dcrrparrds Kal rrpos tovtols raAAa ra rrjs 
avrrjs (j>voecos tovtols oVra . /cat Trepl pev /Spovrfjs 
eiprjTai Kal doTparrrjs . 

1 p.eraBaXXovcn Cl. Thurot : /xerajSaAAovaa Fobes codd. : 
om. JF3JI. 

8 iKKpivofiivT} E 2& (Ap) : biaKpivofJLevr} Fobes. 



that lightning is a similar appearance of brightness 
produced when the moisture m the cloud is struck. 

These people had no acquaintance with theories of 
reflection, which is now generally recognized as the 
cause of this kind of phenomenon The water seems 
to flash when struck because our line of vision is 
reflected from it to some bright object. This happens 
more often at night, for the greater brightness of the 
daylight prevents it being observed 

These are the views held by others about thunder Conclusion 
and lightning : some think lightning is a reflection, 
others that lightning is Are flashing through the 
clouds, thunder the noise of its quenching, and that 
the fire does not come into being on each occasion 
but exists already. Our own view is that the same 
natural substance causes wind on the earths surface, 
earthquakes beneath it, and thunder in the clouds ; 
for all these have the same substance, the dry exhala- 
tion. If it flows in one way it is wind, in another it 
causes earthquakes ; and when the clouds change 
in the process of contracting and condensing into 
water, it is ejected and causes thunder and lightning, 
and all other phenomena of the same nature. So 
much for thunder and lightning. 



argument ( continued ) 

typhoon (870 b 17 — 371 a 15). A firewmd is a whirlwind that 
has caught fire (371 a 15-17). Thunderbolts , of two kinds, 
are similarly due to wind ; as can be seen from then effects 
and from analogies (371 a 17-b 14). Conclusion (371 b 

Let us deal now with the remaining effects of this Thunder, 
process of exhalation, proceeding on the method we an^hurn- 
have before adopted. C roductfof 

The windy exhalation causes thunder and lightning exhalation 
when it is produced m small quantities, widely dis- 
persed, and at frequent intervals, and when it spreads 
quickly and is of extreme rarity. But when it is pro- 
duced in a compact mass and is denser, the lesult is 
a hurricane, which owes its violence to the force 
which the speed of its separation gives it. 

When there is an abundant and constant flow of 
exhalation the process is similar to the opposite pro- 
cess which ^produces rain and large quantities of 
water. Both possibilities are latent in the material, a 

a Alex (134 15) thinks the “ material ” is cloud, which 
contains exhalations of both kinds, cfi 358 a 21 ; but so also 
does air, cf. 340 b 14-32, 341 b 6, 



370 b 

Svvdfiei ravra Kara rfjv vXrjv orav 8e a pxrj yevrjrai 
15 rrjs 8wdfiea)s orrorepaaovv , aKoXovdel avyKpivo- 
fievov €K rrjs vXrjs orrorepov av fj rrXfjdos ivvrrdpypv 
rrXeov, /cat ylyverai to fiev ofiftpos, to 8e rrjs 
erepas dvadvfuacrecos iKve<f>la$. 

"Orav 8e to eKKpivopevov rrvevpa to iv rat veefaei 
ire pep dvTLTvmjor) ovrcog djcrrrep orav evpeos el $ 
arevov jSta^rat o avepos iv rrvXais fj 68oZ$ (ovp- 
20 jSatVet yap rroXXaKLS iv roZs tolovtois arrcoadevros 

TOV Trpd)TOV pbOpiOV TOV pioVTOS (J&lXaTOS Sta to 
flf) V7T€LK€tVy fj Sta aT€VOT7)Ta fj Sta TO dvTLTTVeZv, 
kvkXov /cat Slvrjv ylyvecrOac tov rrvev paros' to pev 
yap e t s* to TTpocrdev KcoXvei rrpoievai , to S 5 omcrdev 
irrojdeZ, ware avayKa^erat els to rrXdyiov, fj ov 
25 KCoXveraL, f>epeo9ai, /cat ovtojs del to i^opevov, 
ecos av ev yevrjrai, tovto S’ icrrl kvkXos' ov yap 
pla <f>opd cryf paros, tovto /cat avro dvdyKT] ev 
elvaCj* irrl re rrjs yrjs ovv Sta ravra ylyvovrai oi 
8Zvoi, /cat iv roZs ve<f>ecnv 6 polios Kara rrjv dpxfv, 
rrXf]v on, dxyrrep , orav iKve<f>las ylyvrjrai, del tov 
30 vecfrovs 1 iKKpLverai /cat ylyverai avveyf]S avepos, 
ovtcos ivravda del to (ve<f>osY avve^is aKoXovOeZ 
[too ve<f)OvsY ' S^a 8e TrvKv6rr]Ta ov Svvapevov e/c- 
Kpidfjvai to rrvevpa e/c rod ve<j>ovs arpe^era t pev 
kvkXco to rrpcorov Sta rrjv elprjpevrjv air lav, Karev 
371 a 8e f>eperai Sta to del ra ve<j>r] rrvKvovadai, fj 
eKTrlrtrei to deppov. KaXeirai 8\ av axpajpanarov 

1 tov ve<j>ovs 33 var. H, on w i 995 Ap (ut videtur) O.T. : to 
v4<j>os Fobes cett. 

2 v4<f>os ci. Thurot. 

8 rov Verovs del. Thurot. 

° The text of 11.28-31 (ttA^v <m . . . ve<f> ovs) and the mean- 


and when an impulse is given which may lead to the 
development of either, the one of which there is the 
greater quantity latent in the material is forthwith 
formed from it, and either ram, or, if it is the other 
exhalation that predominates, a hurricane is produced. 

When the wind produced m the cloud runs against Whirlwinds 
another the result is similar to that produced when 
the wind is forced from a wide into a narrow place in a 
gateway or road. In such circumstances the first part 
of the stream is thrust aside by the resistance either of 
the narrow entrance or of the contrary wind and as a 
result forms a circular eddy of wind For its forward 
part prevents it from going forward, while its hinder 
part pushes it from behind, and so it is forced to flow' 
sideways where there is no resistance. This happens 
to each succeeding part of the stream, till finally it 
forms a single body whose shape is ciicular ; for any 
figure that is formed by a single motion must itself be 
single. This, then, is the cause of wind eddies on the 
earth, and they start in a similar way in the clouds. 

There, however, just as when a hurricane is produced, 
the wind is m continuous process of separation from 
the cloud, so in a whirlwind the cloud follows the 
windstream continuously®; and because of the cloud’s 
density the wind is unable to separate itself from it 
and so is forced round in a circle at first (for the reason 
given above), and then descends because the clouds 
always condense where the heat leaves them. 6 The 

ing of the passage aie uncertain. With the text as printed the 
point appears So be a comparison of hurricane and whirlwind ; 
in both these is a constant production of wind from cloud, 
but in the whirlwind the cloud follows the wind. This com- 
parison is incidental to the main companson m 370 b 17 — 

371 a 2 of the wind eddy on land and the wind eddy m the air. 

6 Qf 369 a 16. 



371 a 

fj, tovto to Trados TV(j>djv dvEpos, cov otov 1 EKvecj^las 
a7T€7TTos. fiopelois S’ ov yLyvETai Tvcf>cdv, ov8l 
vi(/>et<a)v 2 ovtcov eKV€cf>Las 3 Std to Travra tclvt eIv at 
5 rrvEvpa, to Se rrvEvpa £v]pav Eivai Kal dEppfjv 
avadvpiaaiv . 6 ofiv nd yos Kal to ijjvyos Sid to 

KpaTZLV ofHvvvoiv ev8vs yiyvopivrjv eti ttjv dpyfjv, 
oti Se KpaTEi, SrjXov ov8e yap dv fjv vl<J>et6s, ov Se 
j3op€ ta t<x vypa * TavTa yap ovpf} alvei KpaTovarjs 
elv ai T7]s ifjvxpoT7)Tos . yvyvETai piv ofiv Tvc/icov, 
10 oVav €KV€<f)las yiyvopEvos pfj SvvrjTai EKKpidfjvai 
TOV vl(f)OVS' EGTl Se Sia TTjV a VTLKpOVOlV Trjs S LVTjSj 
otov 6776 yrjv fieprjraL fj eAc£ ovyKardyovoa to 
VE<f>os, ov hvvapivrj aTroXvSfjvai. fj 8e KaT ev- 
dvaipcav EKTTVEL, TaVTTj TO) TTVEXjpaTl KIVEL, Kal Tjj 
kvkXco Kivrjoei GTpecj)€L Kal avacjyepet & av Trpoorrecrrj 
15 fita^opEVOv. 

''OTav Se KaTaGTTcvpcvov eKTrvpcodrj ( tovto S’ 
€gtlv iav XeTTTOTepov to TrvEvpa yivrjT at) , /caAetTat 
TrprjGTrjp’ ovvEKTrlpTTpyjoi yap tov aipa Trj 7rvpd)OEt 

’Eav S’ iv avT<p T& vi<f>Ei ttoXv Kal X etttov ek- 
8Xi<f)8fj rrvEvpa, tovto ylyvETai KEpavvos, iav pkv 
20 7TC iw XeTTTOV, OVK ETTlKaCOV Sid XETTTOTrjTa, ov ol 
TTocrjTal dpyrjTa KaXovaw, iav S’ tjttov , imKacov, 
ov xfjoXoEVTa KaXovGiv‘ 6 piv yap Sid rrjv XeTrTorrjTa 
<f>ipETai } Std Se to Tayos <f>davEi 8u<bv Trplv fj iK- 
Trvp&GaL Kal ETn8iaTpujjas pEXavar 6 Se f3pa8vTEpo$ 
EypCVGE piv, EKaVGE S’ ov, aXX ’ E(f>8oTTE . Sto Kal 

1 Tv<f>coV) avefjLos &v, otov Fobes. 

2 Vl<f>$TOJV OVTWV Ecorr 331 33 F H N 01 I ViTTTLKCOV k^OYTOiV SB J 
aut vitttik&s £)(6vto)v aut vt7mKa>v c^ovrcov Ej ; vnmKtas ixovrtov 



resulting phenomenon, when colourless, is called a 
whirlwind, being a kind of unripe hurricane. Whirl- 
winds do not occur when the wind is in the north, nor 
hurricanes when there is snow. For all these pheno- 
mena are wind, and wind is dry and warm exhalation ; 
frost and cold therefore master and smother this at 
the outset. It is clear that they do master it, other- 
wise there would be no snow nor would rains come 
from the north, which can only happen when the cold 
has the mastery. A whirlwind thus arises when a 
hurricane that has been produced is unable to free 
itself from the cloud : it is caused by the resistance of 
the eddy, and occurs when the spiral sinks to the earth 
and carries with it the cloud from which it is unable 
to free itself. Its blast overturns anything that lies 
m its path, and its circular motion whirls away and 
carries off by force anything it meets. 

When the wind that is drawn down catches fire — 
w T hieh happens when it is finer in texture — it is called 
a firewind ; for its conflagration sets on fire and so 
colours the neighbouring air. 

If a large quantity of wind of fine texture is squeezed 
out in the cloud itself, the result is a thunderbolt ; 
if the wind is very fine m texture and in consequence 
does not scorch, the bolt is of the kind called by the 
poets gleaming ; if the wind is less fine textured and 
so scorches, the bolt is of the kind they call smoky. 
For the one kind moves rapidly a because of its fine- 
ness, and because of its rapidity passes through the 
object before it can burn it or remain long enough to 
blacken it ; while the other kind, moving more slowly, 
blackens the object but still moves too fast to burn 

a The sense demands a complement to ^epercu : Thurot 
suggests 81 a raxovs. 






371 a 

25 ra pev avnrvrrriaavra Tracy et tl, ra Se prj ovSev, 
otov aavrlSos 'J'fS rj to pev ^aAfccojaa era ktj, to Se 
£vAov ovhev evadev Sea yap pavoT^ra €<j)da(Te to 
T rvevpa Scrjdrjdev teal SieXOov 1 Kal St 5 ipaTtcov 
opoLws ov KaTetcavaev, aAA 5 otov Tpvyos irrolrjmv. 
so ?, Qore oti ye Trvevpa raura iravTa, hrjXov Kal e/c 

BecopeZv, otov Kal vvv idecopovpev rrepl tov iv 
*E <f>i<jtp va ov Kao pev ov* TroXXaxfj yap rj </>Ao£ i<f>e- 
pe to cruvex aTrooTrcopevrj y c opts* otl pev yap 
371 bore KaTrvos Trvevpa Kal /caerat 6 kottvos, <f>avepov, 
Kal elprjTai iv eTepocs TrpOTepov' otov 8 s adpoov 
X^pfi, tot€ <f>aveptx)s 8 oKeZ Trvevpa etvai. oirep 
ovv iv Tats piKpaZs irvpKaCaZs <f>aLveTai, tovto Kal 
t ot€ TroXXrjs vXrjs Kaopevrjs iycyveTO ttoXAio layy- 
5 porepov. prjyvvpev cvv ofiv tcov ^vXojv, 69 ev rj apyv 
tov rrvevpaTos rjv, ttoXv iycbpei adpoov, fj ige rrvei, 
Kal i(f>epeTO avoj rreTTVpcopivov. coot i<f>aiveTO rj 
</)A6£ <j>ipeo9ai Kal eloTriTTTeiv els ras otKias. a el 
yap oleadai 8 el irraKoXovdeZv toZs KepavvoZs Trvevpa 
Kal Trpoievai * aAA* ovy oparai, 8ta to aypcopd- 
10 T 60 T 0 V etvai . Sto Kal fj peXXei TraTatjeiv, Kiveirai 
Trplv TrX^yrjvai, are npoTepov TrpocnriTrTOVcnrjs Trjs 
apxys rod TTvev paros . Kal at fipovTal Se SuoTacnv 
ov tco ifs6<fxp, dAA* oVt a pa ovveKKptveTai to t tjv 
T rXyyrjV Troirjoav Kal tov i/jo<I>ov Trvevpa' 6 iav 
TraTa^rj, SiecTTjcrev, erreKavce 8* ov. 

1 8t r](h)6kv Kal BieXBiv Fobes : 8 a]6r)6ev Ktd'iieXSiv Thurot 

“ So Alex. 138. 3. 

6 356 b.c. 

341 b 21, of. 388 a 2 ; De Gen. et Gorr. 331 b 25. 



it. So objects which offer resistance suffer, those 
which offer none do not — for instance, the bronze 
head of a spear has been known to melt while the 
wooden handle was unaffected, the reason being that 
the wind percolated through the wood without 
affecting it because of the rareness of its texture. 
Similarly it has passed through garments without 
burning them, but leaving them threadbare.® 

Such instances are in themselves conclusive evi- 
dence that all these phenomena are due to wind. But 
sometimes we get ocular evidence too, the burning 
of the temple of Ephesus b being a recent example ; 
for it was observed then that sheets of flame were 
torn off from the main conflagration and carried in 
all directions It is evident, and we have already 
demonstrated elsewhere, 6 that smoke is wind and 
that smoke burns ; and when the flame mo\es in a 
body, then it can be seen clearly that it is wind. Thus 
what is obvious in small conflagrations took place on 
that occasion with considerably more violence owing 
to the quantity of material that was being burned 
For when the beams m which the wind originated 
cracked, it issued in a body at the place where it burst 
out and went up in flames. So the flame was seen 
moving through the air and falling on the neighbour- 
ing houses. We must, indeed, suppose that wind 
always follows and precedes thunderbolts, but re- 
mains invisible because colourless. So a place that 
is going to be struck moves before the blow falls, 
because the* wind in which the bolt originates strikes 
the object first. Thunder also splits things, not by 
its noise, but because a single wind is produced which 
deals the blow and causes the noise ; this if it strikes 
an object splits it but does not burn it. 



15 Tlepl pev oSv fipovrfjs Kal dor parr fjs Kal eKvecplov, 
€TL Se 7T pTJGTTj piOV T€ Kal rV(j>COVCOV Kal Kepavvcov > 
eiprjrai, Kal on ravro rravra, Kal rls fj 8iacj>opd 
rravrcov avrcov. 



Haloes , rainbows , mock suns and rods are our next sub- 
ject : and the characteristics of each must first be described 
(371 b 18-22). Haloes (371 b 22-26). Rainbows (371 b 
26 — 372 a 10). Mock suns and rods (372 a 10-16). All are 

37ib 18 He pi 8e aXco Kal ipi8os, rl re eKarepov Kal 8ia 

rlv* alrlav yiyverai a Xeycopev, Kal rrepl rraprjXlcov 
20 Kal pafiScov Kal yap ravra yiyverai rravra 8id ras 
air as air las aXXfjXois . 

Hpcorov Se 8ei Xafieiv rd Trddrj Kal rd ovpfiai- 
vovra 7 repl eKaarov avrcov • 

T fjs pev oSv dXco cpalverai ttoXXolkis kvkXos oXos, 
Kal yiyverai i repl fjXiov Kal oeXfjvrjv Kal rrepl rd 
25 Xaprrpd rcov aorpcov , en 8 ’ ov8ev fjrrov vvKros fj 
fjpepas Kal rrepl peorjpfiplav fj 8elXrjv ecoOev 8’ 
iXarrovaKis Kal rrepl 8 voiv. 

T fjs S’ ipi8os ov8errore yiyverai kvkXos ov 8e 
peiQov fjpiKV kXIov rpfjpa' Kal Svvovros pev Kal 
avareXX ovros eXaylorov pev kvkXov, peylorrj S’ fj 
dip Is, a Ipopevov Se paXXov kvkXov pev pel^ovos, 
30 iXarnov S’ fj a ipl$- Kal pera pev rfjv perorrcopivfjv 
lor] pep lav, ev rats Ppayvrepais fjpepais, rraoav 
copav yiyverai rrjs fjpepas, iv 8e rats depivais ov 
yiyverai rrepl pearjpfiplav. ov8e 8 fj 8voiv rrXelovs 


This concludes our treatment of thunder, lightning Conclusion, 
and hurricanes, of fire winds, whirlwinds and thunder- 
bolts ; we have shown that they are all materially 
the same and described the differences between them. 

argument (continued) 

caused by reflection (372 a 16-21). Rainbows occur both by 
day and night (372 a 21-29). We must refer to the science 
of optics for the explanation of reflections . Reflecting sur- 
faces sometimes reflect shape , sometimes colour only (372 a 

We must now deal with haloes, rainbows, mock suns 
and rods, explaining what they are and what are their 
causes ; for the same causes account for all of them. 

First we must describe what the actual character- 
istics of each of these phenomena are. 

The complete circle of a halo is often visible, round Halo, 
the sun and moon and round bright stars, and as 
frequently by night as by day, that is, at midday or 
in the afternoon ; for they occur more rarely at dawn 
and sunset. 

The rainbow T never forms a complete circle, nor a Rainbow, 
segment of a circle larger than a semicircle. At 
sunrise and sunset the circle is smallest and the seg- 
ment largest ; when the sun is higher the circle is 
larger, the '•segment smaller.® After the autumn 
equinox, during the shorter days, it occurs at all hours 
of the day ; but in summer it does not occur round 
about midday. Nor do more than two rainbows occur 
• The size of the circle does not in fact vary. 



371 b j 

cpcSes ox 5 ycyvovrac apa. rovrcov Be rpl^pcos pev 

372 a eKarepa, Kal ra ypcopara ravra Kal tcra rov 

apidfJLov eyovaiv aAA^Aat s> apvBporepa B 9 iv rtf 
eKros /cat it; evavrlas Keipeva Kara rrjv Oecnv rj 
pev yap evros rrjv rrpcorrjv eyec 7repc(f>epecav rrjv 
peycarrjv </)OiVLKiav, rj S 9 e^a >8ev rrjv eXaxicrrrjv pev 
5 eyyvrara Se 7rpos ra vrrjv } Kal ras aXXas avdXoyov . 
lort Se ra xpdopara ravra arrep pov a cr^eSov ov 
Bvvavrac rrocecv oc y panels' evta yap avrol Kepav- 
vvovgi, to Se cj>oiviKovv Kal rrpdaivov Kal dXovpyov 
ov ycyverac Kepawvpevov’ rj Se tpcs ravr 9 eyec ra 
10 xpd>f J ' aTa - Se pera^v rov <j>ocviKov Kal rrpa- 

av vov cj>acverac rroXXaKcs £a v9ov. 

TlaprjXcoi Se /cat pajSSot ycyvovrac e/c rrXayLas 
atet /cat our avcooev ovre rrpos rtfs ytfs ovr eg 
evavrcas, ovoe otf vvKrcop , aAA aet 7rept rov tfAcoVj 
ere Se ?} alpopevov rj Karacf>epopevov ra rrXecara 
Se tt/jos- Bvapas * pecrovpavovvros Se orravcov et rt 
15 yeyovev, olov iv Boarropco rrore ovveireae * St 9 oA^s* 
yap ttJs* rjpepas avvavaaxovres Svo rraprjXcoc Bee- 

reXeaav jaeypt ovapcov. 

Ta pev ovv ire pi eKacrrov avrcov ovpfiaivovra 

ravr earcv ro 

acrcov rovrcov arravrcov ravro * 

rrdvra yap dva/cAacrtS’ ravr 9 earl . 8iacf>epov<n Se 
rocs rporrocs Kal a</> 9 cSv, Kal cos avpfiacvei yt- 

a The colours of the rainbow are six : red, orange, yellow, 
green, blue, violet. Aristotle reduces them to three by group- 
ing red-orange-yellow, and blue-violet. But c he notes that 
a yellow band (grouping orange-yellow) is often seen between 
the red and the gieen. The painters’ primary colouis are red, 
yellow , and blue ; not red, green , and blue as Aristotle says. 
Green can be produced by mixing yellow and blue, but yellow 
cannot be produced by any mixture of red, green and blue. 


at the same time. Of two such simultaneous rainbows 
each is three-coloured, the colours being the same 
m each and equal m number, but dimmer m the outer 
bow and placed in the reverse order. For in the inner 
bow it is the first and largest band that is red, in the 
outer it is the smallest and closest to the red band of 
the inner. And the other bands correspond similarly. 

These colours are almost the only ones that painters 
cannot manufacture ; for they produce some colours 
by a mixture of others, but red, green and blue cannot 
be produced in this way, and these are the colours of 
the rainbow — though between the red and green 
band there often appears a yellow one. a 

Mock suns and rods always appear beside the sun, Mock sun, 
and not either above or below it or opposite it & ; nor rod 
of course do they appear at night, but always in the 
neighbourhood of the sun and either when it is rising 
or setting, and mostly towards sunset. They rarely 
if ever occur when the sun is high, though this did 
happen once- in the Bosporus, where two mock suns 
rose with the sun and continued all day till sunset. 

These, then, are the characteristics of these pheno- All due to 
mena. The cause of all is the same, for they are all reflect1011 
phenomena of reflection . 0 They differ in the manner 
of the reflection and in the reflecting surface, and 

6 Of. 377 b 27 ff. 

* Here as elsewhere in the Meteorologica (e.g. Book I. 
ch. 6, 343 a 2 and note) Aristotle speaks as if our sight were 
reflected to the object and not the object (or rays therefrom) 
reflected to qur sight. Alex. (141) connects this with the 
view that in sight rays are projected from the eye to the object, 
for which ef Plato, Timaeus 45 b if., a view which Aristotle 
himself rejects (De Anima n. 7). But so far as the mathe- 
matics of the matter are concerned, which is all that is at issue 
here, it makes (as Alex, also remarks 141. 20) little difference 
which view is taken of reflection. Of Ideler ii. pp. 273-274. 



372 a 

20 yvecrO at rrjv apaKXaoip rrpos top rjXcop rj rrpos aAAo 


Kat pe9’ rjpipap pip Ipes ylyveraL, vvKTcop 8’ 
a7ro oeXrjvrjs, cos pip ot ap^aioi coopto, ovk lyl- 
yvero' tovto S’ irra Oop Sea to (jiraviov’ iXdvBave 
yap a&TOvs * yiyveTae pip yap } oXeydicis Si yiyveTai. 

25 TO S’ a LTLOP OTL T iv Tip GKOTGL XavdaP€L TCL XP W- 

para, Kal aXXa tto XXd Set ovp7T€G€iv, Kal Tama 
iravTa iv rjpipa pea tov prjpos' iv rfj TravoeXrjvtp 
yap yzviod at dvayKr] to piXXop eaeadat,, Kal tot€ 
dvareXXovGrjs rj Svvovorjs' Sioirzp iv ereaiv vtt ip 
rd TrevTTjKOPTa Sis ivmvyopLzv povov. 

30 w Ot6 piv ovv rj oifres avaK.XdTai s coorrep Kal d<f> 
vSaros, ovto) Kal a/rro ddpos Kal rrdvrcov tojv i)(6v- 
TOW TTjV i7TL(f)dp€LaV XcLOP y €/C TCOV 7 T€pl TTjV OlfjLP 
SeLKPvpivcov See Xapefiaveiv ttjv ttlotlp, Kal S loti 
TCOV ivOTTTpOOV iv ivlois piv Kal TOL axtfpaTa ip,<f)a£- 
veTai, iv ivLois Se ra xpoopeaTa povov * TOiavTa S’ 
72 b iaTiP oaa piKpa tcop ivorrrpcov, Kal prjSepLav aloBrj- 
TTjV €^et S calpeGLv ip yap tovtols to piv oxypa 
aSvva top ipe^alveadai (So^et yap etpai SiaepeTOV 
Trap yap axVP ,a ap a ^o/cec axfjpd t etpat Kal St- 
5 a Lpeaiv ^X €iv ) > ^ Trei ip<f>atP€a9aL tl avayKalov, 
tovto Se aSvvaTOp, XeirreTac to xP&P a povov ip- 
<; f>aip€odai . to Se xpeopa otc pip Xaprrpov <f>aLP€Tac 
tow Xaprrpcdv, ore 84, rj ra) pelyvvod ai to tov 
ipoTTTpov rj Sea tt}p dodipeeav Trjs Sweats, aXXov 
XpdipaTOS ip7Toi€L <f>avTaaLav. 

9 “ Since divisibility is involved in the notion of figure” 




according as the reflection is to the sun or some other 
bright object. 

The rainbow occurs by day, and also at night, when Rainbows 
it is due to the moon, though early thinkers did not and 
think this ever happened. Their opinion was due to 
the rarity of the phenomenon, which thus escaped 
their observation for though it does occur, it only 
does so rarely And the reason for this is that the 
darkness hides the colours, and a conjunction of many 
other circumstances is necessary, all of which must 
coincide upon a single day of the month, the day of 
the full moon For it is on that day that the pheno- 
menon must occur if it is to occur at all, and occur 
then only at the moons rising or setting So we have 
only met with two instances of it over a period of 
more than fifty years. 

We must refer to what has been demonstrated by optics pro- 
file science of optics as our ground for believing that Jxplana- 
our vision is reflected from the air and other substances faon 
which have a smooth surface, just as it is from water, 
and to the fact that m some mirrors shapes are re- 
flected, in others colours only. Colours only are 
reflected in mirrors that are small and incapable of 
subdivision by our sense of sight. In these shape 
cannot be reflected. If it could be, it would be 
capable of subdivision, as all shape has the character- 
istics both of shape and of divisibility.® Since, then, 
something must reflected, but shape 
cannot be, the only remaining possibility is that 
colour should be. The colour of bright objects some- 
times appears bright in the reflection, but sometimes, 
either owing to contamination by the colour of the 
mirror or owing to the feebleness of our sight, pro- 
duces an appearance of another colour. 



372 b 

"Ecrra) Sc Trepl tovtojv rjfuv redeajprjpdvov iv tols 
10 7 T€pl ras aladrjaeis 8eiKvvp.evois‘ S to to, piev Aeyco- 
fizv, tols S’ c os vrrdpyovGL xp^Goop^eda a vra>v. 



The shape of the halo. Reflection takes place m certain 
conditions of cloud formation , and is a sign of various 
weather conditions (372 b 12-34). The circularity of the halo 

372 b 12 UpCOTOV §6 7T€pl T7]S dX(JO TOV GyigpiaTOS eCTTCOpieV, 

Start t€ kvkXos yiyvercu, /cat Start nepl top fjXiov 
rj rrjv aeXrjvrjVy opLolcos 8e /cat rrepl tl tcov aXXajv 
15 aorpitiv 6 yap avros eVt rravroov appLoaet Xoyos 

YLyverai piv ovv rj dvdf<Xacris rrjs oiftetos ovv- 
LGTapivov rov aepos /cat rijs aTpiiSos els ve<f>os 9 
iav opaXrjs /cat pLKpopeprjs GWLGTapivrj Tvyj)- 8t 6 
/cat Grjpeiov tj pev avGTaais vSa tos ivTiv, at pivToi 
8iao7rdoeis rj papavaeis, a&rat pie v €v8lcov, at 8i 
20 hiaairdaeis TrvevpaTos - iav pkv yap prjTe KaTapa- 
pavdfj pr\Te hiauTraadj), aXX iadfj ttjv <f>vaiv oltto - 
Xapfidveiv ttjv a VTrjs, v8a tos gIkotcos arjpecov cort* 
8rjXoX yap rjSr) ylyveadai TocavTTjv ttjv GVGTaaw, 
i£ fjs to Gvveyis Xapfiai 'ovorjs ttjs r rrvKvcooeoos 
25 dvayKatov els vScop iXdecv Sto /cat piXaivai yi~ 

a The rest of this paragraph deals mainly with the halo 
as a weather-sign. But Aristotle’s wording at the outset is 
confusing because overacts 1. 18, after ovviarapbr) m 1. 17, at 


But let us in these matters accept the results of 
our investigation of sensation, and mention some 
points only while taking the rest for granted. 

argument (continued) 

geometrically explained (372 b 34 — 373 a 10). Further char- 
acteristics of the reflecting cloud (373 a 19-27) Haloes more 
frequent round the moon than the sun They also form round 
the stars (373 a 27-31). 

Let us first deal with the shape of the halo and explain The shape 
why it is round and why it appears round the sun or of the lial ° 
moon or similarly round one of the other stars. For 
the same explanation will fit all these cases. 

The reflection of our vision takes place when the Conditions 
air and vapour are condensed into cloud, if the con- tion^the 
densation is uniform and its constituent particles ^aio^a 
small. This formation a is therefore a sign of ram, sign 
while if it is broken it is a sign of wind, if it fades, of 
fine weather. For if it neither fades nor breaks, but 
is allowed to reach its full development, it is reason- 
able to regard it as a sign of rain, since it shows that 
a condensation is taking place of the kind, which, if 
the condensing process continues, will necessarily 
lead to rain* And for this reason these haloes are 

first sight seems to refer to the cloud formation and not to 
the halo. But it seems clear from what he says later (e.g. 1. 26) 
that it is of the halo he is thinking : and the parallels quoted 
by Ideler (n. p. 277) confirm this. A full halo is a sign of ram, 
a broken halo of wind, a fading, dim halo of fine weather. 



3*72 b 

yvovrai T7)v xP° av Q‘3' rcu pa Xlgtcl t&v aXXcov. 
orav §£ BiaomoOrj, rrvevfxaros orjpieiov’ rj yap 
Bialpeois vm rrvevpiaros yeyovev rjSrj jxev ovtos, 
ovttoj Be rrapovros . orjfietov Be rovrov Bion iv- 
revdev ylyverai 6 avepios, odev dv rj Kvpla ylyvrjrai 
30 Bidorraois . dmpapaivofievrj Be evBlas * et yap prj 
7 TC09 oiircos 6 arjp wore Kpareiv rov ivano- 
Xapbfiavopevov deppiov firjB’ epxeadai els* rrvKvwoiv 
vBard)Brj 3 BrjXov ws ovrrw fj arpls dmKeKpirai rijs 
dvadvfua oews [otto] 1 rrjs £rjpas Kal mpcoBovs* 
rovro Be evBlas a inov. 

11(3? fiev oSv exovros rod depos ylyverai rj ava- 
373 a kXoois, elprjrai . am/cAarcu 8 5 air 6 rijs ovviora- 
pbevrjs ayXvos rrepl rov rjXiov rj rrjv oeXrjvrjv rj oi/jis * 
Bid ovk ii; evavrlas worrep ipis <j>alverai. rravroOev 
Be 6jj,olods dvaKXoopievrjs dvayKolov kvkXov etvai fj 
kvkXov fiepos' am yap rov avrov orjfxelov irpos 
5 to avro or) pie lov a l loai KXao6r)Oovrai errl kvkXov 
ypapLjjLrjs del. eorco yap am rov or] fie lov e<j>* <L 
to A 7 rpos to B KeKXaofLevr) rj re to APB Kal rj to 
AZB Kal rj to AAB* laai Se a Sral re at AT AZ 
AA dXXrjXais, Kal at rrpos to B aXXrjXais, olov a l 
10 TB ZB AB* Kal erre^evxdw rj AEB, c5 ore rd rpl- 
ya>va ioa t Kal yap ei t lorjs rrjs AEB. rjx^° )<Tav 
Srj Kaderoi errl rrjv AEB e/c rcdv ywviwv, dm pev 
rrjs r rj rd TE, a7ro Be rrjs Z rj rd ZE, <£ 77*0 Be rrjs 
A rj ro AL. icrai or) carat* ev ioois yap rpiycovois 
15 Kal ev evl erriTreScp rrdoai' rrpos op6dcs yap rrdoai 
rfj AEB, Kal e<j> ev orjpieiov rd E ovvdrrrovai . 
kvkXos dpa eorai rj ypa^ofievrj, Kevrpov Be to E. 
eon Srj ro piev B 6 rjXios, ro Be A rj oxjns , rj Be rrepl 
1 seclusit Fobes, 



To face p. 249 ] 


the darkest of all in colour. But when it is bioken 
it is a sign of wind ; for its break up is due to a wind 
that is already m being but has not yet arrived An 
indication that this is so is that the wind springs from 
the quarter m which the mam break occurs. When 
it fades it is a sign of fine weather. For if the air is 
not yet m a state to overcome the heat contained in 
it and to develop into a watery condensation, it is clear 
that the vapour has not yet separated from the dry 
and fiery exhalation which causes fine weather. 

These, then, are the atmospheric conditions in which 
reflection takes place. Our vision is leflected from 
the mist which condenses round the sun and moon ; 
which is w T hy a halo does not appear opposite the sun 
like a rainbow And as the reflection is symmetrical 
on all sides, the result is bound to be a circle or a 
segment of a circle. For when lines drawn from the 
same point and to the same point are equal, the points 
at which they form an angle will always lie on a 
circle.** For let the lines AFB, AZB and AAB be 
drawm from the point A to the point B, each forming 
an angle : let the lines AT, AZ, AA be equal to each 
other, and the lines drawn to B, that is FB, ZB, AB, 
also equal to each other. Let the line AEB be drawn 
and the triangles so formed will be equal as they 
stand on the equal base AEB. Let perpendiculars 
be dropped from the angles to AEB, TE from T, ZE 
from Z, AE from A. These perpendiculars aie then 
equal, being in equal triangles and m one plane. 
For all meet AEB at right angles and at the single 
point E. The figure thus drawn will be a circle with 
centre E. B is of course the sun, A the eye, and the 

° Here Aristotle in effect assumes what he is setting out 
to prove. 



373 a. 

to rZA 7rspL<f)£p€ia to V€(/) 0 $ a<f> 9 oS ara/cAarcu rj 


Aei Se voelv crvv€)(7] rd evoiTTpa aAAa Sta piKpo- 
20 rrjra e Kaurov pkv aoparov, to S* ££ arravraiv b 
etvai S ok€l Sea to (jiacveraL Se to pb 

XevKOv, 6 rjXios, kvkXco uweyebs £v eKaartp <f>aw6- 
pevos tcov ivo7TT pcov } Kal prjSepiav eycov aludrjrrjv 
Sea ipeuiv, 7 Tpos Se rfj yfj pdXXov Sea to vrjvepdbrepov 
25 etvai * nveu paros yap ovros ovk elvai urdaiv <j> a- 
vepov. rrapd Se tovto peXaiva rj eyopevr] irepi- 
<f>€p€ia, Si, a T7jv eKewrjs XevKorrjTa SoKovua etvai 

HXeovaKcs Se yiyvovr ai a l aXcp wept rrjv ueXrjvrjv 
Sea to tov rjXiov Bepporepov ovra Bdrrov SiaXveiv 
ras* uvurdueis tov aepos . rrepl Se tovs dcrre pas 
so yiyvovrai pev Sia ras auras a irias, ov GTjpeicbSeis 
S’ opoioJSi on piKpas Trdprrav emSrjXovoi ras 
avordueis Kal ovtt<d yovLpovs. 

a Each particle thus reflecting coloui only and not shape ; 
372 a 32. 

6 The O.T. would tianspose these woids, insetting them 
after the next sentence. It is not cleai exactly wheie Austotle 



The physical basis of reflection . Our vision is reflected 
from all smooth surfaces. Air reflects when condensed (some- 
times even when not condensed) ; water reflects still better , 
and especially water in process of formation by condensation 
from air . Each particle of it forms a mirror, which reflects 


circumference drawn through YZA the cloud from 
which the vision is reflected to the sun. 

The reflecting particles must be thought of as being character- 
continuous. Each individually is so small as to be f^cting 16 
invisible, but because they are continuous they appear cloud, 
in aggregate as a single surface. The bright light, 
that is, the sun, thus appears as a continuous ring, 
being mirrored in each of the reflecting particles as 
a point of hght indivisible by sense a It appears in 
closer proximity to the earth because it is calmer 
there, and if there is a wind the halo cannot main- 
tain its position b Next to the bright ring of the halo 
is a dark ring, which appears still darker beside the 
brightness of the halo 

Haloes round the moon are more frequent than Haloes 
those round the sun because the sun being hotter and 
more quickly dissolves the condensations of the air. &tars 
They are formed round the stars from the same 
causes, but are not weather signs m the same way, 
because they indicate condensations that are in- 
significant and so not productive of weather changes. 

does suppose that haloes form . cf. note on Aristotle’s views of 
the stratification of the atmosphere at end of Book I. ch. 3. 

argument (continued) 

colour only , not shape * an agglomeration of particles forms 
a continuous mirror m which the colours mirrored by the 
constituent particles appear. So when sun and cloud are 
suitably related a rainbow is formed (373 a 32-b 32). The 
rainbow is coloured , the halo not coloured because the rainbow 



is a reflection from water , the halo from air , and air (being 
light) cannot reflect colours , water (being dark) can Examples 
(373 b 32 — 374 b 7). The colours of the rainbow are due to 
the weakening of our sight by reflection This takes place m 
three stages * at the first the bright light of the sun, reflected 
in the dark medium of water, turns red further weakening 
of the sight produces green and then blue . These are the 

373 a 32 C H S’ tpis on (Jbh ianv avaKXaais, eiprjrai irpo- 
repov no La he ns ava/cAa gis, Kai nebs Kai Sta riv 
air Lav ef/cacrra yLyverai rdbv avpfiawovTaiv rrepl 
ravrrjv, Xeycoyiev vvv. 

35 'AvaKXa){j,€vrj fiev oSv fj cup is and ndvrcvv <£ai- 
373 b verat rdbv XeLcov , rovrcov S’ ecrr tv /cat a fjp /cat vhc op t 
yLyverai he and piev depos, orav rvyr) avviarapLevoS' 
Sta he rrjv rrjs oipecos aaOeveiav 7roAAa/cts- /cat avev 
avo-rdaecos no tec ava/cAaortv, otov none ovvej Saive 
5 Ttvt nados rjpipia /cat ovk o£i> ftXenovrr del yap 
ethooXov ihoKei nporjyeiadai /?aSt£ovrt a vra>, el f 
ivavrLas fiXenov npos avrov. rovro S 9 enao^e Sia 
to rrjv oip iv dva/cAaa0at npos avrov ovrco yap 
aadevrjs rjv /cat Xenrrj najanav vno ttjs appcoorias, 
war evonrpov iyLyvero /cat 6 nXrjoLov a ijp, /cat ovk 
10 ihvvaro dncodeiv — cos 6 noppco Kai nvKvos' hiorrep 
at T aKpai aveonaapevai cpalvovrai iv rfj BaXdrrp, 
Kai [leL^w ra pieyedr] navrcov, orav evpoc nvicvai, 
Kai ra iv rats axXvoiv, otov Kai tfXios Kai aorpa 
dviayovTa Kai Svvovra piaXXov fj fzeadvpavovvra . 

9 And he vharos paXiara ava/cAarat, /cat dm 
15 apxofJievov ylyveadai pidXXov in rj an a epos' i Ka- 
urov yap raw fiopLojv i£ cov yly verai ovviorafiivojv 


three colours of the rainbow (374 b 7 — 375 a 7). The yellow 
m the rainbow due to contrast of colours and not to reflection 
(375 a 7-28) The same causes account for the double ram- 
bow ; m the outer of the two the order of colours is reversed. 

More than two rainbows are not seen at a time (375 a 28- 
b 15). 

It has already been stated that the rainbow is a 
reflection. We must now proceed to explain what 
kind of a reflection it is, how its various character- 
istics arise, and to what cause they are due. 

Our vision, then, is reflected from all smooth sur- How the 
faces, among them air and water. Air reflects when foJSaedVy 
it is condensed ; but even when not condensed it can reflection, 
produce a reflection when the sight is weak. An 
example of this is what used to happen to a man 
whose sight was weak and unclear : he always used 
to see an image going before him as he walked, 
and facing towards him. And the reason why this 
used to happen to him was that his vision was re- 
flected back to him ; for its enfeebled state made it 
so weak and faint that even the neighbouring air be- 
came a mirror and it was unable to thrust it aside. 

Distant and dense air does of course normally act as 
a mirror in this way, which is why when there is 
an east wind promontories on the sea appear to be 
elevated above it and everything appears abnormally 
large a ; the same is true of objects seen in a mist, or 
twilight — for instance the sun and stars which at their 
rising and setting appear larger than at their meridian. 

But reflection takes place chiefly from watei, and 
still better from water in process of formation than 
from air : for each of the particles which when con- 

a It is not clear exactly how Aristotle supposed this effect 
to be produced : cf. Problems xxvi. 53. 



373 b 

fj i/jcLKas evoTTrpov avayKacov etvac pcdXXov rr}$ 
axXvos. irrei Si /cat SfjXov /cat ecprjTac tt porepov 

ipccf>acveTac 3 to Si Gy^jpca aSrjXov, avayKacov 3 otclv 
20 dpx^]Tac vecv kcll rjSrj pciv GvvcGrfjTac els iftaKaSas 
6 iv tols ve<f>eocv afjp 3 pcfjrrco Si vr\ 3 iav i£ ivavrcas 
fj 6 fjXcOS fj aXXo Tt OVTCO XafJLTTpOV <jOOT€ ycyveoOac 
evoTTTpov to ve<f>os, Kcil tt]V ava/cAaatv ycyveodac 
7 Tpos to Xapcnpov i£ ivavTcas, ycyveodac epccf>aocv 
25 xpco/x aros*, ov oxfjP'CLTOs. i^doTOV 8 9 ovtos tcov 


a vtcov avvey^cas tov pceyedovs opcopcevrjs , dvdyKrj 
ovveyis pceyedos tov a vtov (fyacveadac ypdopcaTos’ 
CKCLGTOV yap TCOV ivOTTT pcov to a VTO arroScScOGL 
Xpcopca tco irwqe t. cogt irrei ra vt ivSeyeTac 

30 Gvpcfiacveiv, or av tovtov eyrj tov Tpoirov 6 re rjXcos 
/cat to vicf>os /cat rjpcecs djpcev pceTa£i) avTcov, carat 
Sea TTjv ava/cAaotv epc(f>aocs tis . dXXa pcfjv /cat 
<j>acv€Tac tot€ /cat ovk dXXcos iyovTCov ycyvopcevrj 
fj tpcs . 

"Otc pciv ovv dvaKXaocs rj tpcs Trjs oipecos rrpos 
tov fjXcov ioTL 3 cf>avepov S to /cat i£ ivavTcas del 
35 ycyveTac, rj 8 9 aXcos rrepl a vtov /catrot dpc<j>co ava- 
374 a kXggcs * aAA* rj ye tcov ypeopedreov 7?ot/ctAta Sea <f>epet* 
rj pciv yap d</> 9 vSaTOs /cat pceXavos ycyveTac dva- 
kXggcs /cat 7 roppeodev, rj 8 s iyyvdev /cat a7ro depos 
XevKOTepov t fjv <f>vocv . 

OatWrat 8c to Xapcrrpov Sea tov pceXavos fj iv 
5 Tip pceXavc (8ca<f>epec yap ovSev) <(>ocvckovv (opdv 8 s 


372 a 32. 


densed forms a raindrop will necessarily be a better 
mirror than mist. Now it is clear, and has already a 
been stated, that in mirrors of this kind colour only 
is reflected and shape does not appear When, there- 
fore, it is about to ram and the air in the clouds is 
already condensing into raindrops but the rain is not 
yet falling, if there is, opposite the cloud, the sun 
or any other object so bright that the cloud mirrors 
it and reflection takes place from the cloud to the 
bright object opposite, an image of colour but not of 
shape must be produced. Each of the reflecting 
particles is invisibly small, and the continuous magni- 
tude formed by them all is what we see ; what appears 
to us is therefore necessarily a continuous magnitude 
of a single colour, since each of the reflecting particles 
gives off* a colour the same as that of the continuous 
whole. Since, therefore, these conditions are theo- 
retically possible, we may suppose that when the sun 
and the cloud stand in this relation and we are situated 
between them, the process of reflection will give rise 
to an image. And it is under these conditions and 
no others that the rainbow in fact appears. 

It is clear, then, that the rainbow is a reflection of 
our sight to the sun. And so the rainbow is always 
opposite the sun, the halo round it. Both are reflec- 
tions, but the variety of its colours distinguishes the 
rainbow, which is a reflection from a distance and 
from water that is dark, while the halo is a reflec- 
tion from near by and from air which is naturally 

Bright light shining through a dark medium or 
reflected in a dark surface (it makes no difference 
which) looks red. & Thus one can see how the flames 

6 Be Sensu 440 a 10, Be Col. chu 2, m a 8 if. 



374 a 

e^eoTi to ye rcov yXojpcov £vX cov rrvp , cos epvOpdv 
rrjv cftXoya Sid to rep Karrpcp rroXXcp pepetyB at 
to r Tvp Xaprrpdp op Kal XevKOp) ‘ Kal 8c 9 axXvos 
Kal Karrpov 6 rjXios <f>alveTai <f>oiPiKovs . 8lo rj pip 
Trjs ipiSos avatcXavis rj pip rrpcoTrj TOiavrrjv e^ctv 
10 <f>aiverai rrjv xP° av [drro paplScop yap piKpcdv yl- 
ypeTai rj apaKXacris) > rj Si Trjs aXco ozi. rrepl 8 i rcov 
aXXcop xP <j0 ( jb & TC0V verrepov epovpev. eVt 8 i r repl 
avrov pip top rjXiop ov yiypeT at SiaTpiprj ToiavTrjs 
ovoTaoeoos, aAA rj vei rj oiaAveTai . e/c oe tq>p 
ivavrlcov ip tco peTa^v Trjs tov vSaTos yeveoecos 
15 ylypeTai tis XP° V °S‘ tovtov yap prj ovpfialpoPTos 
rjoap dp KexpcopaTiapipai a t aXcos coorrep rj Tpis. 
pvp S’ oXa pip ov ylypeTai TOiavrrjp eyopra Trjp 
ep<f>acriv, ovSi kvkXcv, piKpa Si Kal /cam popiop , 
at KaXovPT at pdfiSoi, err el el ovvluraTO ToiavTrj 
axXvs oca yepoiT dp vSaros rj tipos aXXov peXapos, 
20 Kaddrrep Xeyopep , e<f>aiv€TO a p rj tpis oA rj, coarrep 
rj rrepl tovs Xvxpovs . rrepl yap tovtovs tol rrXeloTa 
votIojp optcop tpis ylypeTai tov ^etft copos 3 paXicrTa 
Si SrjXrj ylypeTai tois vypovs exoven tovs 6cf>QaX- 
povs . tovtcop yap rj oiftis Tayv St’ aadepeiap ava/cAa- 
Tat. ylypeTai S’ drro T€ Trjs tov depos vypoTrjTOS 
25 /cal dr to Xiyvvos Trjs drro Trjs <f>Xoyos arroppeovarjs 
Kal peiypvpeprjs ■ Tore yap ylypeTai eporrTpop, 1 Kal 
Sta Trjp peXaplap * KarrpdoSrjs yap rj Xiypvs m to Si 
tov Xvxpov cjxjos ov XevKOP aXXa rropcf>vpovp (f>al- 
veTai kvkXco Kal IpicoSes , cj>oiPiKovp ' S’ ov m eaTi 

1 rore . €vofTT pov mterelusionem distinguit Thurot. 


And water is dark. 


of a fire made of green wood are red, because the 
fire-light which is bright and clear is mixed with a 
great deal of smoke ; and the sun looks red when 
seen through mist or smoke. The reflection which 
is the rainbow therefore has its outermost circum- 
ference of this colour, since the reflection is from 
minute water-drops a ; but in the halo this colour does 
not appear. With the other colours we will deal later. 
Further, a condensation of this kind does not linger 
long round the sun itself, but either turns to rain or 
disperses . but during the formation of water opposite 
the sun some time elapses. If this were not so haloes 
would be coloured like the rainbow. As it is, no 
complete or circular halo presents this appearance, 
but only the small, partial formations called “ rods ” ; 
for if a formation of the kind of mist which arises from 
water or any other dark substance m the way we 
maintain & w r ere present, we should see a complete 
rainbow, like the one we see round lamps. For a 
rainbow does form round lamps in the winter, 
especially when there is a south wind, and is most 
clearly visible to those whose eyes are watery, for 
their sight is weak and so easily reflected. The rain- 
bow is due to the moisture of the air and to the soot 
which is given off by and mixed with the flame, and 
so forms a mirror owing to the dark colour derived 
from the smokiness of the soot c : and the light of 
the lamp appears not white but purple, and forms a 
ring like a rainbow, except that the colour red is 

6 a 1 above ; tne rainbow is a reflection in a daik medium. 

c Or take rore yap ylverai evompov (1. 25) as a parenthesis, 
and the meaning is that the rainbow is due to moisture, to 
soot and the dark colour derived from the soot, which be- 
tween them constitute the minor. But Alex, seems to have 
had a text punctuated as that printed here. 



374 a 

yap rj re oipcg oXiyrj rj avaKXoopdvr), Kal pdXav to 
30 evoTTrpov. rj S’ am 6 row kojttoov tcov dva<j>epopdvcov 
€K rrjg daXdrrrjs tpig rfj pev decree tov avrov yl - 
yverae rpomov rrj iv rep ovpavcp , to Sc xpeopea 
opotordpa rfj rrepl rovs Xvyyovs * ov yap (fioLVLKfjv 
aXXa 7Top<j>vpav c^oucra (foaLverat rrjv XP° av ' V ^ 
dvaKXacns dmo tcov puKpordrcov pev ovvex&v Sc 
35 ylyverai pavl8cov * avrai 8 9 v8 cop drroKeKpipdvov 
374 b elalv rjSrj rravreXcog. ylyver at Sc kclv tls Xemralg 
palvYj pavlcrtv ets* n toiovtov x^ptov o rr) v Odoiv 
rrpos rov rjX iov icFTpappdvov iarl Kal rfj pev 6 rjXcos 
dvdxxi t m fj Sc GKid^rj* iv tco tolovtco yap , idv etaco 
rig paLvrj, rep earcoTL iKTog, $ imaXXdrTOverev at 
5 aKTlves Kal moiovcn rrjv CKidv , rfratverai tpes. 6 
Sc rpoiros Kal rj XP° a dpoia Kal to am ov to avro 
rfj arro tcov kcottcov rfj yap X €i P L kcottt] XPV T ai 
6 palvojv. 

"Otl Sc to xpdopa toiovtov s apa 8rjXov e'errat Kal 
7T€pl tcov aXXcov XP 60 ! uarcov Trjg <f>avTaocag 9 €K 
rcbv8e. Set yap vorjeavrag, ebarrep eiprjTaL, Kal 
10 VTrodepdvovg Trpcorov pev otl to Xapnpov iv raj 
pdXave rj Sta tov pdXavog xP&P> a noiel (/>olvlkovv } 
Scut epov S’ oVt rj oift eg iKTeivopdvrj dadeveardpa 
yiyverai Kal iXarrcov, rpirov S’ otl to pdXav otov 
arro^aaLs ioTW tco yap iKXeirrew ttjv oifav <^atWrat 
pdXav * Sto Ta rroppco mavra peXdvTepa (j>a[veraL, 
15 Sta to prj SuKvetcrOai ttjv oipiv* OecopeLodco pev 
oSv TaVT CAC TCOV 7T€pl TCtg alodrjOeiS odpfiaiVOVTOOV 
iKeivtov yap tStot ot rrepl tovtcov Aoyor vvv 8 s ocrov 

a “ It is bound to be weak by lamplight ” (O.T.). 
b 372 a 1, ch. 2 above. 



missing, as the reflected vision is weak® and the 
mirror dark. The rainbow produced by oars breaking 
water is the outcome of the same relative positions 
as a rainbow in the sky but is more like the rainbow 
round a lamp in colour, since it appears purple and 
not red The reflection takes place from a number 
of minute water-drops which form between them a 
continuous surface, and which are of course water 
already fully formed. A rainbow is also produced 
when someone sprinkles a fine spray into a room so 
placed that it faces the sun and is partly illuminated 
by it, partly in shadow. When anyone sprinkles water 
inside a room so placed a rainbow appears, to anyone 
standing outside, at the point where the sun’s rays 
stop and the shadow begins. It arises in the same 
way as the rainbow produced by the oars, is similar 
to it in colour and due to the same cause, for the 
sprinkler uses his hand like an oar. 

The following considerations will make clear both 
that the colours of the rainbow are such as we have 
described b and how the other colours appear in it. 
We must, as has been said, c bear in mind and assume 
the following principles. (1) White light reflected on 
a dark surface or passing through a dark coloured 
medium produces red ; (2) our vision becomes weaker 
and less effective with distance ; (3) dark colour is a 
kind of negation of vision, the appearance of darkness 
being due to the failure of our sight ; hence objects 
seen at a distance appear darker because our sight 
fails to rea#h them. These principles should be 
examined in the light of the processes of sensation, 
and the discussion of them properly belongs to the 
theory of sensation ; here let us say no more about 

Of. 373 b 9, 374 a 3. 



374 h s 

avayKT), roaovrov rrepl avrwv X eywpev. <f>alverat 
S 9 ovv Sta ravrrjv rr)v air lav ra re rroppw peXdvrepa 
20 /cat iXarrw Kal Xeiorepa, Kal ra ev rots evorrrpois , 
/cat ra ve<f>rj peXd vrepa fiXerrovaiv els to vSwp rj 
els avra ra ve<f>rj . /cat rovro rrdvv errcStfXcos' Sta 
yap rrjv ava/cAacrtv oXlyrj rfj oipei dewpovvr at. Sta- 
<j>epe t S 9 ovSev to opwpevov perafiaXXeiv fj rrjv 
oi/jlv aptf>orepws yap ear at ravrov. rrpos 8e rov- 
25 rots Set prj XeXrjdevai Kal roSe* avpftalvei yap or av 
fj rov rjXlov vecf>os rrXrjGLOV, els pev avro fiXerrovn 
prjSev <f>aiveaQai Kexpwpanapevov aXX 9 etv at XevKov , 
ev Se rep vSart avro rovro dewpovvn xP&pd rt 
eyeiv rrjs tptSos*. SrjXov rolvvv on rj oiftcs warrep 
Kal to peXav KXwpevrj St 9 aadeveiav peXavrepov 
30 TTOiel (f>alveadai, Kal ro XevKov fjrrov XevKov, Kal 
rrpoaayei rrpos ro peXav. rj pev ovv laxvporepa 
oifjts els (j>owLKOvv xP&p a perefiaXev, rj S’ iyopevr] 
els to rrpdawov, rj Se en aadevearepa els ro 
aXovpyov. irrl Se ro rrXeov ovKen <f>aLverai y aAA 9 
ev rots rpiaiv, warrep Kal rwv aXXcov ra rrXetara, 
35 /cat rovrwv ea^ev reXos * rtov S’ dXXwv dvaladrjros 

375 a 7] perafSoXrj. Sto Kal rj tpis rplxptvs <f>aiverat y 

eKaripa pev y evavrlws Se'. rj pev ovv rrpcorrj rrjv 
e£w <f>oivLKrjv fyer drro peylarrjs yap rrepufcepeias 
rrXelarrj upoarrinrei oipcs rrpos rov rjXcov, peyLarrj 
rj e$co- rj o exopevrj /cat rj rptrrj avaXoyov, war 
5 el ra rrepl rtov xp^pdrwv rrjs (f>avraalas eiprjrai 
KaXtos, dvayKrj rptyptov re elvai avrrjir.Kal rovrois 

° “ i.e. whether the object is actually further from the eye 
in space or whether (owing to reflection) the sight travels to 
it by a longer route ” (O.T.). & Cf. De Caelo 268 a 9 ff. 

c inner, cf 375 b 6. d 374 b 9. 


them than is necessary for our present purpose. At 
any rate, they give the reason why distant objects 
appear darker and smaller and less irregular, as do 
also objects seen m mirrors, and why too the clouds 
appear darker when one looks at their reflection in 
water than directly at them. This last example is a 
particularly clear one . for we view them with a vision 
diminished by the reflection. And it makes no differ- 
ence whether the change is in the object or in our 
vision a ; the result is the same in either case. The 
following fact also must not be overlooked ; when a 
cloud is close to the sun, when we look directly at it, 
it appears to have no colour but to be white, but when 
we look at its reflection in water it seems to be par- 
tially rainbow-coloured. The reason is clearly that, 
just as our vision when reflected through an angle and 
so weakened makes a dark colour appear still daiker, 
so also it makes white appear less white and approach 
nearer to black. When the sight is fairly strong the 
colour changes to red, when it is less strong to green, 
and when it is weaker still to blue. There is no 
further change of colour, the complete process con- 
sisting, like most others, 6 of three stages ; any further 
change is imperceptible. This is why the rainbow 
is three-coloured, and why, when there are two of 
them, each is three-coloured, but the colours are in 
the reverse order in each. In the primary 0 rainbow 
the outermost band is red. For the vision is reflected 
most strongly on to the sun from the largest circum- 
ference, andjthe outermost band is the largest : and 
corresponding remarks apply to the second and third 
bands. So if our assumptions d about the appearance 
of colours are correct, the rainbow must be three- 
coloured and its only colours must be these three. 



375 a 

tols xpcopaoa Keypcoadat povois . to Se £av6ov 

<j>aLV€TCu, §ta to 7rap s aXXrjXa <j>aLveadat . to yap 
(j>oiviKovv Trapd to Trpdotvov X evKov (jxtLverai. urj- 
ptetov Si rovrov iv yap rep pteXavTaTtp vefat 
10 paAtcrra aKparos ytyverat Ipts ovptfiatvet Si rore 
£av96r€pov elv at Sokglv to <j>oivu<ovv. eGTt Si to 
£av96v iv T7j tptSt xpeopba pteTaiji) tov t€ cj>otvtKov 
Kal Trpaotvov ^pcipaTOS'. 1 Std ttjv pteXavtav ovv 
tov kvkXco ve<f>ovs oXov avTOv (f>atverat to <j>otviKovv 
X €vkov' eoTi yap Trpos ixetva 2 XevKov . teal 7rdXtv 
15 dTTofJbapatvofJsivrjs Trjs IpiSos [iyyvraTa]* qto.v Xvrj- 
Tai to <j>ouvLKOvv’ rj yap ve<f>iXr) Xevtcrj ofiaa, Trpoa- 
mTTTOVGa Trapd to Trpdotvov, pera/?aAAet els to 
£av96v. piy lotov Si orjptetov tovtcov rj arro Trjs 

oeXrjvrjs Ipis* cj>atveTat yap XevKT) Trdptrrav. ytyverat 
Si tovto OTt ev Te T<p ve<j>et £o<f)€pcp <f>atv€Tat /cat 
20 iv vvktI. (Lorre p ovv rrvp irrl rrvp, pteXav Trapd 

peXav 770 tet to rjpepta XevKov rravTeXoJS <f>atv€o9at 
XevKov' tovto S 9 ioTtv to (f)OtviKovv . ytyveTat Si 
tovto to rrados Kara^avis /cat irrl tcov avdcov iv 
yap Tots v<f>doptaotv /cat TrotKtXptaotv apLvdrjTov Sta- 
25 <f>ipet Trj fyavTaota, dXXa Trap 9 cLXXa Ttdeptev a tow 

1 e<m . . . xp^pciTos post <£atv€Tai 1. 8 fortasse tranciendum : 
post covens 1. 7 coll. Thurot, et pro to $e £avdov (fmCvercu ci. 
<f>aiv€Tai Si. 2 €K€ WO Ecorr N re c 

8 iyyvrara seclusi ; om. E x Ap Ol O.T. 

a In what follows (11. 7-17), Aristotle is trying to account 
for the orange colour in the rainbow. This he regards as due 
not to reflection, like its other three colours, Tout to the con- 
tiast of two colours m juxtaposition. The argument of the 
passage is not easy to follow in detail. What seems certain 
is that Aristotle is trying to explain two things : (i) the occur- 
rence of a yellow- band between the red and ,the green ; this 
he has already noticed (37 2 a 9) and refers to' here (11. 11-12) ; 


The yellow colour a that appears in the rainbow is 
due to the contrast of two others ; foi red in contrast 
to green appears light. (And the yellow colour m 
the rainbow lies between the red and green.)® An 
example of such contrast is the fact that the rainbow 
is purest when the cloud is blackest, and that m these 
circumstances the red appears more yellow. So the 
whole of the red appears light because of the contrast 
with the blackness of the surrounding cloud; for 
compared with the cloud it is light-coloured. The 
same thing happens when the rainbow is fading and 
the red dissolving for the cloud, which is white, 
changes to yellow when brought next to the green. & 
But the best illustration of colour contrast is afforded 
by the moon rainbow. This appears entirely white, 
simply because it appears in dark cloud and at night. 
For as fire increases fire, c so dark placed by dark 
makes a dim light (like red) appear clear and bright. 
The same effect can also be seen m dyes : for there 
is an indescribable difference in the appearance of 
the colours in woven or embroidered materials when 

(n) the replacement of the red band by a yellow, which is 
apparently what he has m mind m 11. 10-14 and certainly 
what he has in mind in 11. 14-16 (see note &). As Thurot 
pointed out, the sentence 2cm Se . . . xpw/zaros (11. 11-12) 
m its present position breaks the sequence of thought. I have 
suggested that it would come more naturally after ^aiVerat 
(1. 8) and translated accordingly. Aiistotle thus starts by 
accounting for the yellow between green and red by colour 
contrast, and then goes on (1. 9 crrjfieZov Be tqvtov, sc. rod Trap 9 
aXArjXa <j>alv€(r$ai) to give further examples of such contrast m 
which the whok of the red is replaced by yellow 7 , indvo should 
then be read foi eKelva ml 14. 

b When the rainbow fades the red disappears first. It is 
to this that Aristotle refers here when he speaks of a yellow 
band replacing the led as a result of colour contrast. 
c Proverbial. 



375 a / % ? 

Xpcofjbdroov, olov Kal ra iroppvpd ev XevKolg fi 
pbeXacrw iploig, eri S’ iv avyfj ToiqSl rj roiqhL' 8 to 
Kal ol TTOiKiXraL </>acn Stap^apraveLV epya£dptem 
rrpog tov X vyvov ttoXXolkis tcov avdtov , Xapb^avovreg 
erepa dvd 9 irepajv. 

A ton p,ev ovv Tplypojg re, Kal on €K tovtojv 
so <f>atv€Tai, tcov ypcop,dT(ov p,ov ojv rj tpeg, eLprjrat. 
SirrXfj 1 Se Kal dpbavporepa rots ypd)p,acnv rj n repi- 
iyovcra, Kal rfj decrei Tag XP° a $ ^ ivavrlag eyei 
K€ip,ivas 8ta rrjv avrrjv air lav p,aKporepa yap 
a7T0T€CV0p,€vrj rj oiftcg cocrrrzp to rroppwrepov opa, Kal 
to ivTavda tov a vtov Tporrov. aodevecTepa ovv 
375 b drro Trjg e^codev rj avaKXaaig yCyver at S id to rrop - 
TrpoarrCrrTovaa ra ypcopLara rroiei a/xauporepa <^>ai- 
veodai. Kal out ecrTpap,p,evQ)s § rj Sea to rrXeico avo 
TTjs eXaTTOVOS Kal Trjg ivTog TT€pi<f>ep€ias rrpocr- 
5 rriTTTeiv rrpog tov tjXlov iyyvTepco yap Trjg oif/€C og 
oSaa dvaKXarai arro Trjg eyyvrdrco rrepufiepecag Trjg 
7Tpd)Trjg ipiSog. iyyvraTCo Se iv rfj e^codev iptSt rj 
iXayloTrj rrepLc^epeca, coote avTrj e£et to ypebpa 
<f>owiKovv m rj S 9 iyop,evr) Kal rj Tpirr) /card Xoyov. 

1 SlttXtJs ci. Thurot. 



they are differently arranged , for instance, purple 
is quite different on a white or a black background, 
and variations of light can make a similar difference. 
So embroiderers say they often make mistakes m 
their colours when they work by lamplight, picking 
out one colour m mistake for anothei. 

This, then, is why the rainbow is three-coloured and 
why the rainbow is made up of these three colours 
only. The same cause accounts for the double rain- 
bow and for the colours in the outer bow being 
dimmer and in the reverse order. For the effects 
here are the same as those produced by an increase 
in the distance of vision on our perception of distant 
objects.* 2 The reflection from the outer rainbow is 
weaker because it has farther to travel ; its impulse 
is therefore feebler, which makes the colours seem 
dimmer. The colours are in the reverse order because 
the impulse reaching the sun is greater from the 
smaller and inner band ; for the reflection that is 
closer to onr sight is the one reflected from the band 
that is closest to the primary rainbow, that is, the 
smallest band m the outer rainbow, which will con- 
sequently be coloured red. And the second and thiid 
bands are to be explained analogously. 

* Cf. 374 b 9 ff. 


375 b 


'H e£co Ipis £<j > * <p to B* rj ecrojj rj npcory ] 3 icff & 
10 to A* ra xpwp'Cvra S’, e<j> & to F, <f>oiviKovv , 

<3 to Aj TTpacnvov, ecff to E, akovpyov to £a vdov 
Se <f>alv€Tai £<j> od to Z. 


T pels S’ ovKETi ylyvovrai, ovhe irXelovg IpiSes, 
Sea to feat Trjv SevTepav yiyveoO ai apbavporepav ) 
(oot€ Kal ttjv TpLTTjv dvdhcXaciv rrapiTrav aoOevrj yiy- 
15 v€<j 6 ai Kal aSvva tzlv acfuKveicrdat 7Tpos tov yjXiov. 



(I) Demonstration that when the sun is on the horizon the 
rainbow cannot be greater than a semicircle (375 b 16 — 376 
b 22). (IT) Demonstration that when the sun is above the 
horizon the rainbow must be less than a semicircle (376 b 
28 — 377 a 11). (Ill) The differences m the size of the sun's 
arc above the horizon account for the fact that rainbows do not 
occur at midday in the summer months (377 a 11-28). 



Let B be the outer and A the inner, primary 
rainbow : and to symbolize the co]ours, let us use F 
for red, A for green, E for purple. Yellow wall appear 
at Z. 

Three or more rainbows are never seen, because 
even the second is dimmer than the first, and so the 
third reflection is altogether too feeble to reach the 

argument ( continued ) 

Note . — The general intention of these geometrical demon- 
strations is char . In the first the eye is imagined to be at the 
centre K of the horizon {Fig. 1) : the lines of vision form a 
cone with apex K and base the circle MMM. The sun or other 
heavenly body is imagined to be rising on the horizon at H. 
Then MMM is the rainbow. It is evident at once that in the 
limiting case represented by the figure the rainbow will be a 



figure can be drawn for other seasons with the sun’s course 
shown as a segment greater or less than a semicircle. And 
this variation of the arc accounts for the fact that whereas 
in the shorter days rainbows occur at any time of day , during 
the longer days they cannot occur at midday . 

It will be clear from a study of the diagram that the 
rainbow can never be a complete circle or a segment 
of a circle greater than a semicircle ; the diagram 
will also make clear its other properties. 

(I) (1) Let A be a hemisphere resting on the circle Bernon- 
of the horizon whose centre is K : let H be another stratlon ^ 
point rising on the horizon. If the lines that fall in 
a cone from K rotate about HK as an axis, and if lines 


375 b 

to M ai avafcXcLodcboLV oltto tov rjpi- 

cnficupiov irrl to H h rl rrjv pbel^oj ytovlav , Trpos 
25 kvkXov Tr€pL(j>€peiav 'TrpoGTrecrovvrcu a i <£ 7 to rod K * 
Kal iav fJLev h t avaroXfjs r) irrl Svaecos 1 tov daTpov 
rj dvaKXaacs yivrjTat, rjpuKVKXLov a7ToXr}(f)9rfcr€Tcu 
tov kvkXov vtto tov opi^ovTos to vrrip yrjv ytyvo - 
puevov, iav S* irravco, del eXa ttov rjpuKVKXiov • cAa- 
ytGTOv Si, orav cm to# pLeorjpbfipcvov yivrjTac to 
a CTTpOV. 

so ^Eo'to) yap err* dvaToXrjs npcoTOv, oS to H* Kal 
dvaK€KXaa9cx) rj KM irrl to H, Kal to imrreSov 


Fig. 2 


drawn joining K and M are reflected (at M) from the 
surface of the hemisphere back to H over the obtuse 
angle (HKM), the lines from K fall on the circum- 
ference of a circle. If the reflection takes place at 
the rising or setting of a heavenly body, the segment 
of the circle cut off above the earth by the horizon 
will be a semicircle ; if the body has risen higher, 
the segment will be less than a semicircle, and it 
will be smallest when the body reaches its meridian. 

(2) For let the heavenly body be just rising at the 
point H, and let the line KM be reflected to H, and 



375 b t 

iKfiefiXrjodco [iv & rj A,] 1 to ano tov Tpiycovov iv 
CO* TO HKM. KVkXoS oSv rj TO [AT] €OTai T7]S 

ocf>alpas 6 ji ley lotos. eoTCO 6 i<f > 9 cb A* S loLoei yap 
ovSev dv onoiovovv tcov ini Trjs HK Kara to 

376 a Tpiycovov to KMH iK^Xrjdfj to inineSov. al ovv 

ano tcov H K ava yopLevac ypapupal iv tovtco tcv 
X oycp ov ovoTadrjoovTai tov i<f > 9 <3 A rjpiKVKXiov 
npos dXXo Kal aXXo orjpLetov’ inel yap ra re K H 
5 orjpela SeSoTat Kal rj HK, 8 eSop^evrj av ei Irj Kal rj 
MH, cooTe Kal X oyos Trjs MH npos MK. 8eSo- 
pevrjs ovv nepc<j>epeias icfxxifseTaL to M. eoTCO Srj 
avTrj icj > ’ fjs ra N M* cooTe rj TOpbrj tcov nepc<f>epeLcbv 
SeSoTai. npos aXX rj Si ye rj ttj MN nepic^epeia 
ano tcov ovtcov orjpLeloov 6 avTos A oyos iv tco a vtco 
inmiScp ov ovv lot arai. 

10 9 E KKelodco ovv tls ypapupurj rj AB, Kal TeTprjoOoo 
cos rj MH npos MK rj A npos B. pLei^cov 8e rj MH 
Trjs KM, ineinep ini Trjv pLei^co ycoviav rj dvaKXaois 
tov Kcbvov' vno yap rrjv fiet^co ycovlav vnoreivec 
tov KMH Tpiycbvov. [pLei^cov apa Kal rj A Trjs B.] 8 
15 npoonenoplodco ovv npos rrjv B, icf ) 5 fjs ro Z* coot 9 
elvai onep rrjv A npos rrjv B, Trjv BZ npos rrjv A. 
ehra onep rj Z npos rrjv KH, rj to B npos aXXrjv 
nenoirjodco Trjv Kn, Kal ano tov n ini to M ine~ 
^evydco rj to Mn. eorac o3v to II noXos rov kv- 

1 seclusi : scilicet A posuit hemisphaerium supra 11. 19, 90. 

2 $ ci. O.T. 

3 ii€t£tov , . . rr}s B seel Fobes : habent E (m ? F l0n H N. 

a I have omitted the words iv $ rj A since A has so far only 
occurred as a hemisphere (11. 19-20), and so to speak of it lying 
on a plane is nonsense. Sense can only be made of the words 
by supposing that A refers here to something else ( e.g . “ a 


let the plane of the triangle HKM be produced a It 
will cut the sphere in a great circle : let this be 
called A. (It makes no difference which of the planes 
passing through HK and determined by the triangle 
KMH is produced) Then lines drawn from the 
points H and K to any point on the semicircle A other 
than M will not bear the same relation to each other 
(as HM and KM). For if the points K and H and the 
line HK are given, the line MH will be given too, and 
so the ratio of MH to MK. The point on iVI thus 
touches a given circumference, which we will call NM, 
and so the intersection of the two circumferences b 
is given. But the same ratio will not hold between 
lines drawn from the same points H and K and in the 
same plane to any circumference other than MN. 

(3) Draw r a line AB outside the figure, and divide 

A ^ t Z ^ 

Fig. 3 

it into two parts A and B in the ratio MH : MK. 
MH is greater than MK since the reflection of the 
cone is over the greater angle, subtending the greater 
angle of the triangle KMH. [A is therefore greater 
than B.] Produce the line B to form a line Z, so that 
B + Z has the same ratio to A as A has to B. Produce 
HK to II so that B has the same ratio to KH as Z 
to KH. Join II and M to form the line Mil. II will 

great circle of the whole sphere ” (O.T.)). But Alex, does not 
seem to have had the words, ana the passage makes better 
sense without them. 

* i.e. of the great cncle formed by producing the plane of 
the triangle HKM and called A (l 375 b 33) and the circle 
forming the base of the cone (MMM Fig. 1). 



kXov, t rpos op at otto tov K ypapLptal ttpoottltttovoiv' 
20 eWat yap orrep rj Z TTpos KH, /cat rj B TTpos KII, 
/cat rj A Trpos II M. pbTj yap €<jto), aAA* rj 7 rpos 
iXarrco rj TTpos pLei^co rrjs IIM* ovSev yap Stotcret. 
€ara) Trpos IIP. tov avrov apa Xoyov at HK /cat 
KII /cat rj IIP Trpos aXXrjXas l£< ovoiv ovrrep at 
25 Z B A . 1 at Si Z B A 1 ava Xoyov rjoav, ovrrep rj A 
Trpos B, 7 ) ZB TTpos A* 0)GT€ OTT€p 7 ) II H TTpos T TJV 
np, rj to IIP Trpos ttjv IIK. av oSv ano rcov 
K H at HP /cat KP im to P im&vxdajOLv, at 
e77t^€i/^0€tcrat afirai tov a vtov e^ovai Xoyov ovrrep 
rj HII Trpos ttjv IIP' rrepl yap ttjv avT rjv yoov Lav 
30 ttjv n avaAoyov at T€ tov H1IP Tpcycovov /cat tov 
etjei Xoyov, /cat rj to HII Trpos ttjv HP. eyei Se 
/cat 7) MH TTpos KM tovtov tov X oyov ovTrep yap 
37 C b 7 ) TO A TTpos TTJV B apufroTZpai. O) GT€ OLTTO TCDV 

H K GrjpLetoov ov pbovov Trpos ttjv M N Trepifyipeiav 
GvoTadrjaovTai tov a vtov e^ovaa t Xoyov, aXXa /cat 
aXXodi' OTrep aSvva tov. c errel ovv rj A ovt€ Trpos 
5 eXaTTOv tov Mn ovre Trpos (jL€l£co (ofiolcos yap 
SeixOrjaeTac) , SfjXov otl wpos avTrjv av €lyj ttjv €</>* 
fj M n. coot 5 ecrrat orrep rj Mil TTpos nK, rj nH 
TTpos TTJV Mn [/cat XoLTTTJ 7) TO MH TTpOS MK]. 2 

5 Eav oSv Tcp €<f>* £ to II ttoXco xp^^vos, Sta- 
GTTjpbaTL Se tco €<f>* w M H, kvkXos ypa<j>fj, aTraowv 
io i<j>di/jeTai tcov ycovicov as dva/cAcojaevat ttolovchv at 
arro tov H /cat K 8, el Se pur}, opLoicos oet^TyaovTat 
tov a vtov exovoai Xoyov at aXXodi /cat aXXodi tov 
tjpukvkXlov ovviGTap,€vai, orrep rjv aSvva tov. iav 
odv Treptaydyrjs to tjpukvkXlov to e<f> & to A Trepi 
ttjv e<j>' fj H K n SiapLeTpov, at arro tov HK ava- 


then be the pole of the circle on which the lines from 
K fall : for the ratio of Z to KH and B to KII is the 
same as that of A to IIM. For suppose it is not so, 
and A bears this ratio to a line greater or less than 
IIM (it does not matter which). Let this line be HP. 
Then HK and KII and IIP will stand in the same 
ratio to each other as 2, B and A. But Z, B and A 
stood in ratios such that A w r as to B as 2 + B to A : so 
that IIH is to IIP as IIP to IIK, If, therefore, from 
the points K and H the lines HP and KP are drawn 
to P, the lines so drawn will bear the same ratio to 
each other as HII to IIP, for the triangles HIIP and 
KPn are homologous about the angle IT. So IIP will 
bear the same ratio to KP as HII to IIP. But MH 
and KM also stand in this ratio, as the ratio of both 
Hn to IIP and MK to MH is the same as that of 
A to B. Therefore, from the points H and K lines 
standing m the same ratio to each other will have 
been drawn both to the circumference MN and to 
another point. Which is impossible. Since, therefore, 
A cannot bear the ratio in question to a line either 
less or greater than MIT (the proof in either case is 
the same), it follows that it must bear that ratio to 
MH itself. So the ratio of Mil to IIK is the same as 
that of IIH to Mil [and finally MH to MK]. 

(4) If, then, a circle is drawn with n as pole and 
distance Mil, it will touch all the angles made by the 
reflection of the lines from H and K. If not, it can 
be shown as before that lines drawn to different 
points on tfee semicircle A bear the same relation 
to each other, which is an impossibility. If, then, you 
revolve the semicircle A about HKII as diameter, the 

1 Z B A E x m Ap O.T. : A B Z Fobes. 1 2 seel. Fobes. 

3 H Kal K ci. O.T., ef. Ap : MA kvkXov Fobes. 

27 5 


378 b 

15 k\(X){ 1 €V<U 7 TpO$ TO ift & TO M iv TTaCTL TOLS ini- 
niSots opoLcos egovcn, Kal tcrrjv noirjoovoi yojvLav 
ttjv KMH* Kal rjv 7 ToirjGovai Se ycvviav at HII 
Kal Mil ini tt]$ HEt, a el Lcrrj eorrat. Tplycova ovv 
ini Trjs HII Kal KII toa rq> HMII KMII gvv- 
ecrnf/caoz. tovtc ov Se a i KadeTOL ini to avro 

20 oy)peiov neaovvrac Trjs HII Kal laai eoovrai . m- 
nTGTtocrav ini to 0. Kevrpov apa tov kvkXov to 
0, tjplkvkXlov Se to nepl ty)v MN 1 dfy'ppryrai vno 2 


[Tojv pev yap avco tov TjXiov ov Kparecv, rtbv he 
’fnpoanTepc^opevojv'f Kparecv, Kal S cayecv tov depa • 
Kal Sea tovto ttjv tptv ov ovpfiaXXew tov kvkXov . 
25 yiyveaBai Se Kal vvKTeop and rrjs creXi jvrjs oXiyaKis* 
ovt€ yap del nXrjprjs , acrBeveoTepa t€ ttjv <f>vaiv 
(rjy there Kparelv tov aepos’ paXiura 8* laraaBai 
ttjv iptv, onov paXiora k pare it at 6 yXios* nXeioryj 
yap iv avrfj Ik pas ivepeivev -Y 

HdXw ecFTO) opl^cov pev i<j> ov to AKT, inava- 
30 rcraA/cerco he to H, o 8’ d^cvv eara> vvv icfS ov to 
HII. ra pev ovv aXXa navra opoLcos SeiyBrjoerai 
d)s Kal npOT€pov } 6 Se noXos tov kvkXov 6 i<f > 9 & 
II Kara) ecrrai tov opi^ovros tov i<f>* (L to AT, 
377 a dpBevros tov icf> & to H orjpeiov . ini Se rrjs 
avrrjs o T€ noXos Kal to Kevrpov tov kvkXov Kal 
to tov opi^ovTOs vvv TTjv dvaroXrjv' eon yap oStos 


1 TOV 7T€pl TTJV MN (SC. KVkXov) Cl. O.T. 

2 vtto 9s)i SBree Fcoxr m 1 H N O.T. : airo Fobes. 

3 v) ci. O T. 

4 t&v fxkv 1. 22 . . . ivetiewev 1. 28 damnaverirnt O.T. 
Ideler: om. Ap. 



lines reflected from H and K to the point M will bear 
the same ratio to each other in all planes, and the angle 
KMH will remain constant, as will also the angle made 
by HII and Mil upon HIL So the triangles on HU 
and KELare equal to the triangles HMTI and OUT. 
Their perpendiculars will fall on the same point in 
HII and all be equal Let the point on which they 
fall be 0 Then 0 is the centre of the circle, of which 
a semicircle MN is cut off by the horizon. 0 

[For the sun does not master the parts above, but 
does master those near the earth and dissolve the 
air. And that is why the circle of the rainbow is not 
complete. A rainbow at night, due to the moon, is 
rare For the moon is not always full, and is naturally 
too feeble to master the air. The rainbow stands 
most firmly when the sun is most mastered : for then 
most moisture remains m it ] b 

(II) Again, let the horizon be AKT, and let H be Hem 
raised some way above the horizon. And let the axis tlon 
now be HII. The proof will be the same in most 
respects as the one above, but the pole of the circle 
II will be below the horizon AT, since the point H 
has risen above it. The pole, and the centre of the 
circle (0), c and the centre (K) of the circle on whose 
arc the sun rises (that is, the circle HII) are all m 

a This seems to assume that the great circle A (cf 375 
b 33 : MPNH of Fig. 9) is the circle of the horizon, which 
is not what the earlier parts of the demonstration would lead 
one to suppose, cf. 3 75 b 30 ff. But Aristotle may be speaking 
carelessly, or tjie words may be a gloss (O.T. : there is no trace 
of them in Alex.). The O.T.’s conjecture, “ a semicircle of 
the circle about MN,” would avoid the difficulty. 

6 As Ideler and O.T. remark, this passage is certainly out 
ot place here : and I agree with the O.T. that “ it is inco- 
herent in itself and certainly an interpolation ” 

0 i.e. the circle which is the base of the cone. 



377 a 

€</>' <5 to HII. €7rei Sc rrjs Sta pirpov rfjs AT to 

5 KH €7rdvcx), TO K€VTpOV €irj av VTTOKOJTO) TOV Opt- 
t^OVTOS TTpOTepOV TOV €<^’ <L TO AT, €7 TL Trjs KII 
ypappfjg, i<f>’ oS to O . 1 &gt eXarrov carat to 
iirdva) Tprjp a rjpiKVKXiov to €<j> Y Y* to yap 
TTQ 2 rjpiKVKXiov rjVy vvv Sc aTTOTcrp/^rat m ro 3 
tou AT opityOVTOS. to 8rj YQ 2 d(f>aves carat avTOV } 
10 iirapdivTOS tov rjXlov‘ iXdytGTOV S’, or av cm p ca- 
rjpppLas' ocrov yap dvd>T€pov to H, /carcorcpov o 
tc ttoAos 1 /cat to KevTpov tov kvkXov cWat. 

*0™ S’ eV ^ttev Tats cAarroatv rjpepatg rat? /act* 
larjpepiav ttjv peTOTrcvpwfjv cvSc^crat act ytyvzodai 

1 B Op Fobes : 0 E re c 23, ec F,„« * Bekker O.T. 

2 TYO, OT Fobes. 

3 a 770 Fobes : vi to 23cmr Fcorr H N O.T. 

a Though Fobes* readings, TYO and OY, have good 
authority, it is clear from Fig. 4 that the sense of the passage 
demands the readings given here, which are those adopted by 
Bekker and the O.T. 



the same straight line But since KH is above the 
diameter AT", the centre will be below the former 
horizon AT 1 on the line KIT at the point 0. The seg- 

ment 'FY above the horizon will thus be less than a 
hemisphere : for 'HFYI2 0 is a semicircle and is now cut 
off by the horizon AT. So part of it, Y12, a will be in- 
visible when the sun has risen above the horizon, and 
the visible segment will be the smallest when the 
sun is on its meridian. For the higher H is, the lower 
will be the pole and the centre of the circle 

(III) The reason why, during the shorter days after <IID The 
the autumn equinox, it is possible tor a rainbow to differences 



tpiv, iv Si Tats piaK pore pats rjfiepcus Tats and lar)p,e- 
pLas rrjs iripas ini rrjv larjpiepLav rrjv ire pap nepl 
15 pt,€<7rjpi,[3pLav ov yiyverai Ipis, air lop on ra peep npos 
apKTOP rpLTjp,ara navra p^et^co rjpuKVKXtov Kal del 
ini pel^co rjpLiKVKXtov, to S’ agaves* piiKpov, ra 8e 
npos ptseorjpifcptav TpurjpLara tov lurjpepivov , to puiv 
avco Tp/qp,a puKpov , to 8* vno yrjv p^eya, Kal del 
20 8rj pbet^oo ra noppdoTepa' coot iv pcev rats npos 
Bepivas rponas rjp^epats 8ia to peyeOos tov rprj- 
pLaros, nplv ini to pieaov iXdetv tov Tp,ijp,aTOS Kal 
ini tov ptsecrrjpLppLvov ttjv to H, Karoo rjbr) reX ecus 
ylyverai rj to II, 8ia to nop poo dcf^zardvai rrjs yrjs 
TTjv pLeorjpLpplav 8ta to peyeOos tov rprj paros. iv 
25 Si rats npos ras x €C f JLe P LV ^ Tponds r]pepais, Sta 
to prj noXv vnep yrjs elvai ra rprjpara tcov kv- 
kXcov, TovvavTiov avayKaiov ytyveert) at fipayv yap 
apdetarjs rrjs i<j> co to H, ini rrjs pbecrrjpfiptas 
ytyverai o rjAcos. 



(1) Mock suns and rods. Rods are due to the refection 
of our sight to the sun from clouds of uneven consistency 
(377 a 29-b 15). Mock suns are due to reflection from even 
and dense cloud . Mock suns as signs of ram (377 b 15-27). 
Why mock suns and rods appear only at the s*de of the sun, 
and not above or beneath it (377 b 27 — 378 a 14). (2) We 

a 29 Tas* S’ avras aortas vnoArjnreov Kal nepl nap- 
30 rjXloov Kal pafiBcov Tats elprjpevais . 



occur at any time of day, but during the longer days in the sun’s 
between the spring and autumn equinoxes no rainbow arc 
occurs about midday, is as follows : When the suns 
orbit is north of the equator the visible segment of 
it is greater than a semicircle and continues to in- 
crease, while the segment that is invisible is small ; 
when it is south of the equator the upper, visible 
segment is small, while the segment below the earth 
is large, and increases as the sun recedes. In the 
days of the summer solstice, therefore, the size of the 
segment is so large that before the point H reaches 
the middle of the segment, that is, the meridian, the 
point II is already well below the horizon, because 
the segment is large and therefore the distance of the 
meridian from the earth great. But in the days of 
the winter solstice the opposite result must follow, 
because the segments of the sun’s orbit above the 
earth are not large : for the sun reaches its meridian 
when the point H has risen only a small distance. 

argument ( continued ) 

have still to study the effects produced by the trn forms of 
exhalation within the earth. They give rise to two types of 
substance , minerals and metals (378 ado-b 6). 

With 87S a IS ff. cf. Eichholz , tl Aristotle* s Theory of 
the Formatiom of Metals and Minerals f C.Q. xlni {July- 
Oct. 1949). 

(1) Mock suns and rods must again be supposed to (ipviock 
be produced by the same causes. a£a 



377 a 

r typer at ydp rrapfjAios p,ev dvaKXiopievrjs rrjs 
oijjeajs rrpos tov yjXiov, pafiSoi Se Sta to rrpoorrlrrTeiv 
Totavrrjv ovcrav rrjv oi/jw, olav elrrop^ev del ytyve- 
adai drav rrXrjcrlov ovtcov tov fjXlov ve<j>wv arro 
twos avaKXaordfj tojv vyp&v rrpos to ve(j>os * (f>al - 
377 b verat yap avTa p,ev a^pw/xartora ra ve<f>r) Kar 
evOvooplav eiafiXerrovcrw 9 ev Se rqj vSa rt pafSStov 
pLecFTOv to vecfros * rrX fjv tot€ piev ev Tcp vSa tl 8 okcl 
to xpobpia tov vecj>ovs elvai, iv Se Tats pafiSois err 
avTov tov ve<f>ovs . ytyveTat Se tovto ot av avco- 
5 p,aAos f] tov vefiovs fj crvoTaocs, Kal Trj piev ttvkvo - 
Tepov Trj Se pba vov, Kal Trj jaev vSa TCoSearepov tt) 
S 9 fj ttov dvaKXaadeCarjs yap rfjs oiftecos rrpos tov 
rjXiov , to (rx?jP ' a P* v [too fjXlovf oi>x opaTac [Sta 
piiKpoTryra Ttov evoTTTpcov ]/ to Se xP^ ) f J ' a ' 8ta Se 
to ev dv<x)p,dAcp <j>aLve<rd at Xap^rrpov Kal XevKov tov 
10 rjXiov, rrpos ov dveKXaadrj fj oifjis, to piev </>owlkovv 
< j>alveTai, to Se rrpdawov 7} £av9ov. Sia<j>epei yap 
ovSev Sid TotovTCUv opav fj drro tolovtojv dvaAcAco- 
p,evr)v‘ dp,<f>oT€p<jos ydp cf>aweTai rfjv xP° av dpioiov, 
coot el KaKelvcos <f>owiKovv } Kal ovrcos . 

At piev ovv pafiSoi ylyvovT ai Sc 9 avcopcaXtav tov 
15 evonTpov ov to) oyrjpiaTi dXXa rw xpcbpLarr 6 Se 
rrapfjXios » crrav oti /mAtara 6p,aAos fj 6 dfjp Kal 
rrvKVos ojLtotW* 8 to <^atverat XevKos> fj piev ydp 
6p,aAoTr]s tov evortTpov rroiel XP° av ^ av T V$ 
(frdaeajs' fj S 9 dvaKXacns a dpoas Trjs oiftetos, Sid to 
a/m rrpoorrlrrTeiv rrpos tov rjXiov arro rrvKvfjs ovoijs 
20 vrjs dxAvos, Kal ovrrco piev ovorjs vSc op 1 2 eyyvs S 9 

1 seel. Fobes. 

2 v8<x>p Fobes codd. : vBaros ci. Thurot qui vBcop non con- 
strui posse censet : cf. Ap vBarcBBovs. 



A mock sun is caused by the reflection of our sight due to 
to the sun. Rods are caused when our sight reaches reflectlon * 
the sun in the condition in which we have said ° it ^ * 
does when it is 1 effected from some liquid surface to 
a cloud, when there are clouds near the sun • for the 
clouds when we look directly at them appear colour- 
less, but their reflection m water is full of rods. The 
only difference is that it is the reflection of the cloud 
in water that appears coloured, while the colours of 
the rod appear on the cloud itself This takes place 
when the consistency of the cloud is uneven, and part 
of it is dense and part rare, part more and part less, 

“watery. For when the sight is reflected to the sun 
its shape is not seen owing to the smallness of the 
reflecting particles, 6 but its colour is • and the clear, 
bright light of the sun to vrhich our sight is reflected, 
seen on an uneven reflecting surface, appears partly 
red, partly green or yellow/ It makes no diffeience 
whether sight passes through a medium or is i effected 
from a surface of this kind : in either case a similar 
colour appears, and if it is red in the one case it will 
be in the other. 

The colour, therefore, of rods, though not their Mock suns 
shape, is caused by the unevenness of the reflecting 
surface. A mock sun appears when the air is very 
even and at the same time dense. Hence its bright 
colour. For the evenness of the reflecting surface 
produces an image of a single colour ; and our sight 
is reflected as a whole and projected all at once to 
the sun fron* the mist, which is dense and very nearly 
water though not yet quite, and this reflection causes 

• 374 b 9 ff. Cf esp. 374 b 20. 
b 372 a 32, 373 b 17. 
c Cf 374 b 30. 



377 b f/ 

vSaros, [Sta] 1 to vndpxov rep r) Xlep ipi<f>alv€odai 
ypdjpia rroieZ, coarrep am ^aA/co£» A elov heXajpievrjv 
Sta rrjv TrvKvorrjra. ooar imi to xpcop,a rov 
rjXiov XevKov, /cat o TraptfXios <f>alverai XevKos. Sta 
Sc to auTO rovro piaXXov vSaros arjpeZov o JraptfXios 
25 tcou pd/3 Scov pidXXov yap avpi/3 alvei rou depa 
evepycos c^ctu rrpos yeveaiv vSaros • 6 Si vonos 
rov fiopelov piaXXov, or t pi aXXov 6 vonos arjp els 
vSc op pierafidXXei rov rrpos apxrov. 

Yiyvovrai S’, coarrep eimpiev, rrepl re Svapias 
/cat irepl rds avaroXas, /cat ovre avcodev ovre Karoo- 
30 dev, aXX c/c rd>v rrXaylcov /cat pa/HSoi /cat rraprjXior 
/cat out’ cyyus* tou rjXlov Xlav ovre mppco rravreXdbs' 
eyyvs piiv yap oSoav 6 rjXios SiaXvei rrjv avaraaiv, 
mppco S’ ovarjs rj oiftis ovk avaKXaadrjoerar am 
yap putcpov evorrrpov mppco amreivopievr) aadevrjs 
ylyverar Sto /cat at dXcos ou yiyvovrai cf evavrlas 

378 a tou rjXlov. avco piiv oSv iav ylyvrjrai /cat eyyvs , 

OiaAvaei o rjAios' eav oe mppco, eAarrcov r\ oip i$ 
ode ra 7} cScttc mieZv aua/cAacrtu ou rr poarreaeZr at. 
ev Si rep rrXaylep [u7ro tou ^Atou] 2 earl roaovrov 
amarrjvai ro evorrrpov, doare pirjre rov rjXcov Sta- 
5 Xvaai, rr]v re oifsiv adpoav eXdeZv, Sta to rrpos rfj 
yfj 3 eftepopievrjv pi rj Siaarraadai coarrep Si ayavovs 
c f>epopi€vrjv . U 770 Sc tou TjXiov ov ylyverai Sta to 

rrXrjalov piiv rrjs yrjs SiaXveadai av vm rov rjXlov, 
avco Sc pieaovpavlov (yiyvopievrjs avardaewsY rrjv 
oifriv Siaarraadai. /cat oXcos ov S* e/c rrXaylov piea- 

1 seel. Fobes. 2 seel. Fobes. 

3 T 2? YV O.T ri)i/ Fobes. 



the sun's real colour to appear, as it does when our 
sight is reflected by the density of a polished copper 
surface As the colour of the sun is bright, so, there- 
fore, is the colour of the mock sun. For this same 
reason the mock sun is more a sign of rain than of 
rods, the air being in a more favourable condition 
for the production of water And a mock sun in the 
south is more of a sign of rain than one in the north, 
because the air in the south is more liable to change 
to water than the air towards the north. 

Both rods and mock suns occur, as we said,® at sun- 
set and sunrise, and neither above nor below the sun, 
but beside it. Nor do they occur very close to the 
sun, nor very far off. For if the condensation is close 
the sun dissolves it, and if it is far off the sight is not 
reflected. For when the reflecting surface is small 
the sight grows progressively weaker as the distance 
increases, which is why haloes do not occur opposite 
the sun If, then, the condensation is close to the sun 
and above it, the sun will dissolve it * if it is far at a 
distance from it, the sight is too weak to produce a 
reflection and does not reach it. But at the side of 
the sun the reflecting material can be far enough 
away for the sun not to dissolve it, yet near enough 
for sight to reach it as a whole, because its course is 
near the earth and it is not, as it were, dissipated on 
its journey through space. Reflection does not take 
place below the sun because close to the earth the 
sun would dissolve the reflecting material, whereas 
when it forms high in the heavens the sight is dis- 
sipated. Indeed it does not take place even at the 

a 372 a 10. 

4 yiyvofievrjs crvoraaecos Cl, Fobes, cf. Ap : ovtos E 3B. 



378 a 

10 ovpavlov ylyver ai' fj yap oifiis ov npos rfj yfj 1 
(j>eperai, chore oXiyrj a <j>iKvetrai rrpos to evorrrpov, 
/cat rj dvaKXcopevrj ylyver at rrdprrav dodevfjs. 

*'Ooa pev oSv epya ovpfialvei napexeodai rfjv 
eKKpcoLV ev rots robots rocs vrrep rrjs yfjt, &X € 8ov 
15 eon rooavra real roiavra. ooa S’ ev a vrfj rfj yfj , 
iyicaratcXeiopevr) rots* rrjs yfjs pepeoiv, arrepya^e- 
rai, XeKreov . 

Ilotet yap 8 vo Sta <j>opas otopdrcov 8ta to 8irrXrj 
7T€(f>VK€ \vai /cat avrfj, Kadarrep /cat iv rep peredoptp' 
8 vo pev yap at avaOvpiaoeis , fj pt,ev drpi8d>8rjs fj 8e 
20 Karrvcodrjs, a>s <f>apev , eloLv Svo 8e /cat rd ei8r) rcov 
ev rfj yfj yiyvopevcov, rd pev opvtcra rd 8e peraX - 
Xevra. fj pev ovv £r]pd dvadvplaols ear tv fj ns 
eKTTvpovoa rroiel rd opvKra rravra , olov Xl9cov re 
yevrj rd arrjKra /cat oavSapaKrjv Kai ajypav /cat piX- 
rov /cat delov /cat TaAAa to, roiavra . ra 8e rrXelora 
25 rcov opvKTtov eoTiv ra pev KovLa Kexpcopanopevrj, 
rd Se Xidos €K roiavrrjs yeyovebs ovordoecos, olov to 
Kivvapapi. rrjs 8 s dvaOvpiaoecos rrjs drpi8<o8ovs, 
ooa peraXXeverai, /cat eonv rj x vT d rj eXard, olov 
oi8rjpos, XP VU °S> rroiel 8e ravra rravra 

fj dvadvpiaois rj drpi8cd8rjs eyKara/cXeiopevr) , /cat 
30 pdXiora ev rots XLQois, 8ta ^rjporrjra els ?v ovvdXi - 
fSopevrj /cat rrrjyvvpevrj, olov fj 8p6oos fj rrdxyrj, 
or av drroKpidfj. evravda 8e rrplv arroKpiQrjvai 

yevvarac ravra . Sto eon pev cos v8cop ravra, 

»t 09 f V O / \ \ C t/\ r/o 

eonv o cos ov ovvapei pev yap rj iw? voaros r\v, 
eon 8* ovKen, ovS’ v8a ros yevopevov 8ta n 
1 rrpos rfj yfj Ap : vrro rrjv yrjv Fobes codd. 

a Lit. substances dug or quarried and substances mined. 
“ The * fossiles * include not only certain minerals such as 


side of the sun when it is high : for our sight is not 
then travelling close to the earth, and so when it 
reaches the reflecting surface it is already weak and 
its reflection lacks force entirely. 

(2) This, then, completes our enumeration of the 
kind of effects pioduced by exhalation in the regions 
above the earth’s surface . we have still to describe 
those which it produces when enclosed in the parts 
of the earth 

It produces two different kinds of body, being itself 
twofold just as it is in the upper regions For there 
are, we maintain, two exhalations, one vaporous and 
one smoky ; and there are two corresponding kinds 
of body produced within the earth, “ fossiles ” and 
metals.® The dry exhalation by the action of its heat 
produces all the “ fossiles,” for example, all kinds of 
stones that are infusible — realgar, ochre, ruddle, 
sulphur and all other substances of this kind. Most 
“ fossiles ” are coloured dust or stone formed of a 
similar composition, for instance cinnabar. Metals 
are the product of the vaporous exhalation, and are 
all fusible or ductile, for example, iron, gold, copper. 
These are all produced by the enclosure of the vapo- 
rous exhalation, particularly within stones, whose 
dryness compresses it together and solidifies it, just 
as dew and frost & solidify when they have been 
separated — only metals are produced before separa- 
tion has taken place. So they are in a sense water 
and in another sense not : it was possible for their 
material to tfirn into water, but it can no longer do so, 
nor are they, like tastes, the result of some change of 

realgar, ochre, ruddle, sulphur and cinnabar, but also those 
stones which cannot be melted ” (EichhoLz, loc. clt ). 

6 Book I. ch. 10. 

(2) The two 
forms of 
within the 



378 b ttolBos, atGTrep ol yvpLor oi 5 Se yap ovtco ylyver at 
to pev yaX kos to Be ypvaos, aAAa vplv yevead at 
7T aye lctt] s rfjs avadvpudaecos eKaara rovrcov icrrlv. 
Bid Kal TrvpovraL navra Kal yrjv ^yer £rjpav yap 
eyei avadvpLiaaiv o Be ypvaos povos ov bvpovrat. 

5 K oivfj lev ovv €Lp7]rai ire pi avrtbv aTrdvTOJV, IBla 

§€ oKeirreov rrpoyeipi^ofJievoLs rrepl eKacrov yevos- 



quality in water that has already formed. For this 
is not the way in 'which copper or gold is produced 
but each is the result of the solidification of the ex- 
halation before it turns to water. So all metals are 
affected by fire and contain earth, for they contain 
dry exhalation The only exception is gold, which 
is not affected by fire. 

So much for a general account of these bodies ; 
we must now take each kind separately and examine 
it in detail. 





Of the four constituent qualities of the four elements , two, 
heat and cold , are active , two, moist and dry , are passive 
(378 b 10-26). These factors , ac&ve and passive, give rise to 
generation, change and destruction (378 b 26 — 379 all). De- 
struction is due to the failure of the active factors in a thing 
to master the passive . Decay is due to the destruction of a 
moist body's natural heat by external heat, and so may be 
said to be due to internal cold or external heat. Confirmatory 
examples (379 a ll~b 9). 

b 10 ’E^ct Sc rerrapa atria S icopiorai rtov gtolx€iojv, 
rovrcov Sc Kara ov£vyLa$ /cat ra arot^cta rerrapa 
GVfJLPepTqKev etvac, Sv ra pkv Svo TTOuqriKa, to 
Qzppov /cat to ifwxpov, ra Sc Suo rrad^riKa, to £r)pdv 
/cat to vypov rj Sc rr Laris rovrcov c/c rrjs irraycoyrjs' 
15 <f>aLv€rai yap iv rracrtv rj (Jiev Oepporrjs /cat ipvyporTjs 
opi^ovaai Kal avpb(f>vovoai /cat perafidXXovaat, ra 
6* 6p,oy€vfj Kal ra prj opoyevrj, Kal vypaivovaai 
Kal £ rjpaLvovaai Kal OKXrjpvvovcrai Kal paXdrrovaai, 
ra Sc £rjpa Kal vypd opi£6fi€va Kal rdXXa ra elprq- 

tt Qfi Book I. ch. 9. For the general doctrine of the four 
elements, each of which is composed of prime matter and a 




argument (continued) 

Note. — The word translated “ generation ” m tins 
chapter (yeveots) covers all processes of coming into existence 
of whatever land ; ** destruction ” (4>6opd), correspondingly , 
covers all kinds of passing out of existence ; “ decay ” 

(oij'pis) is a particular, but very common , type of “ destruc- 
tion ” (<f>0opa), covering generally cases m winch a thing 
decays, disintegrates or perishes in the ordinary course of 
nature (cf. 379 a3 ), its literal meaning being “ putrefaction 

We have distinguished m the elements four causal The active 
factors whose combinations yield four elements a : two qualSfesf 76 
of the factors are active, the hot and the cold, two are 
passive, the moist and the dry. This can be confirmed 
by considering some examples. (1) It is always heat 
and cold that are observed to determine, combine and 
change things both of the same and of different kinds, 
as well as moistening, drying, hardening and soften- 
ing : things dry and moist, on the other hand, are the 
subjects of determination and the other changes just 

pair of the prime contrarieties (fire = hot-dry, air = moist-hot, 
water = moist-cold, earth = di y-cold), see De Qaelo 111 -iv, De 
Gen . et Corr, n 1-6. For the view that hot and cold are active, 
moist and dry passive, cf, in particular l)e Gen, et Corr. n. 2, 

329 b 20-33, and Joachim’s note ad 329 b 24-26. 



378 b / 

piva Tradrj rraaxovra avra re kcl$ 9 avra Kal ocra 
20 Koiva ef dj u<j>olv acop ara avviarrjKev in 8 9 ck rcov 
Xoycov 8rjXov, ols opi^opeda ras <f>vaeis avredv to 
pkv yap Oeppov Kal ipvxpov cos TrocrjnKa Xiyopev 
(to yap avyKpiTLKov coairep TroirjnKov ri'ian), to 
8k vypov Kal £v]pov rradrjnKov (to yap evopiarov 
25 Kal 8 vaoptarov rep rrdaxzw TL Xeyer at t t)v <j bvatv 
avredv ) . 

"On pkv oSv rd pkv 7roir)nKa rd 8 k TraOrynKa , cf> a- 
vepov. huopiapevcov Se rovrcov Xrjnreov av ecrj rds 
ipyaalas a vredv, a ts ipya^ovrai ra iroirjnKdy Kal 
rcov TradrjnKOJV ra et'S^. rrpedrov pkv o$v KadoXov 
rj a7rXfj yiveacs Kal rj <f)voLKrj perafioXr) rovrcov redv 
30 Svvapecdv ianv ipyov, Kal rj avnKupevTj <j>8opd 
Kara <f>v<nv. axirai pkv ovv roZs re cf>vroZs vrrdp- 
Xovcn Kal Redoes Kal rots pepeatv avredv. eon S 9 
rj drrXrj Kal rj <f>vaLKTj yeveais perafioXr) m rd rovrcov 
rcov 8vvdpecov i orav excoai X oyov, £k rrjs in TOKei- 
pevrjs vXrjs eKaarrj cfojoei' avrai S’ elalv a l etprj- 
379 a pevat 8vvdpeis rradrjnKal. yevvcdai 8k to deppov 
Kal ifjvxpov Kparovvra rrjs vXrjs' orav Se prj Kparfj, 
Kara pepos pkv poXvvais Kal arreifjLa ylyver at . rfj 
S 9 arrXfj yeveaei ivavnov pdXiora koivov arjipcs • 
rraaa yap rj Kara <j*vaiv cf>6opd els rov9 9 68os ianv, 
5 otov yrjpas Kal avavats. riXos Se rravrcov [rcov 
aXXcov rovrcov] 1 2 aarrporrjs s eav prj n fica <j>6apfj* 
rcov <f>vaei avvearedreov ianv yap Kal aapKa Kal 
oar ovv Kal onovv KaraKavaai, Sv To riXos rrjs 

1 secluSl. tovtcov dnavrcov O.T. yap rcov aXXcov arravrovv Ej : 
yap toijtcov aTravrcov Ecorr 235 : enim horum cunctorum Hen- 
ricus i Se rcov aX Xcov d-navrcov Bekker. 

2 post 66apfj virgulam ponunt Thurot O.T. 


enumerated, both in isolation and in combination 
with each other. (2) We can see the same thing by 
examining the terms of the definitions we give of the 
natures of these factors. For we speak of the hot 
and the cold as active (for what causes combination 
is m a sense active) and the moist and the dry as 
passive (for what is unresistant or resistant is so de- 
scribed m virtue of being affected in a certain w-ay). 

It is clear, therefore, that of the four factors two 
are active, two passive. Having established this, w T e 
must describe the operations of the active factors and 
the forms taken by the passive. First, then, simple 
generation and natural change are the result of these 
properties, as well as the coi responding natural 
destruction : and these processes occur both in plants 
and in animals and their constituent parts. Simple, 
natural generation is a change effected by these 
properties, when present in the right proportions, in 
the matter underlying a particular natuial thing, this 
matter being the passive properties of which we have 
spoken. The hot and the cold produce change by 
mastering the matter : when they fail to master it 
the result is half-cooked a and undigested. But the 
most general contrary to simple generation is decay. 
For all natural destruction leads to decay, for instance 
old age and withering, and all compound natural 
bodies rot in the end, 6 unless they are destroyed by 
violence : for it is of course quite possible to destroy 
by burning either flesh, bone or anything else wdiich 
in the ordinary course of nature is finally destroyed by 

° Gf 381 a 12 and ch 3, note b on p. 306. 

& The omission of ra>v aXXcov rovrwv givesthe sense that 
seems to be requiied, though there is no ms. justification for 
the omission ; the passage is clearly corrupt and the words 
may be a gloss on vavrcov. 





change and 


379 a 

Kara <j>vaiv cj>6opa$ orjipls ianv. 8 to vypa Trp&rov , 
€ira £rjpa reAos* ylyvercu ra orjTropeva' £k tovtcov 
10 yap iydvero, Kal c opicrOr) rep v ypa> to £r)pov ipya- 


YLyverai S 9 rj <f>9opd or av Kparfj tov * opll^ovTos 
TO Opt^OpeVOV 8 id TO TTepieXOV. {pi 5 pT)V dAA* IS LCDS 
ye Xeyerac orjifscs errl tcov koto pepos cfrdeipopevcov, 
c>Tav xwpLcrdfj Trjs (jrvcrecos.) 8 to Kal arjireTai rravTa 
15 TdXXa TrXrjv rrvpos * Kal yap yrj Kal v8oop Kal arjp 
orjTreTai' rravTa yap vXr) tco rrvpl £gtl raura, 
arjrpLs 8 9 £otIv <f>6opa Trjs ev eKacrTCp v yptp oueeias 
Kal KaTa cfnlcnv 9eppoT7)Tos vt? aXXorpias Oeppo- 

T7jT0$‘ aVTTj 8 9 €OtIv T) TOV 776/366^0 VTO S’. OJOT€ 

errei Acar evbeiav 7racr^e6 oeppov, evbees be ov 
20 ToiavTps Svvapecos ifjvxpov nav, ap<f>co av avria 
eirj , Kal koivov to rrados rj crfjiftcs, ifjvxpOTrjTOs re 
pLKetas Kal deppoTrjTos aXXoTplas Sua tovto yap 
Kal tjrjporepa ylyveTai ra opnopeva navTa, Kal 
reXos yrj Kal Konpos' I^lovtos yap tov oIk€lov 
deppov avve^aT pL^er ai to KaTa cjrvcnv vypov, Kal 
25 to oTTcov TTjv vypOTpTa ovk eoTLv * €7rayec yap 
eXKOvoa rj otKeia Oepporrjs. Kal ev tocs i/jvx^gl 8* 
t^ttov orrjrreTai fj £v rats aXeais (ev pev yap tw 
X^ tpcovi oXlyov ev ra) TrepidyovTi dept Kal vSan 
to Oeppov, coot 9 ovBev laxvet, ev 8e ra> Oepei nXeov)- 
30 Kal ovTe to Trerrpyos ( paXXov yap ifjvxpov rj o a rjp 
Oeppov ' ovkovv KpaT€irai } to 8 e kivovV KpaTei) ovre 

a Cf. Joachim, loc. c it ; for the importance of ov^vtov 
depfiov cf . Jaeger, Hermes xlvni. pp. 4-3-55, and Joachim, 
Journal of Philology , xxk (1903), pp. 72-86, and De Part . An. 


decay. Things, therefore, that are decaying become 
first moist and then in the end dry : for it was from 
these properties that they originated, the moist being 
determined by the dry through the operation of the 
active properties 

Destruction takes place when what is being deter- Destrac- 
rnined gets the better of what is determining it with £y n how 
the help of its environment (though there is a special caused, 
sense in which decay is used of things which are 
partially destroyed, when they have departed from 
their true nature) So everything else decays except 
fire * for earth, water and air all decay, since all are 
matter in relation to fire. Decay is the destruction 
of a moist body’s own natural heat by heat external 
to it, that is, the heat of its environment.® Since, 
therefore, a thing is so affected because of lack of 
heat, and as everything that lacks this property is 
cold, decay is caused by and is the common result 
alike of internal coldness and external heat. That 
is why everything that decays gets drier, until it ends 
as earth or dung : for as its own heat leaves it its 
natural moisture evaporates, and there is nothing to 
suck moisture into it (this being the function of its 
own heat, which attracts and draw T s moisture in). 

And there is less decay in cold than in warm weather : 
for m winter the amount of heat in the surrounding 
air and water is so small as to be ineffective, while 
•in summer it is greater. Again, what is frozen does 
not decay, as its cold is greater than the air’s heat, 
and therefore is not mastered by it but what causes 
change in aching does master it. Nor does any- 

ii. 3, 650 a 2 ff , De Gen. An. 736 b 33 ff, 742 a 14, 784 a 
34 ff., De Vit . et Mort 469 b 7-20, with Book II. ch. 2, 3 B5 b 9 



3 79 a 

to £dov rj Oeppov (iXarrcov yap rj iv ra> a dpt deppo~ 
rrjs rrjs iv rep TTpdypan , war ov Kparet ov8i ttolu 
perafioXvjv ovSepiav ) . opolcos 8k Kal to Ktvovpevov 
Kal pdov fjrrov arjrrerai rod aKivrjri^ovros' acrOeve- 
35 ardpa yap yiyve rat rj vrro rrjs iv rep a dpi 8zpp 6- 
379 b rrjros KLvrjfjis rrjs iv rep it pay pan rrpovTrapyovarfs y 
ajore ovSkv Troiet pera^aXXetv . rj S’ a vrrj atria Kal 
rov to rroXi) rjrrov rov oXiyov crrjrreGrSar iv yap 
rep rrXdovt rrXdov icrrlv rrvp oIkzlov Kal ipvypov fj 
exxrre Kparelv ras iv rep n repiearedri 8 vvapecs. 8 to 
5 rj daXarra Kara pdpos pkv Siaipovpdvrj rayy or\~ 
Trerai, drraaa S’ ov, Kal raXXa vSara u>cravreos. 
Kal t,epa iyyiyverai rots orj7ro pivots 8t a to rrjv 
dnoKZKpipdv'qv depporrjra <f>voiKr)v ofScrav owi- 
orravat rd iKKptddvra 

Tt pkv ofiv dart ydveert s Kal ri <f>8opd , etprjrat. 

a Cf. 380 b 5 : Aristotle believed that living things 
(e.ff. maggots) are produced spontaneously fiom decaying 



Chapter I has dealt with heat and cold as causes of growth 
and decay in general , the processes which produce or destroy 
natural bodies : Chapter II goes on to deal with their effects 

on bodies so produced. The effect of heat on bodies is con - 

/ *5 

379 b 10 Aotrrov S’ elrreiv rd iyopeva €l8tj, oora at elprj- 
pdvat 8 vvapzts ipya^ovrat VTroKetpdvcov reov 
<f>v<7€i crvvGcrrcoTOov 07877 . 



thing boiling or hot decay, because the heat in the 
surrounding air is less than that m the object, and 
so does not master it or cause any change. Similarly, 
what is in motion or flowing decays less easily than 
what is static. For the motive force of the heat in 
the air is less than that of the heat residing in the 
obj ect , and so causes no change. F or the same reason 
large quantities decay less than small ones for the 
larger quantity has too much native heat and cold 
in it for the properties of its envnonment to master. 
Therefore sea water in small quantities decays rapidly, 
but in bulk it does not and the same is true of other 
kinds of water. Living things are generated in 
decaying matter because the natural heat which is 
expelled compounds them out of the material thrown 
off with it a 

This completes oui description of generation and 

matter * cf. Hist. An. v. 2 and Bonitz, Index , 124- b 3-22, for 
further references. 

argument ( continued ) 

coction , of which there are three species , ripening , boiling and 
roasting : the effect of cold is incoiicoctioru whose species are 
rawness , scalding and scorching (379 b 10-18). Concoction 
and mconcoction. Concoction is maturity, produced by heat . 
uiconcoction ifo opposite (379 b 18 — 380 a 10). 

We must next describe the kind of effect which the 
properties in question pioduce when operating on 
already constituted natural bodies as their material. 



379 b 

"Ecrrt Srj deppcov pcev Treats, rreipecos Sc ire'rravcrts, 
eifsrjoiSy ere drrrrjacs' ipvyporrjros Se arreifsi a, ravrrjs 
Se cbpcorrjSi pcoXvvacSj ararevacs* Sec Se vnoXapt- 
15 fldvecv per] Kvpccos ravra Xeyeadat ra ovopcara rocs 
vpaypcaacv , aAA’ ov Kecrac KadoXov rots* optotocs, 
c5 are ov ravra aXXa roiavra Sec vopcc^ecv ecvac ra 
etprjpteva ecSrj . 

Eicnajpcev S* avroov eKaarov ri earev . 

Tlexfjcs pt*ev oSv earns reXe cooats vtto rod <f>vatKov 
/cat otKelov deppcov e/c tcov dvreKecpcevcov rra6r]~ 
20 rcKcbv ravra S’ ear tv rj otKela eKaarco vXr ]. orav 
yap rre<j)dfj s rereXe ecor al re /cat yeyovev . /cat r\ 

apyr] rrjs reXeccdaecos vrro deppcorrjros rrjs otKecas 
ovptfSatvet, kolv Sea revos rd>v cktos fiorjdetas avv - 
errcreXeaQfi , olov r] rpocfsrj avpcTrerrerac /cat Sta Xov- 
rpcov /cat St’ aXXcuv tocovtcov • aAA* rj ye apxrj r) ev 
25 avreo deppcorrjs earev. to Se reXos rots’ pcev rj 
</>vats earev , <f>vais Se rjv Xeyopcev cos elSos /cat 
ovatav' rocs Sc els imoKecpcevrjv revet pcop<j>r]v to 
reXos earl rrjs rrei/jetos > orav tocovSI yevrjrat /cat 
roaovSi to vypov rj or rrcopcevov rj eiftoptevov rj arj- 
rroptevov 1 rj aXXcos rrcos deppcacvopcevov' Tore yap 
3° xprjaipeov iarc /cat rrerre^dae <f>aptev, warrep to 
yXevKos /cat rcc ev rots <f>vptaacv awtordpeeva, orav 
yevrjr at rrvov, /cat to 8a Kpvov, orav yevrjrac Xijpcr]' 
6ptota>s Se /cat rdXXa . * 

1 7r€rraLv6fj.€vov (in O glossam) ci. Thurot. 

a Notice that Aristotle assimilates chemical change of all 


The effect of heat is concoction, and there are three Concoction, 
species of concoction, ripening, boiling and roasting . S and - 
the effect of cold is inconcoction, whose species are their 
rawness, scalding and scorching. It must, however, be species * 
understood that these terms do not properly describe 
the subject-matter under discussion, nor cover all 
the phenomena which should be classed together as 
similar . the terms just mentioned must therefore 
be interpreted to cover all phenomena which should 
be classed with them and not only those covered by 
their normal meaning. a 

Let us deal with them in order. 

Concoction is maturity, produced from the opposite, Concoction, 
passive characteristics by a thing’s own natural heat, 
these passive characteristics being the matter proper 
to the particular thing. For when a thing has been 
concocted it has become fully mature And the 
maturing process is initiated by the thing’s own heat, 
even though external aids may contribute to it . as, 
for instance, baths and the like may aid digestion, 
but it is initiated by the body’s own heat. In some 
cases the end of the process is a thing’s nature, in 
the sense of its form and essence. In others the end 
of concoction is the realization of some latent form, 
as when moisture takes on a certain quality and 
quantity when cooked or boiled or rotted b or other- 
wise heated ; for then it is useful for something and 
we say it has been concocted. Examples are must, 
the pus that gathers in boils, and tears when they 
become rhe^m ; and so on. 

kinds (for this is, in our terms, what he is trying to explain) 
to the two easily observable processes of cooking food and 
ripening fruit : cf. 380 a 16, 381 a 10, b 3 below. 

h The sense given by Thurot’s alternative reading, 

“ ripened,” is better. 



379 b 

iLvpfialvei Si rovro rraox^tv anaoiv, or av k pa- 
rr] 6 fj rj vXrj Kal rj vyporrjs' avrrj yap ionv rj opi- 
35 £,op,€VY) wo rrjs iv rfj cf>vo€t depporrjros. ecus yap 
380 a dv ivfj iv avrrj 6 Xoyos, (fjvois rovr 9 iorlv . Sio 
Kal vycelas orjpela ra rocavra, Kal odpa Kal vrro- 
XOJprjoeis Kal oXcos ra rrepirrujpara. Kal Xiyerai 
rrerri^daiy on SrjAol Kparelv rrjv depporrjra rrjv 
oiKelav rod aoplorov. avayKr) Si ra rrerrop^va 
5 rraxprepa Kal Ozpporepa elvar rotovrov yap a rro- 
reXel ro deppov, evoyKorepov Kal rraxvrepov Kal 

Uiiftis piv ovv rovro iorlv m arreijjla Si ariXeia 
Si 9 evSetav rrjs otKelas d€pporrjros ( rj Si ivSeia 
rrjs depporrjros if/vxporrjs iorlv) • rj S’ ariAzia 
ionv rtov dvriKeipivov rraOrjnKcov , rjrrep iorlv 
iKaorcp <f>vo€i vXrj . 

10 Tliipts piv ovv Kal arreipla Stcoplodco rovrov rov 



The species of concoction and inconcoction. Ripening 
(380 a 11-27), rawness (380 a 27-b 11), boiling (380 b 12 — 

380 a il Tlirravois S 9 iorlv viipcs n s' 77 yap rrjs iv rols 
rrepiKaprrlois rpo<f>rjs viipts rrirravoLS Xiyer at . irrel 
S 9 rj rriip is reXicoocs, rore rj rrirravots reXia iorlv 
orav ra iv raj rrepiKaprria) orrippara Svvrjrai arro- 
15 reAeiv rotovrov erepov otov a vro m Kal yap irrl rajv 
oXXojv ro riXcov ovrco Aiyopzv. rrepLKaprrlov piv 


Concoction, in fact, is what happens to everything 
when its constituent moisture is mastered ; for this 
is the material that is determined by a things natural 
heat, and as long as the determining proportion holds 
a thing’s nature is maintained. So urine and excreta 
and the waste products of the body in general are a 
sign of health, and we say they have been concocted 
because they show that its own inherent heat has 
mastered the indeterminate matter. Things con- 
cocted are necessarily denser and hotter, for the effect 
of heat is to make things compacter, denser and 

So much for concoction. Inconcoction is a failure inconcoc* 
to reach maturity owing to a deficiency m natural* 1011, 
heat, and lack of heat is of course cold. This imma- 
turity is one of the opposite passive qualities which 
are the natural matter of all things. 

This completes our description of concoction and 

argument (continued) 

381 a 12), scalding (381 a 12-23), roasting (381 a 23-b 13) 
and %ts opposite (381 b 13-20). 

Ripening is a sort of concoction. For the concoction Ripening, 
of the nourishing element in fruit is called ripening, 
and since concoction is maturity, the process of ripen- 
ing is complete when the seeds in the fruit are capable 
of producing another fruit of the same kind : for this 
is what we mean by mature in other cases also. This, 



380 a 

ovv avrrj rrerravcns, Xeyerai Be Kal aXXa mXXa 
rrerrova rcov rrerreppevcov 3 Kara pev rrjv avrrjv 
ISeav, pera<f>opals Be, Blol to prj Keiodai, Kadarrep 
elprjrai Kal rrporepov, ovopara Kad 9 eKaorrjv re- 
20 A eiCOOLV 7T€pl TCO Opi^OpeV a V7 TO rfjs c/)VOlKrj$ deppbO- 

rrjros Kal ifjvxporrjros . eonv Sc rj <f>vparcov Kal 
<f>Xeyparos Kal rcov roiovrcov rrin ravens rj irro rov 
<f>VGLKov deppov rov ivovros vypov TreijjLS' dBvvarov 
yap opL^eiv prj k par ovv. c/c pev ovv rcov rrvevp a- 
riKcov iBarcoBrj, c/e Be rcov roiovrcov ra yerjpd 
25 ovviorarai, Kal c/c Xerrrwv a lei rrayvrepa ylyverat 
rrerraivopeva rravra . Kal ra pev els avrrjv 1 rj <f>vois 
dyei Kara rovro , ra Be eK^aXXei. 

Tlerravcns /zev ovv eiprjr at, rl eonv. (Lporrjs B 9 
iorlv to ivavTiov evavrlov Be irerravoei drre- 
ipla rrjs ev rep TrepiKaprrlcp rpo<j>rjs * avrrj 8’ iorlv 
rj aoptaros vyporrjs. Bid rj rrvevpanKrj rj vBa- 
30 rcdBrjs rj rcov c| dp<j>oiv eonv rj coporrjs . errel S 9 
rj Trerravots reXecools ris eonv rj tbporrjs dreXeia 
eor at. yiyverai 8* rj dr eXeia Sc 9 evSeiav rov <f>v~ 
olkov deppov Kal aovpperplav rrpos to vypov ro 
rrerraivopevov. ovSev Sc vypov a vro Kad 9 avro 
rrerralverai avev tjrjpov’ vBcop yap ov rrayyverai 
380 b povov rcov vypeov. ovpfiaivei Sc rovro rj rep to 
deppov oXlyov etv at fj ra> ro opi^opevov rroXv* Bed 
Kal Xerrrol ol ;\a>/zot rcov copcov, Kal ipvypol pa)\Aov 
7 } deppoi, Kal afipcoroc Kal drroroi. Xeyerai Sc Kal 
rj coporrjs coorrep Kal rj rrerravois, rroXX^ycos . odev 
5 Kal odpa Kal V7rox<vprjoeis Kal Karappoc wpol Ac- 

1 iavrrjv 2B O.T. : avrrjv cett. Fobes. 


This sentence breaks the sequence of thought and seems 


then, is what ripening is m the case of fruit, but many 
other things that have been concocted are said 
to be ripe ; the process is specifically the same but 
the term used metaphorically, since, as we remarked 
earlier, there are no specific names for each type of 
maturity that occurs when matter is determined by 
natural heat and cold. In the case of boils and phlegm 
and the like ripening is the concoction of the moisture 
in them by their natural heat, for that which does 
not master material cannot determine it. So when 
things are ripened, if the material is of an airy nature, 
the product is watery ; if the material is watery, the 
product is earthy, and generally what is rare becomes 
denser. In this process nature assimilates some of 
the material to itself, and some it rejects 

So much for ripening Rawness is its opposite, Rawness 
which means that it is an inconcoction of the nourish- 
ing element in fruit, that is to say, of the undeter- 
mined moisture. So rawness is either of an airy or 
watery nature or a mixture of both : and as ripening 
is maturity, rawness will be immaturity. Immaturity 
results from a deficiency of natural heat and its lack 
of proportion to the moisture that is being npened. 
(Nothing moist ripens of itself without the admixture 
of something dry : for water is the only liquid that 
does not thicken.®) This disproportion occurs either 
because the amount of heat is small or else because 
the amount of material being determined is large : 
hence the juice of raw things is thin, cold rather than 
hot, and urSfit for food or drink. Rawness too, like 
ripeness, has many senses. Thus urine and excreta 
and catarrhs are all called raw, the reason for the 

out of place here. For what Aristotle says about water cf. 

383 a 12 and note. 



380 b 

yovrcu Sid to a vro amov* ra> yap j urj KeKpaTrjodai 
vno Trjs deppborrjTOS pLrjSe ovveGTavai (bpea navra 
npoGayopeverai . n roppco 8c npoiovrcov Kal Kepapios 
ehpios Kal ydXa eopiov Kal aXXa noXXa XiyeTai , iav 
10 Svvdpieva pieTafidXXeiv Kal ovviGTaoOai vi t 6 deppio- 
rrjTOs anaSrj fj. Sio to vS cop i<j>6dv piev XiyeTai, 
(bpeov S’ ov, oti ov nayyveTai. 

Tlinavais piev ovv Kal eLpiOTrjs eipr)Tai ti cot iv, 
Kal 8ta tl Igtiv eKaTepov avTCov. 

''"EilprjGLS S’ IgtIv TO pb€V SXoV nilplS V7TO 6epp6 - 
TTjTos vypas tov ivvirdp^ovros aoptoTov iv tuj 
15 vypep, XiyeTai Se Tovvofia Kvpleos piovov ini tcov 
exjjopiveov . tovto S’ av e\ irj, ioonep eiprjrai, i rvev- 
peaTcoSes rj vSaTcbSes- rj Sc niijjis yiyveTai an 6 
tov iv Tcp vypep nvpos * to yap ini tcov Trjydvtov 
onTanai (wo yap tov e£codev deppiov ndoyei, iv 
ip S’ cot tv vypep , noiei caccIvo peaXXov £rj pov , els 
20 avTo avaXapbfiavov) , to S’ iipopievov tovvolvtIov noiei 
(iKKpiv€T ai yap i£ a vtov to vypov vno Trjs iv tw 
e^co vypep deppiaoias)* Sio tjrjpOTepa to, i(j)9d tcov 
onTobv* ov yap avaonq els eauTa to vypov Ta 
iifjopeev a* Kparei yap rj e^eodev deppeoTTjS Trjs ivTOS' 
ei o €KpaT€L rj evTOs, eiA/ccv av eis eavTrjv . 

25 ''Eotiv 8’ ox j ndv Gcopea iifrrjTov' ovre yap iv ip 
perjSiv iaTLv vypov, otov iv X i9ois, ovr iv ots eveern 
piiv, aXX 9 aSvva tov KpaT7]9rjvai Sea nvKvorrjTa, 
otov iv tols i-vXoes- aXX * ooa tcov ocopeaTcov e^et 
vypoTTjT a nadr)Tt,Kr)v vno Trjs iv Tip vypep nvpeJooeeos . 
XiyeTai Sc Kal ypvods exfteodai Kal £vXov Kal aXXa 

a 380 a 29. 

i i.e. the water in which the thing is boiled. 



term being applied to them being the same in each 
case, namely, that the material has not been mastered 
by the heat or acquired consistency. And if we go 
farther, brick and milk and many other things also are 
called raw if they have remained unaffected by heat, 
though they normally change and acquire consistency 
when subjected to it. That is why we speak of water 
being boiled, but not raw, because it does not thicken. 

This completes our description of ripening and 
rawness and of their several causes. 

Boiling, as a general term, is concoction by moist Boiling, 
heat of the undetermined material present in the 
moisture of a thing, but the term is properly appli- 
cable only to things cooked by boiling. This material, 
as we have said,® is either of an airy or watery nature 
The concoction arises from the fire in the moisture. 6 
For what is cooked in a pan is roasted, being acted 
upon by the external heat, and in turn acting upon 
the moisture which contains it, by drying it up and 
absorbing it into itself : what is boiled, on the other 
hand, produces the opposite effect, its moisture being 
drawn out of it by the heat of the moisture surround- 
ing it. This is why boiled food is drier than roast : for 
things boiled do not draw moisture into themselves, 
because the external heat is stronger than their own 
internal heat — if their internal heat were the stronger 
they would draw it in. 

Not every body can be boiled. Bodies which con- 
tain no moisture, like stones, camiot, nor can bodies 
which contain moisture but which are too solid for 
it to be mastered, like wood. Bodies which can are 
those which contain moisture which *is subject to 
action by the heat in moisture outside them. Of 
course, gold and wood and many other things are 



commonly said to be boiled, but it is not the same 
kind of process, and is only so called metaphorically 
as there are no separate words to mark the difference. 

We also speak of liquids like milk and must being 
boiled, when the flavour of the liquid undergoes some 
form of change when heated by the fire surrounding 
it externally, which thus has an effect on it somewhat 
similar to boiling as we have defined it. (The end 
for which things are boiled or concocted is not the 
same in all cases ; in some it is for eating, in others for 
drinking, in others, again, for some other purpose, as, 
for instance, we speak of drugs being boiled.) a Every- 
thing, then, can be boiled which can become denser 
and smaller and heavier, or of which part can so 
behave while the remainder behaves in the opposite 
way, in which case the parts divide, and part thickens, 
part grows thinner, as milk divides into whey and 
curds. Olive oil, because it cannot be affected in any 
of these ways, will not boil by itself. This, then, is 
what i*s called concoction by boiling : and it makes 
no difference whether it takes place in an artificial 
or a natural vessel, for the cause is the same in all 

Scalding b is the species of inconcoction opposite Scalding, 
to boiling : and the opposite to boiling, and so the 
primary sense of scalding, will be an inconcoction of 
the undetermined matter due to a lack of heat in 
the surrounding liquid. (It has already been stated 0 
that lack of heat means presence of cold.) This is 
caused by ai^pther kind of motion, which takes place 
when the concocting heat is driven out, the lack of 
heat being due to the amount of cold either m the 
surrounding liquid or in the thing to be boiled : for 

c 379 a 19. 




rev vypto depporrjr a nXeicv piv etvai fj toore py) 
20 Kwfjcrcu , iXarrco Si ?} d> are opaXvvai Kal avpireijiai. 
8 to aKXrjporepa piv ra pepcoXvapiva yiyverai r&v 
icfidcov, ra S’ vypa Suopiapiva paXXov. 

^ifjTJGLS p€V odv Kal poXwGCS €LprjTCLC 3 KCU Tl 
€Gtw Kai Sea rl iarev . 

*'C)7tt7)gi$ S’ iorlv rrixjjis vno depporrjros £r)pas 
Kal dXXorpias . Sia rovro Kav eifjcov ns rroifj pera- 
25 fidXXeiv Kal TtirreaSai, per) vtto rrjs rov vypov 8eppo- 
rr)ros aAA’ vtto rrjs rov rrvpoSy orav reXeadfj, orrrov 
yLyverai Kal ovy i<f>86v 3 Kal rfj vTrepfioXfj npoGKC- 
KavaSac Xeyerac • vno £r)pas Si Sepporrjros ylyverai 
orav {jrjporepov ytyvrjrai inireXeadiv . 8 to Kal ra 

30 €Kros £r)porepa revv ivros * ra S’ i(f>6a rovvavriov. 
Kal epyov ini revv yeLpoKprjroov ro onrijaai pel^ov 
rj it/jrjaac yaXenov yap ra iKros Kal ra ivros ope a- 
A cos deppatveiv . del yap ra iyyvrepov rov nvpos 
381 b £r)paiv€rat ddrrov , dare Kal paXXov. avviovrwv 
ovv rcov etjco nopevv ov Svvarae iKKpiveoS at to 
ivvndpyov vypov , aAA’ iyKaraKXeierat, orav ol 
nopoi pvocvoLv. onrrjoes piv ovv Kal €i/jrjae$ yi- 
yvovrai piv riyvrjy eorev S’, d>anep A iyopev, ra 
5 etSr) KadoXov ravra Kal <j>vo€C Spot a yap ra yiyvo- 
peva rrddrj , aAA’ avcbvvpa' pipeirai yap rj riyyq 
rrjv <f>vaLV } in el Kal rj rrjs rpo<f>rjs iv rev ad) pan 
niifses opoLa iifirjaec iorlv * Kal yap iv vypep Kal 

a So we speak of burning porridge, which we boil. 

6 Aristotle’s habit of explaining natural processes m terms 
of artificial comes out very clearly in this passage : cf. eh. 2 
note a on p. 298, and 379 b 14, 380 a 16, 381 a 10. 



in these circumstances the heat in the liquid is too 
great to cause no change ai all but too small to produce 
uniform concoction So things scalded are harder 
than things boiled and the moisture in them more 

This completes our account of boiling and scalding, 
their nature and causes. 

Roasting is concoction by extrinsic dry heat. So, Boasting, 
even if you cause a thing to change and be concocted 
by boiling it, yet if the change is due to the heat of 
the fire and not to the heat in the liquid, when the pro- 
cess is complete the thing is roasted and not boiled, 
while if it is overdone we say it is burnt a : but the 
cause is dry heat if at the end the thing is drier This 
is why the outside is drier than the inside of things 
that have been roasted, while the opposite is true of 
things that have been boiled And when done arti- 
ficially, roasting is more difficult than boiling, as it 
is difficult to heat both outside and inside evenly ; 
for the parts nearer the fire dry faster and so more 
thoroughly. When, therefore, the outer pores con- 
tract, the moisture contained in the thing cannot 
escape, but is trapped inside when the pores shut. 
Roasting and boiling are of course artificial processes, 
but, as we have said, m nature too there are processes 
specifically the same ; for the phenomena are similar 
though we have no terms for them For human 
operations imitate natural. & So the digestion c of 
food in the body is similar to boiling, for it takes 

c I have trfcftislated ir&lus by the narrower term “ diges- 
tion ” here, rather than tne wider term “ concoction ” used 
to translate it elsewhere, as Aristotle is m fact talking of 
digestion. But the fact that he uses the same word for both 
shows that he thinks that digestion is to be explained as a 
form of cooking , 



381 b 

depfxcp v 7 to rrjs rov aoj^aros 8eppb6rrjros yiyverai. 
Kcd aneipLai eviai ofioicu rfj pioXvvoei /cat £a)ov 
10 ovk eyyiyverai iv rfj rreifsei, too mep rives <f>aoiv i 
aAA 9 iv rfj arroKpioei orjrropievrj iv rfj Kara) KoiXla, 
elr ertavep^erai avao ■ rrirrerai jiev yap iv rfj avco 
/cotAta, ofjrrerai 8 9 iv rfj Kara) to amoKpiQiv St 5 
fjv 8 9 air Lav, eiprjrai iv iripois . 

e H piev ovv jxoXvvois rfj etpfjoei evavriov rfj Sc 
15 cos orrrfjoei Xeyojievr] Treipei eon fiev n avriKeipievov 
ofiolcos, avcovvpuorepov 8c. eirj 8’ av olov el yevoiro 
orarevois aXXa firj orrrrjois St 5 evSeiav deppiorrjros, 
fj ov(j ifiair) av fj St 9 oXiyorrjra rov e£ct) rrvpos f} Sta 
TrXrjdos rov iv rep orrropievcp vSaros* rore yap 
rrXeLcov piev ionv fj chore p,fj Kivfjoai , iXarrcov 8c 
20 fj wore Treifjai . 

Tt /xev ovv eon rreipis /cat arreifsLa, /cat rrerravois 
/cat (opborrjs , /cat eifirjois /cat orrrrjois /cat ravavna 
rovrois, eiprjrai. 

a The reference is uncertain. 



The passive factors , moist and dry (i.e. m practice water 
and earth as the elements m which these qualities predominate), 
are necessary constituents of all physical bodfks, whose char- 
acteristics vary according to the predominance of one or the 

38ib 23 Ttov Sc rradrjnKcbv , rov vypov /cat rod £rjpov, 
XeKriov ra ctS rj. 



place under the influence of the heat of the body in 
a hot and moist medium. And some forms of in- 
digestion are like scalding. And it is not true that 
worms are generated in the process of digestion as 
some say ; they are generated in the excrement 
which decays m the lower belly, and subsequently 
make their way upwards. For digestion takes place 
in the upper belly and the excrement decays in the 
lower. The reason for this we have explained else- 

Now scalding is the opposite to boiling, and there The 
is a process similarly opposed to the form of con- roasting. 10 
coction we have called roasting, but it is less easy 
to find a term for it. It is the sort of thing you mil 
find happening w T hen a thing gets scorched and not 
properly roasted, as a result of lack of heat caused 
either through a deficiency of the external file or an 
undue amount of water m the thing to be roasted : 
for then the amount of heat is too great to give rise 
to no change but too small to concoct properly. 

So much for concoction and inconcoction, for ripe- 
ness and rawness, and for boiling and roasting and 
their opposites. 


argument (continued) 

other (381 b 23 — 382 a 8). So hardness and softness are the 
primary qualities , anything whose surface does not yield being 
hard , anything whose surface does yield being soft (382 a 
8 - 21 ). 

We must now describe the forms taken by the passive 
factors, moist and dry. 




Eioxv 8’ at pkv ap\al reov aeoparevv a l rradrjriKai 
25 vypov i<al £t] pov, ra 8 9 aXXa peiKra pkv ii< rovrevv } 
orrorepov 8k paXXov, rovrov paXXov rrjv efrvaiv 
iarlv, otov ra pkv tjrjpov paXXov rd S 9 vypov. 
rravra Se rd pkv ivre Xeyela earai, ra S 9 iv rep 
aVTLK€ipL€VCp 'iyei 8’ OVrOJS rrj^lS TTpOS TO TTJKTOV, 
irrel S 9 iarlv ro fjbkv vypov evopiarov, ro 8e £rjpov 
30 8 vaopiarov 3 opocov n rep oiftep Kal rots rjhvcpaoL 
Trpos aXXrjXa Trdayovai' ro yap vypov rep £?]pcp 
a'lnov rov opl^eadac, Kal eKarepov eKarepep otov 
382 a KoXXa ylyverai, warrep Kal 9 EiprreSoKXrjs irrolrjaev 
iv rots c/>vaLKots “ dXef>Lrov v8a n KoXXrjaas.” Kal 
Sid rovro i£ apejzoZv iariv ro ehpiapevov oedpa. 
Xeyerac 8k redv aroiyeleov I8ialrara £r)pov pev yrj, 
vypov Se v8eop. Sid rovro drravrd re ra ehpiapeva 
5 aedpara ivravda ovk avev yrjs Kal vSaros ( otto - 
repov 8k TrXeov, Kara rr]v 8vvapiv rovrov eKaarov 
<f>alverai)' Kal iv yrj Kal iv v8an £<2>a povov iarlv 3 
iv dept 8k Kal Trvpl ovk eanv, on redv ocuparcvv 
vXrj ravra. reov 8k aeopariKcdv nadrjpdreov ravra 
Trpebra avayKr] virapyeiv rep ehpiapevep , aKXrjporrjra 
10 rj paXaKorrjra' avayKrj yap ro i£ vypov Kal i;r)pov 
f) aKXrjpov etvai fj paXaKov. ean Se oKXrjpdv pkv 
ro prj irreiKov els av ro Kara ro irrlTreSov, paXaKov 
Se ro VTreiKov rep prj avrirrepdaraaQai' ro yap v8eop 
ov paXaKov ov yap irreiKei rfj dXhfsei ro im7reSov 

a Of. De Gen . et Corr . ii. 2, 329 b 30-32 r and Joachim, 
ad loc. 6 Diels 31 B 34. 

c De Gen. et Corr. n. 3, 331 a 3-6, says that air is character- 
istically moist (vypov), "water characteristically cold: yet 
De Gen. et Corr . n. 8, 334 b 34, implies that water is character- 


The passive elements of physical bodies are moist 
and dry and all bodies aie compounds of them, the 
nature of the body varying according as to which 
predominates, dry doing so in some cases, moist in 
others. And all will exist either actually or in the 
opposite "sense, potentially : this, for example, is 
the relationship borne by the process of melting to the 
capacity for being melted. The moist is unresistant, 
the dry resistant, a and their^ mutual relationship is 
therefore something like that of a dish and its season- 
ing : for the moist causes the dry to take shape, and 
each serves as a kind of glue to the other, as Em- 
pedocles says, in his poem On Nature , “ gluing meal 
together with water ” b So the body formed is a 
compound of both. And of the four elements earth 
is regarded as having the most specific characteristics 
of dry, water of moist. c It is for this reason that all 
definite physical bodies in our world require earth 
and water for their composition (and each body mani- 
fests the properties of the one which predominates 
in it), and that animals exist only on land and in water, 
which are the matter from which their bodies are 
compounded, but not in air or fire. Of the qualities 
of body hardness or softness are those which must 
primarily belong to a determinate thing, for anything 
compounded of moist and dry must be either hard 
or soft. Hard is anything whose surface does not 
yield inwards, soft is anything whose surface yields 
but not by displacement ; for water is not soft, and 
its surface does not yield downwards to pressure, but 

istically moist, and this is certainly the doctrine of the 
Meteorologica as a whole. Perhaps too much stress should 
not be laid on what Aristotle says m De Gen et Gorr 331 a 
3-6 when he is speaking from a particular point of view . cf. 
Joachim, ad /oc., and above, Introduction, pp- xix-xx. 



382 a 

€tV fiados, dAA’ avr itt epdor area. arrXcos pkv ovv 
15 GKXrjpov fj fiaXaKov to aTTXdos tolovtov , rrpos 

€T€pOV §€ TO TTpOS €K€LVO TOLOVTOV 7 TpO£ pk.V ofiv 

aXXrjXa dopLGTa Igtlv tco pidXXov Kal tjttov irrel 
§€ irpos ttjv aiadrjaiv rrdvTa Kplvopev ra atadrjTa, 
8fjXov OTi Kal to GKXrjpov Kal to paXaKov anXcus 

TTpOS TTjV d(j>r]V (bpLKapL€V, d)S fieGOTTjTL XP^ ) H j€V0L 
20 TTJ d(f)fj' 8 to TO JJL€V VTT€p^dXXoV a VTTJV GKXrjpOV > TO 
S’ iXXeiTTov fiaXcLKov elval (f>a /xev. 

a Cf. Book I. ch. 12, note 6 on p 82. 
b Cf. De Anima n. 11, 423 b 27 ff. 



Any self-contained body must be hard or soft : whatever 
is hard or soft is a solid , so we must discuss solidification. 
This also we shall find to be due to the two active properties, 

382 a 22 ’A vayKrj 8k GKXrjpov fj pbaXcLKov elvai to dopicr- 
p,4vov oxo/xa oIk€lco opep (fj yap vtt€lk€l fj p,rj )• eVt 
7 T€TT7]yos €ivai (tovto) yap dpt£e Tac)* coot’ It ret Trdv 
25 Jlkv TO (hpLGpivOV Kal GVV€GTO£ 7} piaXaKOV fj 
GKXrjpov > TavTa 8k Trfj^L cgtlv, arravT av eirj tol 
G oopaTa Ta Gvvder a Kal (hpiGpiv a ovk avev Trfj^ecos. 
Trfj&cos ofiv rripL prjriov. 

’'Eot&v S 17 Ta avTia tcx rrapa rfjv vX rjv 8 vo, to tc 

7TQLOVV Kal TO TTaSoS (tO fikv oSv 7T0L0VV <bs S8eV fj 
30 KlVTjGlS, TO 8k Trados d)$ et8oS )' COGT€ Kal TTTj^OJS 
Kal 8iaxvG€CD$, Kal tov ^rjpaLveGdai, Kal rov 
vypaiveGdat . ttolgl Se to ttolovv 8 val SvvdpieGi, 


is merely displaced.* 5 Things which possess these 
characteristics without qualification are hard and soft 
absolutely ; things which possess them in relation to 
something else are hard and soft relatively Degrees 
of hardness and softness are indefinable with relation 
to each other ; but since we judge all sensible quali- 
ties by sensation, it is clear that both hard and soft 
are defined absolutely with reference to touch, which 
we use as a mean saying that what exceeds it is hard 
and what falls short of it is soft & 

argument (continued) 

heat and cold (382 a 22-b 1). Drying is a form of solidifica- 
tion, and is due to heat or cold (382 b 1-27). 

A body defined by its own limit must be either hard Sohdifica 
or soft, for it either yields or does not. Further, it tl0n 
must be solid ; for this gives it its definite limits. So, 
since every definite and formed body is either soft 
or hard, and softness and hardness aie the result of 
solidification, no composite and definite thing can 
exist without solidification. We must therefore dis- 
cuss solidification. 

Now there are two causes besides matter, the 
efficient and the qualitative, the efficient being the 
source of movement or change, the qualitative being 
the formal element. This will apply to solidification 
and dispersal and to drying and moistening. The 
efficient cause acts through tw r o properties and the 



382 a 

Kal Traax^c 7ra9fjpaoLV Svcrlv, axynep eiprjrar iroiei 
pev Beppcp Kal i/jvxpqj, to 8e rraOog fj arrovola fj 
382 b irapovafa 9epp ov fj tfjvxpov. 

*E rrel 8 e to Trrjyvvodai i;rjpaiveo 9 al rrcog ianv, 
rrepl tovtov elrrcopev irptorov . 1 to 8 fj* iraoxov fj 
vypov fj £ rjpov fj €K tovtcov . Ti 9 epe 9 a 8 e vypov 
era) pa v 8 <op, £rjpov 8 e yrjv TavTa yap tcov vypcov 
5 Kal tcov ijrjpcov TTadrjTtKa. St 6 Kal to ipvxpov tcov 
7 radr]TLKa)v paXXov iv tovtois yap €<ttlv‘ Kal yap 
7 ) yrj Kal to vhcop ijjvxpa vrroKeiTai. 7 toi 7 ]tik 6 v 8 e 
to ipvxpov <09 <j) 9 apTLKov fj tbs /caret crvpPefirjKog , 
KaBairep elprjTai irpOTepov ivioTe yap Kal Kaeiv 
XeyeTai Kal BeppaLveiv to ifjvxpov, oi>x Sbg to Oeppov, 
10 aXXa T<o ovvayeiv fj avTirrepuaTavat to 6 eppov. 
$y]paiv€Tai be 00a ecTiv vbcop Kai vbaTog eibrj, rj 
v 8 cop etT irraKTOv el T€ ovp<f>veg (Xeyco 8 e 
irraKTOv pev otov iv iplco, avp<j)vrov S’ ol ov iv 
yaXaKTi). v 8 a tos S’ el 8 rj ra rotaSe, olvog, ovpov , 
opog, Kal oXcog ocra prj8eplav fj jSpa^etai' ex ^ 
15 VTrooTaoLV, pfj 81a yXicrxporrjTa * ivioig yap a ltiov 
tov pfj v<f>LOTao 9 ai prj8ev fj yXcaxpOTTjg, ebernep 
iXalcp fj 7TLTT7j ^patVerat 8e iravTa fj deppaivo- 
peva fj ifjvxopeva, apfioTepa Se Beppcp , Kal vtto 
T rjg ivTog BeppoTTjTog fj Trjg e£<o* Kal yap ra rf j 
$ rjpaivopeva , coorrep ipanov, iav fj KexcopL- 
20 apevov avTO Ka 9 9 av to to vypov , vrro tov ivTog 
Beppov <Jvv€^aTpLt,ovTog to vypov (jrjpaiveTai, av 
oXiyov fj to vypov , i^iovarjg Trjg BeppprrjTog vtto 
tov TrepLeoTCOTog iffvxpov. 

1 €7T€t . . • 7rpo)rov post vypaLveadat a 30 transponit 0,T. 

2 8k O.T. 

« Ch. 1, 378 b 21. b e.g. 347 b 2-7, 348 b 2-8. 



thing acted on is affected in virtue of two properties 
as has been explained a * the two properties by 
which action takes place are heat and cold, and the 
qualitative effect is produced either by the absence 
or presence of heat and cold. 

Since solidification is a form of drying, let us deal Drying, 
with drying first. The thing acted on is either moist 
or dry or a mixture of both. Water we regard as 
a largely moist substance, earth as largely dry : for 
among substances that can be moist or dry these are 
passive. And so cold is more on the side of the 
passive qualities, since it is contained in water and 
earth, both of which we assume to be cold. But cold 
is an active property either because it disrupts or 
incidentally, as explained before 6 ; for sometimes 
cold is said both to burn and heat, not in the way that 
heat does, but by concentrating and compressing 
heat c Water and all kinds of watery liquids are 
affected by drying, as well as all things containing 
water either extraneous or natural (by extraneous 
I mean like the water in wool, by natural like the 
water in milk). The watery liquids are, for example, 
wine, urine, whey, and generally those which have 
either no sediment or very little, and yet are not 
viscous ; for some liquids have little sediment because 
they are viscous, like olive oil and pitch. Things are 
dried either by being heated or by being cooled, heat 
internal or external being the active cause in either 
case. For even things which are dried by cooling, 
like wet clothes, and in which the water has a separate 
existence, are dried by their internal heat which, 
when driven out by the surrounding cold, evaporates 
the moisture if the amount of it is small. 

c Cf, Book I. ch. 12, note 6 on p 82* 


332 b 


arjpaiverai piev ovv, toorrep eipr^rai, airavra fj 
deppiaivopieva rj \jsvxopieva, Kal rravra deppicp, fj rep 
25 ivrd$ fj rep €KTO$ GVVe^aTfJLL^OVTL TO VVpOV (AcVCO 
€ktos piev coorrep ra eipopieva, evros be orav 
a<f>aipedevros v ft fj$ e%€i deppiorrjros avaXcodfj ano- 
rrveovorjs ) . 

Uepl piev oSv rod f rjpaiveadai etprjrai. 



Liquefaction and solidification . Liquefaction is the result 
either of condensation or of melting * solids are formed either 
(1) from watery liquids or (2) from water and earth by the 
action of heat or of cold ; they are liquefied again by the action 

382 b 28 To 8* vypaiveoQal eanv ev piev to vScop yiyveaOa i 
ovviorapievov, tv Se to rfj k€g9 at to rrerrrjyos . roi 
30 rcov Se ovviorarai piev ipvxopievov to rrvevpia* rrepl 
8e rrj^e cos' a/x a kcll tt epl rrfjtjecos earat SfjXov. 
TrfjyvvraL Se oaa it fjyvvr at fj vSaros ovra fj yrjs 
kcll vSaros , Kal ravra fj Beppicp tjrjpcp rj faxpep. 

383 a Sio Kal Xverai rots iva vrlois, oaa Xverai rcov vrro 
deppiov rrayevrcov fj v rro i/jvxpov * ra piev yap in to 
{jrjpov deppiov rrayevra vrro vSaros Xverai, 6 eonv 
vypov \f;vxp6v, ra Se vrro xfivxpov rrayevra vrro rrvpos 
Xverai, 6 eonv deppiov. rrfjyvva6ai S**evia S 6£eiev 

a “ Aristotle does not distinguish in this or the next chapter 
between solution (A veoOac) and melting (Tfjgis ) : they are 
treated indifferently as the correlate of 7rqi is ” (O.T.). An 
exception is 38$ b 7, 12, when a distinction is assumed (see 



Drying, then, as we have said, is always due to 
heat or cold, heat internal or external always being 
the active cause and evaporating the moisture. By 
external heat I mean, for example, what happens in 
boiling, by internal what happens when the moisture 
is removed and consumed by the action of the thing’s 
own heat as it leaves it. 

So much for drying. 

argument (continued) 

of the opposite of these two properties to that which caused 
solidification (382 b 28 — 383 a 6). (1) Watery liquids (383 
a 6-13). (2) Compounds of earth and water , (a) m winch 

earth predominates (383 a 13-b 17). 

Liquefaction takes two forms : the one is condensa- Liquefac- 
tion into water, the other the melting of a solid. Of 
these, condensation takes place when air is cooled, tion due 
while melting will be explained at the same time ° r 
as solidification. Everything that solidifies is (1) a 
watery liquid or (2) a compound of water and earth, 
and the cause is either dry heat or cold. So of things 
which solidify owing to hot or cold, those that dis- 
solve a are dissolved by the opposite property : for 
those that solidify owing to dry heat are dissolved 
by water, that is, by moist cold, while those that 
solidify owing to cold are dissolved by fire, that is, 
by heat. (Some things would appear indeed to be 

note c on p 323). In chs. 8 and 9, again, solution and melting 
are not clearly distinguished : cf, ch. 8, note a on p. 34*3. 



383 a 

5 av VTTO vSaTOS , d)$ TO fJbiXl TO i<j)96v 7rr\yvVTCLl Sc 
ovy vrro tov vScltos, aAA s vtto tov iv a vtco i/jv- 


v Oaa fiev ovv eoTtv vScltos, ov mfjyvvTai vtto 
nvpos * Xvctcu yap VTTO TTVpOS, to 8c a VTO*TW avrcp 
kotol TavTo ovk carat aiTiov tov ivavTiov. ert rep 
arnivai to deppov yrrjyvvTai, aSorc hrjXov on ra> 
10 eloiivat XvdrjcreTar cootc 7tolovvtos tov ifjvypov 
TrtfyvvTai. 8 to Kal ov n-ayuvcTat rot Totavra Trrjyvv - 
p,€v a* 07 yap TraywaLS vypov pkv olttlovtos yLyv^Tai, 
tov £r}pov Sc avvcuTapivov Sharp Sc tg>v vyptov ov 
7raytWrat pLovov. 1 

* Ooa Sc Koiva yrjs* Kal vSa tos, Kal vtto nvpos 
15 TTTjyvvTai Kal vtto ifjvxpov, TrayyvzTai 8c vtt 9 a pcjrotv 

€<JTL pi€V COS’ TOV OVTOV TpOTTOV , €GTL 8’ 0)9 aXXcOS, 

vtto piv Oeppov to vypov i^ayovros (i^arpL^ovTos 
yap tov vypov TraySveTai to £y]pov Kal avviorarai) , 
vtto Sc ipvypov to 9eppov €k9Xl^ovtos > pz9 9 oS to 
vypov avvaTripx^T at crovc^arpt^ov, ocra pkv ovv 
20 paXaKa aAAa prj vypa, ov 7 raywcrat aAAa TryjyvvTat 
igiovTos tov vypov, olov 6 orTTcipevos Kepapos * 
oaa Sc vypa tcov peiKT&v, Kal yraySveTai, otov yaXa. 
TroXXa Sc Kal vypatvzTaL irpcoTov, oaa 77 Trayia rj 
crKXrjpa vtto ipvxpov TrpovTrrjpx^v ovTa, aJarrcp Kal 
25 6 K€papt,OS TO 7 rpcOTOV OTTTCQpbeVOS GLTpl&l Kal pia- 
Aa/ccoTcpos* ylyveTar 8 to Kal Staorpc^CTat iv Tats 


1 vScDp . . . povov alio quo traiciendum censet Thurot. 

0 These words seem to be a parenthesis. Contrast eh. 8, 
385 biff, and cf. Hist . An. v. 22, 354 a 6. 

6 If any sense is to be made of this sentence, vStop must be 
taken (as by the O.T.) as =ra vharos. Aristotle is distinguish- 


solidified by water, for instance, boiled honey : but 
in fact it is not the water but the cold in the water 
which causes it to solidify.) a 

(1) Watery liquids, then, are not solidified by fire,(i) watery 
for they .are dissolved by fire, and the same cause lu * ulds * 
operating on the same substance m the same way 
cannot produce opposite effects. Besides, it is de- 
crease of heat that solidifies them, and so, clearly, 
increase of heat will liquefy them ; it follows, therefore, 

that cold is what causes solidification This is why 
watery liquids when they solidify do not increase in 
density, for increase in density takes place when 
the moisture in a thing evaporates and its dry con- 
stituents are packed closer, and only watery fluids 
do not increase in density. 6 

(2) Compounds of earth and water are solidified (2) Com- 
both by fire and by cold, and are also increased m earth d and 
density by both, their mode of operation being m water: 
some respects the same, in others different. Heat 
draws out the moisture, and when the moisture 
evaporates the dry constituents increase in density 

and pack closer ; cold expels the heat and the 
moisture evaporates and passes off with it. So things 
that are soft but not moist do not increase m density 
when moisture leaves them but solidify, like clay 
when baked : but compounds that are moist, like 
milk, do increase in density. And bodies which have 
been made dense or hard by cold often become moist 
at first when heated, like clay again, which when 
baked steams at first and becomes softer (which is 
why it sometimes becomes distorted m the kiln). 

ing between solidification and thickening or increase in den- 
sity, and says that watery liquids are liable to the fiist but not 
to the second. 

M 321 

383 a 


"Ocra piv o5v vtto ifsvxpov TrrjywTaL tcov kolvwv 
yr\s kclI vharos, ttXcov Si eyovrcov yrjs, ra piv rqj 
to deppov XyjXvdevaL TT7}yvvp€va 9 ravra r^/cerat 
deppcp glolovtos ttolXlv tov deppov, otov 6 TrrjXos 
30 otov irayfj * oo a Si Sta iJjv£lv 9 /cat tov deppov ovv- 
e^CLT/jUoavTos cLttclvtos, tclvtol Si aXvTa prj vrrep- 
fiaXXovorj depfjLOTrjTL, aAAa paXd.TT€Tai 9 otov oi$7]pos 
/cat K€pag . r^/cerat Si /cat 6 elpyaopivos olSrjpos, 
cS ore vypos yLyvecOcu kcll ttolXlv TT'qyvvodac. kcll 


383 b arroKadaLpeTOL koltco rj oKcopla * otov Si ttoXXolkls 
Trddrj /cat KaOapos yeVxjTat , tovto OToptop ta yt- 
yverat. ov ttolovol Si ttoXXolkls a vto Sta to glttov- 
oLav ylyveodaL TroXXrjv /cat tov oradpov iXoLTra) 
airoKaOaLpopivov . octtlv S’ apeivwv oL8r)pos 6 

5 iXaTTCO excov diroKadapOLV . r^/cerat Se /cat o At^os 
O TTVplpaXOS a*OT€ GTOL^GLV Kal p€LV‘ TO Si TT1T)yVV- 
pevov otov pvrjy ttolXlv y[yv€TaL OKXrjpov . /cat at 
to piv xpSopa piXav, opocov Si yiyveTOL tj} tltolvco , 
TrjK€TaL Si /cat 6 tttjXos /cat 77 yfj. 1 
10 ^Ocra S’ vtto £rjpov deppov TrrjyvvTaL, tcl piv 
aXvTa 9 tcl Si Aura vypcp. Kepapos piv odv /cat 
Xidcov ivlcov yevrj , ogol vtto Trvpos Trjs yrjs crvyKav- 
deiorjs ytyvovrat, otov oi pvXtai, aXvTa, vLTpov Se 
/cat aXes Awa vypcp, ov ttovtl Si aAAa ijjvxptp' Sto 

1 TrjK€Tcu . . . yrj del. Thurot O.T. 

0 See Note on Ancient Iron Making at the end of this 



Now, of the compounds of earth and water in which (a) m which 
earth predominates and which are solidified by cold, aormnaSs ; 
those that solidify because the heat has left them 
melt when the heat returns to them again, like 
frozen mud ; but those that solidify because of cold 
and the evaporation of all their heat are indissoluble 
save by excessive heat, but can be softened, like iron 
and horn. Wrought iron indeed will melt and grow 
soft, and then solidify again And this is the way in 
which steel is made. a For the dross sinks to the 
bottom and is removed from below, and by repeated 
subjection to this treatment the metal is purified and 
steel produced. They do not repeat the process often, 
however, because of the great wastage and loss of 
weight in the iron that is purified But the better 
the quality of the iron the smaller the amount of im- 
purity. Pyrimachus stone will also melt and form 
drops and become fluid : when it solidifies after having 
been fluid it regains its former hardness. Millstones 6 
too melt and become fluid : and when they solidify 
again afterwards they are black in colour but like 
lime in texture. [Mud and earth also melt.] 

Things solidified by dry heat are some of them 
altogether insoluble, some of them soluble by liquid. 
Earthenware and some kinds of stone which are 
made of earth calcined by fire, like millstones, are 
insoluble c : but soda d and salt are soluble in liquid, 
not in all liquid but only in cold. So they melt in water 

B Millstones were often made of various kinds of lava. 
e There is klo prima facie contradiction between this and 
1 7 above. Millstones can be melted by fire but aie insoluble 
m water. Yet the fxv Aicu of 383 b 12, having been solidified 
by heat (383 b 10), can hardly be the same as the pv \<u of 
383 b 7 which have solidified by cold (383 a 26). 
d virpov = sodium carbonate. 

S28 . 


383 b 

vSan kcu oaa vharos elBrj rrjKercu, eXalcp 8* ov 
15 TTjfcerar rep yap £r)pcp depp,<p evavriov i/svxpov 
vypov. el oSv erriq^ev Barepov, Barepov Xvcrer ovrco 
yap rdvavria ear at air la rcov evavriaiv. 


383 a 32-b 5 

In order to understand this passage, an mteiesting and 
apparently neglected one in the histoi y of ancient metallurgy, 
it is necessary to know something of the method by which 
iron was produced in the ancient world. 

In what follows, I have been guided especially by the 
following articles : H. C. Richardson, “ Iron, Prehistoric and 
Ancient,” American Journal of Archaeology, xxxvm (1934) , 
R, J. Forbes, “ The Coming of Iron,” Jaarbericht No. 9 van 
het voraziatischegyptisch gezelschap “ ex Onente Lux ” ; 
Campbell and Thum, “ Ancient Iron,” Metal Progress , vol. 
20 (1931) ,* Rudolf Schaur, “ Entwicklungsgeschichte der 
Hochofen m Steiermark,” Stahl und Eisen, xlix (April 1929) ; 
article s.v . “ ferrum ” m Daremberg-Saglio, Dictionnaire des 
antlquites grecques et romaines. An exhaustive bibliography 
can be found m R. J. Forbes, Bibliographia Antiqua , Philo - 
sophia Naturalis n, part J (Leiden, 1942). 6 

To-day iron is produced in the blast furnace, m which the 
fuel is coke and the ore is completely liquefied. The pioduct 
of the blast furnace is pig-iron, which has a high carbon con- 
tent and is therefore very brittle. Steel is produced by a 
further process m which the pig-iron is again made molten 
and its carbon content reduced, steel being, m fact, iron with 
a particular range of carbon content (approximately 0*25% 
to 15%). The two steel-makmg processes now m common 
use are the Bessemer process and the Siemens open-hearth 
process ; it is unnecessary to enter here into cfetails of either 
process, the purpose of both being to reduce the carbon 

« lam very grateful to Mr. Herbert Maryon of the British Museum 
for advice and help in writing this note 

b To this should now he added his Metallurgy in Antiquity (Leiden, 
Brill, 1950). 



and the watery liquids but not in olive oil. For moist 
cold is opposite to dry heat, and what one solidifies 
the other will dissolve ; for opposite causes will thus 
produce opposite effects. 

content of the law matenal (pig-iron 01 pig-iron and scrap 
iron) sufficiently to make steel. In the blast furnace (ana 
m the Siemens furnace) certain impurities m the charge also 
liquefy to form a molten “ slag ” or “ gangue ” which floats 
on top of the metal and can be run off separately from it. 

The method of making iron m the ancient woild was en- 
tirely different. The fuel used was charcoal ; and in the 
chaicoal furnaces of the ancient world it was impossible to 
reach the temperature at which non melts (1600° C.). The 
blast furnace, which can leach this temperature, was not 
developed until the end of the Middle Ages, and even after its 
invention the possibilities of the new method ^ere limited 
so long as chaicoal lemamed the fuel ; it was not until 1735 
that Abraham Darby of Colebrooke in Shropshire perfected 
the coke blast furnace which made iron production on a large 
scale possible. The ancient chaicoal furnace was, by com- 
parison, a veiy simple affan. It consisted of a shallow 
excavation, perhaps two feet deep, whose sides were built up 
with tuif and stone to a height of two 01 three feet above 
giound level and lined with some sort of refractory clay. 
There was a channel which ran into the bottom of the excava- 
tion and through which air could reach the furnace, which 
to facilitate the construction was commonly built on the side 
of a hill facing the prevailing wind. The ore was broken up 
small and charged into the furnace with the charcoal. Bellows 
were sometimes used to raise the heat, but the furnace was 
often allowed to burn with a natural draught only. The ore 
did not become molten but did become pasty ana gradually 
coagulate This process took some 8-12 hours. At the end 
of it the furnfltce was broken open, and the iron “ bloom ” 
which had formed as a result of the smelting process was 
removed. This bloom still contained many impurities, the 
dross, gangue or slag. The melting-point of the slag is lower 
than that of the ore, and can be still further reduced by the 
addition of suitable fluxes, -which the ancients may have used. 



It would therefore liquefy first, and find its way to the lower 
part of the furnace. Next the heavier non would trickle 
down, sink thiough the slag and gradually form a bloom at 
the bottom of the furnace, with the slag next above it and the 
infusible remaindei of the oie on top When the furnace was 
opened, the bloom would be raked from its position at the 
bottom and the slag would run or fall or be knocked off it. 
But much of the slag would, nevertheless, remain adhering 
to or included in the bloom, and this would be, so far as 

f iossible, forced out or knocked off by hammering or foigmg. 
n order to lemove it more completely the bloom would be 
reheated and reforged a number of times , but complete 
removal would hardly be possible, and specimens of ancient 
iron that have been analysed still contain much slag. 

The iion bloom that was finally produced after hammering 
would, if the iron remained pure, be wrought iron. But 
wrought iron has a very low caibon content and is therefore 
soft and unsuitable for tools. The problem of the ancient 
lron-woiker was thus the opposite of that of the modern steel- 
maker : the modem steel-maker has to take the carbon out 
of his raw material (pig-11 on) m order to toughen it ; the ancient 
iron-w T orker had to get carbon into his iron so that it could be 
hardened for tools and weapons. This carburization was 
effected m the process of repeated reheating ; for the iron 
bloom would pick up caibon from the charcoal fuel, and 
specimens of ancient iron in fact show a carbon content 
equivalent to that of mild steel. But the process of carburiza- 
tion was a tricky one, and its 1 esults uncertain : and it seems 
unlikely that the ancient iron- workers really understood it, 
though they knew quite empirically that repeated reheating 
did produce an iron or mild steel that could be used for tools 
and weapons. Hence the quality of the ore was an important 
factor as some ores, especially those containing manganese, 
more easily pioduced iron of the requisite quality when 
treated by this method than others. The ores of Noricum 
were especially suited to produce a good quality metal by 
ancient methods, and that area (the seat of the Halstatt civili- 
zation) remained celebrated for its iron throughout the 
Greco-Roman period. 

To render the iron or mild steel so produced hard enough 
for tool purposes, it was necessary to quench it m water from 
a white heat. This process was certainly known to the 
Greeks, and passing reference to it is not uncommon. It is 


effective only when the iion has a certain minimum carbon 
content . hence the importance of the carburization process 
without which iron will not harden enough to use for tools 
and weapons. Theie aie, therefore, two mam stages in 
ancient lion-working : (a) the smelting of the ore and the 
production of a bloom of forgeable iron ; (6) the forging of the 
iron bloonrso produced into a tool or weapon with the quench- 
ing as its final stage. (Tempering may have been known to 
the Romans, but can be ignoied for our piesent purpose.) 

It remains to interpret the present passage (383 a 32-b 5) in 
terms of ancient methods By eipyaopivos crlBr/pos (“ wrought 
iron ”), Aristotle presumably refers to the produce of the iron 
furnace, the bloom that has been forged or “ wrought.” It 
is doubtful if any ancient furnace could have melted this 
(even though its melting-point would be less than that of pure 
iron), and no ancient smith would have wished to do so, for the 
casting of iron was unknown in the ancient world. Though, 
therefore, Aristotle speaks of the iron “ melting” (r^fcerat 1. 32), 
he probably does not mean complete liquefaction. In the 
previous line he speaks of iron as softening (poXarrerai 1. 31), 
and vypos (1. 33) can be used of substances that aie soft and 
pliant as well as of those that are liquid Aristotle should 
therefore be understood to mean that “ wrought iron ” when 
heated will become soft and pliable rather than that it will 
become liquid. 

It is not immediately obvious to which of the two main 
stages of the iron-making process defined above the remainder 
of the passage refers. The critical word is err 6 po) pa (“ steel ”). 
The word is not common in classical authors, as reference to 
L&S 9 and Stephanus will show.® Basically it seems to 
mean the capacity of steel to take an edge (cf. Latin acm ) : 
so oroju-a is used (e.g. by Homer, II. xv. 389) of the edge or 
point of a weapon. But ancient iron would only take an 
edge when it had been hardened by quenching* so L&S 9 
give “ hardened iron,” “ steel,” as the meaning, L&S 8 
“ iron haidened to take a sharp edge,” and we find the 
connexion of oropup a with quenching explicitly made by 
Plutarch, Moftilia 73 c : cScwrep 6 crtSypos wvKvovrac. rrj tt epi- 
ipv£ei teal Several rrjv aropwcnv aveBels irpcbrov vtto dcppoTyros 
Kai paXaKOs yevopeuos, ovrto rots c^lXols hiaKexvpivois kcu 

« The only occurrence "before the 4th century is m a fragment of Ora- 
trnus . fr 247 Kock, Pollux 10 186 Aristophanes has arofUa (Nub. 
1108, 1110). 



Beppots ovoi m ro ra>v iiratvcov oooirzp fia<f>r)v arpepa rrjv 7tap- 
prjaLav sTraytLv. Other passages m Plutaich bear this out 
(ibid, 156 b, 943 e, Lyr. 9), and so also does a passage fiom 
Aetius quoted by Stephanus. Metaphoncally aropcopa is 
used either •with leference to its hardness or to its cutting 
power (Plutaich, Mor. 625 b, 693 a ; Arrian, Tact. 12. S.c/. 
Ael. Tact. 13. 2 : compare Anstophanes’ use of oropoco “to 
harden” in the sense of “to tram ” JS r ub . 1 108, 1 1 10). oropoopa 
then means the n on-steel pioduct of the ancient furnace after 
it has been hardened by quenching and made capable of 
taking a cutting edge. 

At first sight, theiefoie, one would expect our passage to 
refer to the second mam stage of ancient iron making. The 
smith when making a tool would start with the dpyacpevos 
ofoypos, the iron bloom, and would heat it m his charcoal 
furnace. He would have to 1 eheat it a number of times, since 
it would not remain long at a workable heat when taken out 
of the furnace. But his bloom would, as we have seen, still 
contain many impurities, and these would melt (as in the 
iron-fuinace, stage (a)) and drop off the bloom and be laked 
away with the ash of the furnace (u^tcrrarat . . . xai ano- 
KaBaiperai Kara) 383 a 34). Too fiequent reheating would lead 
to loss of weight, and would be avoided : and the better the 
iron the less the impurity and the less the loss. Also, though 
Aristotle could not know this, the bloom would pick up 
carbon fiom the charcoal furnace, and so become more suit- 
able foi quenching. 

But Aristotle makes no mention of quenching, and he 
may be thinking of the former of the two stages, and using 
aropcopa as a general term for lion, which becomes hard after 
quenching. We must then suppose that he is reminded by 
his leference to wrought iron of the smelting process which 
also (/cat 383 a 33) depends on the reaction of iron ore to heat. 
The words v<f}iorarai . . . /cat airoKadatperai Karoo 17 oKcopia 
383 a 34 refer to the slag sinking to the bottom of the furnace 
and being raked away. Ideler and the O.T. find the words 



puzzling because both think in terms of the blast furnace in 
which the metal liquefies and the melted slag floats on top 
of it. But m the ancient furnace the slag v ould “ sink to the 
bottom ” with the non wSeveial reheatings and reforgmgs 
are necessaiy befote the impurities are sufficiently lemoved 
(TToXXdhLs iradij 383 b 1), and the purer the ore (vtSrjpos covering 
the ore as well as the pioduct) the smaller the amount of 
impurity to be i emoved. T oo fi equent reheating was avoided 
because of the loss of weight consequent upon it (383 b 2). 

The translation of ov ttolovcl Se TroXXdms avro (383 b 2) as 
“ they do not lepeat the process often ” follows Ideler, St.- 
Hilaire and O.T. (and is suppoited by Ale\. 207. 23). There 
is at first sight a contradiction with 7toXX6.kis iraOfj “ frequent 
subjection to this treatment ” (383 b 1), since both contexts 
refer to the piocess of leheatmg. The contradiction can be re- 
solved by supposing that what Aristotle means is that while 
reheating was necessaiy (ttoXXolkis 383 b 1 ), it inevitably en- 
tailed some loss of metal and so was not lepeated unduly often 
(ttoXXolkis 383 b 2), not moie often, we may suppose, than was 
absolutely necessary. St. -Hilaire makes the point by trans- 
lating TroXXaKLs “ plusieurs fois ” and “ souvent ” in the two 

Either interpretation of the passage is consistent with 
ancient practice : but Aristotle’s characteristic brevity makes 
a decision between them difficult. Nor is there much evidence 
elsewhere in ancient literature to throw light on the subject. 
[Anst ] De M'lrab. A use. 48 tells us veiy little, though it 
perhaps suggests that the pyrimachus stone (mentioned also 
here 383 b 5) was used as a flux. I doubt whether, as Richard- 
son suggests, it is evidence for the use of a crucible piocess. 
Hippocrates, irepi Aiahrjs l. 13, refers briefly to the process 
of forging and quenching (possibly to smelting also). And 
Pliny, Nat. Hist, xxxiv, has a numbei of miscellaneous and 
not very illuminating remarks. But in the mam we must 
rely on non-literary evidence. 





Liquefaction and solidification (continued.). Compounds 
of earth and water , (b) m which water predominates : the 


rrXeov exei r) yrjs> mjyvvrai 8e 9 ocra yrjs. Sto /cat to 
20 virpov Kal ol aXes yrjs elaiv paXXov, /cat At 9os /cat 

* ArropdoTara he eyei r) rov eXalov <f>vais. el pev 
yap uSaros, eSet rTfjyvvodai vrrd x/ivxpov, el Se yrjs 
rrXeoy, vtto rrvpos • vvv 8e rrfjyvvr ai pev vrr 9 ov he- 
T€pov 3 rraxvverai he vrr 9 ap<j>oiv» ainov 8* early 
25 ort a epos early nXrjpes. Sto /cat ev rep vhan im- 
rroXa£ei m Kal yap 6 a rjp (f>epera t avaj. to pi ev ofiv 
ipvypov €K rov evovros rrvev paros vhcop rrotovv 
rrayyvei' del yap } orav pieiydf) vh cop Kal eXaiov, 
dp<f>olv ylyyerai rrayyrepoy. vrro he rrvpos Kal 
Xpovov rraxvverai Kal XevKaiverai, XevKalverai pev 
30 e^arpityOvros et Tt ivfjv vharos, rraxvverai he Sta 
to papaivopevov rov deppov €K rov a epos ylyveaQai 
vhcop. dp<f>orep(x>s pev ovv to a vro ylyverai rrdOoSy 
Kal Sta to a vro, aAA 9 ox>x (haavreos . rraxvverai pev 
ofiv vrr 9 dp<j>orep(joVy ov ^rjpalverai 8* vrr 9 ovherepov 
ovre yap 6 rjXios ovre to ipfiyos £rjp alvei • ov povov 
384 a hion yXlaxpoVy aAA a /cat Stem depos early . ov 


argument ( continued ) 

special case of olive oil (383 b 18 — 384 a 1). Liquefaction and 
solidification of various particular compounds of earth and 
water discussed (384 a 2-b 23). 

Compounds which contain more water than earth are (t>) in which 
only increased in density by fire, but those that con- donunates, 
tam more earth than water are solidified. Soda and 
salt, therefore, contain more earth, and also stone and 

The nature of olive oil is the most difficult to de- 
termine.® For if it contained more water, cold 
should solidify it, if more earth, fire should do so. 

In fact, however, its density is increased by both, 
while it is solidified by neither. The reason is that 
it is full of air, which is why it floats on water, since 
air naturally moves upwards. Cold therefore in- 
creases its density by turning the air in it to water, 
for when oil and water are mixed the density of the 
compound is greater than that of either constituent. 

Oil is also increased in density and turned white by 
fire and by age : it is turned white because of the 
evaporation of any water it contained; its density 
is increased because as its heat fades the air in it is 
turned to water. The effect, therefore, is the same 
in either case, and so also is the cause, but it operates 
in a different way. Rut while its density is increased 
both by heal! and cold, it is not dried by either (for 
neither sun nor frost dries it), not only because it is 
viscous but because it contains air ; for it is not dried 

° Of. Le Gen. An. ii, 2, 735 b 13 ff. 



384 a 

^Tjpalverai Se [to uSco/)] 1 ov S’ ei/jercu vtto rrvpos, 
otl ovk arfii^ei hta yXtcxpbTrjTa. 

"Ocra he petKTa vhaTos Kal yrjs, Kara to 7tX rjdos 
eKarepov a£tov Xeyeodar olvos yap tls Kal TTrjyvvrai 
5 Kal eiperat, otov to yXevKos . arrepx^Tat Se omo 
rravrwv tlov tolovtcov ^patvoptevcov to vSc op. 
arjpLeiov S 9 otl to vhcop' rj yap a Tptls cvvioraTaL els 
vS cop, iav tls fiovXrjT ai avXXeyetv c ocrre ogols 
XelrreTal tl , tovto yrjs- €vta he tovtcov Kal vno 
iffvxpov> cocnep elprjTat , naxvveTat Kal £ rjpalveTai * 
10 to yap xjjvxpov ov \xovov nrjywGLV, aAAa tjrjpalvei 
ptev vhcop, naxvvei 8e tov aepa vhcop noiovv rj he 
TTTj^LS eiprjT at ^rj pacta tls odea, oca ptev ovv prj 
naxvveTat vtto tov ijjvxpov aAAa nr\yvvTai, vharbs 
€ctl ptaXXov, olov olvos Kal odpov Kal otjos Kal 
Kovla Kal opos‘ oca he naxvveTat pur} e^aT/xt^ovTa 
15 vno nvpos, Ta ptev yrjs , Ta he kolv a vhaTos Kal 
aepos, phiXt ptev yrjs , eXatov S’ a epos, eanv he Kal 
to yaXa Kal to alpha aptfiotv ptev kolv a Kal vhaTos 
Kal yrjs , ptaXXov he Ta noXXa yrjs , ooanep Kal i£ 
occov vypcbv vtTpov ylyver at Kal aXes [kgI XlSol 8 9 
€K tlvcov GWiCTavrat tolovtcov). 8 to iav pur) x 
20 ptcOrj 6 OpOS , eKKaeTCL VTTO tov nvpos eifiopevos- 
to he yeebhes cvvlcTaTat Kal vtto tov onov, iav 
ncos ii/jrj tls, otov ol larpol onl^ovTes . ovtoj Se 
XOopl^eTat b opos Kal 6 TVpos . o 8e x^p^ffels opos 
1 del. O.T. raiAatoj/FHN.^ 

a And so are a compound of earth and water, and not 
“ watery liquids,” the heading under which wme m general 
is classified at 383 b 13. 



up or boiled off by fire because its viscous character 
prevents evaporation. 

Compounds of water and earth should be classified 
according to which predominates For some kinds 
of wine, for example must, solidify when boiled. 0 In 
all such cases it is the water that is driven off m the 
process of drying. This is shown by the fact that if 
you collect the vapour it condenses into water b : and 
so where there is any sediment left it must be earthy. 
But some of these compounds, as we have said, c are 
also increased in density and dried by cold. For cold 
not only solidifies, but also dries water and increases 
density by turning air to water ; and solidification 
we have already a described as a kind of drying. 
Things, therefore, which cold solidifies but does not 
increase in density, contain more water, like wine, 
urine, vinegar, lye and whey 6 : and of things which 
it increases in density (but which are not evaporated 
by fire), some contain more earth while others are a 
compound of water and air — honey, for example, 
contains more earth, oil contains air. Milk and blood 
are both compounds of earth and water, containing 
for the most part more earth, as also are the liquids 
from which soda and salt are formed. Stones are 
also formed from some liquids of the same kind. So 
whey, if it has not been separated, will boil away on 
a fire. The earthy constituent in milk can also be 
coagulated by rennet, if you boil it in the way doctors 
do when they curdle it : and this is the way in which 
the whey aiid the cheese are commonly separated. 

b Cf 1 Book II. ch. 3, note b on p. 156. 

c 383 a 13. d 382 b 1. 

* Yet at 382 b 13 wine, urme and whey were classified as 
“ watery liquids ” (vBaros ttSy), which should imply that they 
have no admixture of earth : cf. also 384 a 4, 385 b 1. 



884 a 

oi>K€Ti TraxvveraL , aAA 9 iKKaerai warrep v'8 cop. d 
84 tl prj ex €L Tvpov ydXa rj 6XLyov } tovto paXXov 
25 v8aros kcll drpo^ov. Kal to atpa Se opotcos * 
TrrjyvvraL yap rq> £r)patv€o9at i/jvxopevov. oaa 8e 
prj irriyvvrai, otov to ttjs iXd<f>ov> ra» TotavTCt 
vSaTos paXXov, Kal ifsvxpd ravra. 8 to Kal ovk 
eyet Iv as** at yap tves elaiv yrjs Kal OTepeov aWe 
Kal 4^atpe9etad)v ov 7rrjyvvTar tovto 8 9 4otIv otl 
30 ov £rjpatveTar v8cop yap to Xolttov > cbs to yaXa tov 
Tvpov i£atpe94vTos. arjpetov 8 e * tol voaa>8rj yap 
atpara ov 94Xet Trrjyvvo9ar lx<opoet8r] yap, tovto 
84 cf>X4ypa Kal v8 cup, 1 8ta to dneTTTov elvat Kal 
OLK paTTjTOV V7TO Trjs (f>VO€COS . €TL 84 TOL j \l4v XvTOL 
384 b icTTLV, OtOV VtTpOV , TOL 84 dXvTa, OtOV KCpapLOS, Kal 
tovtojv Ta p4v paAa/cra, otov Kepa$ , ra 84 apd- 
XaKTa , otov Kepapos Kal Xt9os . aiTtov 8 9 otl 
Tavavrta tcov ivavTtcov atTta, wot el n^ywraL 
8 votv, ifsvxppp f<al ^pcp, Xvea9at avayKrj deppcp Kal 
5 vypcp * 8 to irvpl Kal v8otl (rat»ra yap ivavTta), v8an 
p4v ocra Trvpl povoj, rrvpl 84 oaa tfjvypcp povw • dour 
et Tt vtt* a pcf>otv avpf} alvet iryyvvo9at > raura dXvra 
paXtara. yiyverat Se to Lavra oaa 8eppav94vTa 
eiretra ra) ijtvxpdp Trrjyvvraf ovpfSatvet yap , orav 
to 9eppov itjtKpdorj i£tov to rrXetarov vypov 2 avv 
10 8Xi$ea9 at iraXtv vrro tov ifruxpov, &are prj84 vypcp 
8t8ovat 8to8ov. Kal Sta ra vTa ovre to deppov Xver 
1 mterpunxi. 

2 interpunxit O.T. : i^iov, to nXelarov JPobes. 

0 Of. Be Part An. li. 4 : and for the deer in particular 
Be Part. An. ii. 4, 650 b 15, Hist. An. m. 6, 515 b 34. 

6 Adopting the O.T.’s punctuation, and taking e’&K/zacn? 
b 9 as transitive : there is indeed no real authority for its use 
as intransitive, for the only instance, apart from this passage, 


Whey < when separated will no longer increase in 
density but boil away like water : and if milk con- 
tains little or no cheese, then water predominates in 
its composition and it is not nutritious. Blood c 
behaves . similarly, for it solidifies when dried by 
cooling. But in kinds of blood that do not solidify, 
like that of the deer, water predominates and the 
temperature is cold. Hence they do not contain 
fibres, fibres being composed of earth and solid. So 
blood from which fibres have been removed does not 
solidify, because it will not dry, the residuum being 
watery, which is what happens to milk when the 
cheese is removed A proof of this is that diseased 
blood will not solidify, being serous, that is, made up 
of phlegm and water, nature having failed to control 
and concoct it. Again, some compounds are soluble, 
like soda, others are insoluble, like earthenware, and 
of these some can be softened, like horn, others cannot, 
like earthenware and stone. The reason is that 
opposite causes produce opposite effects, so if the two 
properties cold and dry cause solidification, it follows 
that hot and moist cause dissolution. So fire and 
water are dissolving agents (being opposites), water 
dissolving what fire alone solidifies, fire what cold 
alone solidifies, while anything that is solidified by 
both is least liable to dissolution. For when the heat 
as it leaves them vaporizes most of their moisture, 
they become compressed again by the cold and so 
afford no entrance even to moisture . 6 And for this 
reason evei* heat will not dissolve them, for it dis- 

given by L&S 9 {Problems 930 b 34) may be corrupt (Stepha- 
nus suggests that igrjrfjuKe is the. correct reading). Fobes* 
punctuation (following Ideler and Bekker) does not yield the 
sense clearly required : for, as 383 a 12 shows, it is not to vypov 
that is compressed, but to gqpov. 



oaa yap vtto ipvypov TTrjyvvrai povov, ravra Am* 
oiid 9 vtto vSaros * ocra yap vtto i pvypov TrijyvvTCUy 
ov Xvec, aXX’ ocra vt to Geppov £rjpov povov. 6 Se 
15 crtSrjpos raieels vtto deppov ipvxOels 1 TTrjyvvrai, ra 
§€ gvXa icrrlv yrjs Kal a epos' Sio Kavcrra teal ov 
TT)KTa ovhk paXaKra, Kal eni rep v&cltl imTrXet, 
ttXyjv iftevov a vrr] S’ ov* ra pkv yap aXXa aipo$ 
eye. i ttXIov, €K Se rfjs ifievov rfjs peXalvrjs 8ta- 
tt€ttv€VK€V 6 arjp , Kal eon nXiov iv avrfj yfjs . 
20 Kepapos Si yrjs povov Sid to ^rjpaevopevos rrayrjvai 
Kara piKpov ovre yap to vS cop elaoSovs 8t a 

&v povov TTvevpa i£fjX8ev, ovre t rvp* errrj^e yap 

9 / 


T l pev oSv ion rrrj^is Kal rrj^i?, Kal Sea Troaa 
Kal iv ttogols eoTLVy eiprjrai. 



Differentiating qualities of bodies . All bodies thus contain 
the four primary qualities of heat , cold, wet and dry . They 
are also differentiated by the ways m which they affect our 
senses and by certain intrinsic properties (384 b 24 — 385 a 
10). Eighteen such properties , each grouped with its con- 
trary, are enumerated (385 a 10-20). The first two pairs 
dealt with (385 a 20-b 5). <**■ 

Note . — The compounds with which Aristotle is primarily 
concerned in the remaining chapters {even when he does not 
mention them specifically , as m ch. 11) are the “ homoe - 
omerous ” bodies . A substance is homoeomerous if it is 
homogeneous in the sense of being a chemical compound 


solves only such things as are solidified by cold : nor 
will water, which will not dissolve things solidified 
by cold but only those solidified by dry heat. But 
iron is melted by heat and solidifies when cooled. 
Wood is^composed of eaith and air and so is com- 
bustible, but not meltable or soft enable, and (except 
for ebony) floats. Ebony does not, for while in other 
woods there is a greater proportion of air, in black 
ebony it has been exhaled and the proportion of 
earth is greater. Earthenware is composed of earth 
only because when dried it solidifies gradually ; 
neither can water gain entry through pores from 
which only vapour could escape, nor can fire, which 
was the solidifying agent. 

This completes our account of solidification and 
melting, their causes and the substances in which 
they occur. 


argument ( continued ) 

(jutfty), as opposed to a mechanical mixture (avvdems) : cf. 
De Gen. et Corr. i. 10, esp. 328 a 10 <j>apkv Se Stiv, efoep 
pefUKTcu, to iux&€v opoiojAtpes efoai. The homoeomerous sub- 
stances thus play an important part in Aristotle's theory of 
the physical world. The simplest physical substances are the 
four elements , mialysablein theory but not m fact into combina- 
tions of the four prime contraries and prime matter (De Caelo 
in-tv, De Gen. et Corr. iL 1-6). From the four elements the 
homoeomerous substances are made , comprising all simple 
homogeneous substances, animal and mineral : from the 
homoeomerous substances in turn are composed more complex 



(anhomoeomerous) orgamc and inorganic bodies : of 388 a 
13#., 389 b 27#, and De Part. An. n 1, 646 a 8-21, D e 
Gen. An. 715 a 8-11. The distinction between homoeomerous 

334 b 24 ’Eat Sc tovtcov cfxi vcpov otl vrro Beppov /cat 
25 ijjvxpov crvvLGTaTcu ra acopara, ravra Sc 7raywovTa 
/cat Trrjyvvvra Troielrcu rrjv ipyaalav avTcbv. Sta 
Sc to in to tovtcov 8r)piovpy€LG0ai iv aVacrtv cWort 
OeppOTTJS, Ttcrt Sc /cat IpVXpOTTJS fj €/cAct7r€t. &<JT 
C7T€t TCLVTCL p€V U77apyCt Sta TO 7TOL6LV y VypOV Sc /Cat 
30 H^pov Sta to irdax^v, jaercyct a vtcov tol /cotva Trav- 
tcov. e/c pev ovv vBcltos /cat y^s 1 Ta opoiopeprj 


/cat Ta peTaXXevopeva, otov XP VG °S Ka i dpyvpos 
/cat ocra aAAa tolclvtcl, i£ a vtcov tc /cat e/c t^s* 
avadvpiaGews Trjs c/caTcpou cy/caTa/cAetojacv???, 
385 a coovep cuprjTCiL iv aAAots*. Tavra Sc Sta^cpct aAA^- 
Aaw Tots' tc Trpos’ Tas alaOtfcrets tStots an-atra, to) 
TTOtetv Tt Svvaodcu (Aen/cov yap /cat ena/Ses /cat 
i/jo<j> 7 ]TLK 6 v /cat yXvKv /cat Beppov /cat if/vxpov T(p 

7TOL€LV Tt §VVCLGdai TTjV ataBrjalv COTt), /Cat dXXotS 
Acya> S’ o!bv to tt\ktov kcll ttt]kt6v /cat Kapirrov 
/cat oaa aAAa Totai/Ta* iravra yap t<x TOtawa 7ra0^- 
Tt/ca, C0G7T€p TO VypOV /cat TO {jrjpov . TOt/TOt? S* 
17S77 Sta<jJcpct ogtovv /cat aap£ /cat vevpov /cat £vAoi/ 
10 /cat cfrXoios /cat At^os* /cat tcov aXXcov l/caorov tcov 
opoiopepcbv piv cf>VGiKa)v Sc acoparrcov. 

FiiTrcopev Sc npcoTov tov dptBpov avT&v, oca /caTa. 
hvvapiv /cat aS wapiav XiyzTai. cgtiv Sc TaSc* 

II77/CT01/ dvrjKTOV. 

TrjKTOv arrjKTOV. 



and anhomoeomerous is particularly important in biology , 
where you have the homoeomerous parts (blood, bone, sinew, 
flesh), the anhomoeomerous parts composed of them (hands, 
feet, eyes) and finally the complete creature (man, horse). 

From this it is clear that bodies are formed by heat The 
and cold’, which operate by increasing density and of bodfes 
solidifying. And because they are manufactured by classified 
them, all bodies contain heat and some contain cold 
in so far as they lack heat. So, since heat and cold 
are present as active constituents, moist and dry as 
passive, compound bodies contain them all The 
homoeomerous bodies, therefore, vegetable and ani- 
mal, and also the metals, a such as gold, silver and the 
like, are composed of water and earth and of their 
exhalations when, as has been explained elsewhere,** 
they are enclosed underground. All these bodies 
differ from each other, firstly, in the particular ways in 
which they can act on the senses (for a thing is white, 
fragrant, resonant, sweet, hot or cold in virtue of the 
way it acts on sensation), and, secondly, in other more 
intrinsic qualities commonly classed as passive — I 
mean solubility, solidification, flexibility and the like, 
all of which, like moist and dry, are passive qualities. 

It is by these passive qualities that bone, flesh, 
sinew, wood, bark, stone and all the other natural 
homoeomerous bodies are differentiated. 

Let us begin by enumerating them, grouping each and 
property with its converse. They are as follows : S* psursf* 

1. Capable or incapable of solidification. 

2. Meltable or unmeltable. 

a ra yL€TaXk€.v6fi€va are said to be a species of opoiopeprj at 
388 a 13. 

6 Book III. ch. 6 , 378 a 15 ff. 



385 a 

MaAa/CTov apaXaKTov. 

Tey/crov dreyKrov . 


Kara/crov aKaraKTOv. 

QpavvTOv ad paver ov. 

15 QXavTOV aBXa vtov. 

UXauTOv aTrXavTov . 

rit€(TTOV arris vtov. 

C EA ktov dvsX KTOV. 

*EA arov avrjXa tov. 

E^iarov acr^orov. 

T prjTOV arpiTjTOV . 

rA/cr^pov ipaBvpov. 

ritA^rov drriXy]Tov. 

Ka vvtov aKavarov. 

Qvpia rov ddvplaTOV. 

Ta piv ovv TrXeiara cr^eSov tcov vcopaTCov tov- 
20 tois Sia <f)spSL tols 7 raBsoiv rlva S’ skvotov rourtov 
e^€6 Svvaptv, strrcopsv. 

IIcpl piv OVV 7T7JKTOV Kal aTTrjKTOV Kal TTjKTOV Kal 

drr\KTOV s LprjraL piv KadoXov rrpoTspov 3 opcos S’ 
srravsXBcopsv Kal vvv. tcov yap vcopaTCov ova 
TrrjyvvTai Kal VKXrjpvvsTai, ra piv vrro Bsppov 
Travel tovto ra 8* vrro tftvxpov y vi to piv rov 
25 Bsppov £ rjpaLvovros to vypov, vtto Si tov ifsvxpov 
skBXL^ovtos to Bsppov. coots to. piv ayypovTrovvia 
Ta Si Bsppov tovto rravx^> oua piv vSaTOs , Bsppov, 
ova Se yr\s y vypov. ra piv ovv vypov arrovvla vrro 
vypov SianrrjKSTai , av prj ovtcos wvsXBrj coots sX&t- 
30 tov$ tovs TTopovs Xsicj>drjvau tcov tov vSaroff oyKeov, 


3. Softenable or unsoftenable by heat. 

4. Softenable or unsoftenable by water. 

5. Flexible or inflexible. 

6. Breakable or unbreakable. 

7. Capable or incapable of fragmentation. 

8. Capable or incapable of taking an impression. 

9. Plastic or non-plastic. 

10. Capable or incapable of being squeezed. 

11. Ductile or non-ductile. 

12. Malleable or non-mallcable. 

IS. Fissile or non-fissile. 

14. Cuttable or uncuttable. 

15. Viscous or friable. 

16. Compressible or incompressible. 

17. Combustible or incombustible 

18. Capable or incapable of giving off fumes. 

The great majoiity of bodies are differentiated by 
these qualities, whose nature we will therefore go 
on to describe. 

We have already a given a general description of (l and 2) 
the first two pairs of qualities, but let us return to tion^mdt- 
them again now. Bodies which solidify and harden mgand n 
do so under the influence of cold or heat, heat drying tranes 
their moisture and cold expelling their heat * they 
are so affected, in fact, either by lack of moisture or 
of heat, those in which water predominates by lack 
of heat, those in which earth predominates by lack of 
moisture. Bodies so affected by lack of moisture 
are melted by moisture, unless their composition is 
such that tfcteir pores & are too small for the particles 
of water to enter, as, for instance, earthenware ; but 

° Chs. 6 and 7. 

b On Aristotle’s use of “ pores ” m this and the following 
passages see Introd. p. xvii. 



385 a 

otov 6 K€pa[Ao$’ ooa 8e fjLrj ovto), TTavTCL vypcp ttJ- 
/cctch, otov vtrpov , aXes, yfj rj €K tttjXov • 'ra 8e 
deppiov OTeprjoei vtto deppiov TrjKerai, otov Kpv - 
OTaXXos, pioXvfiSos, ^aA/co?. ttolcl piev ovv 7rr)Kra 
385 b koX rrjKrd, elprjTai, Kal ttoicl arrjKTa. aV^/cra 8e 
ooa pt,rj vyporrjra vScltooSt), pir)8e vSaros eonv, 
aXXa rrXeov deppiov Kal yfjs, otov pie Xl kcll yXevKos 
(coorrep t^eovTa yap ioTiv), Kal oaa v8aros piev eyei, 
eoTiv Se irXeov a epos, cvairep to eXaiov Kal 6 a p- 
5 yvpos 6 x vr ° s > Ka ' L € * Tl yMoXpov, otov (ttItto, 
Kat) l Zjos. 

1 rrvTTa. Kal om. codd. : habent A1 01. 



The remaining sixteen properties and their contraries are 
dealt with m order . 

385 b 6 MaAcucra S 5 earl tow 7re7T7)y6rojv oca pifj 

vSaros, otov KpvoraXXos v8aros 3 aXX 9 ooa yfjs 
pidXXov } Kal pafjT i^iKpiaorac irdv to vypov worrep 
ev viTpcp fj aXot, pirjT €Y€t dvajpbdXaJS ojcnrep 6 k<z~ 
10 pap,o $ , aAA rj eAKTa purj ovto oiavTa , rj eXaTa prj 
ovTa vSotos , Kal piaXaKTa rrvpi > otov oc8r]po$ Kal 
Kepas [ Kal £vAa.] x 

’'Ecm 8e Kal tow ttjktcov Kal tcov a TrjKTOiV ra 
piev TeyKTa ra Se areyKTa, otov ^aA kos areyKTOv, 
TTjKTov ov, epuov 8e Kal yfj reyKrov fipexerai yap . 
15 Kal ^aAicos' piev 8 fj t^ktov, ovx vtto zJSaros* 8e 


unless this is so they are all melted by moisture, like 
soda, salt and dried mud Bodies solidified by de- 
ficiency of heat are melted by heat, for instance ice, 
lead or bronze ° This deals with bodies capable of 
solidification and with bodies that will and will not 
melt. Incapable of solidification are bodies which 
contain no watery moisture and are not watery, and 
in which heat and earth predominate rather than 
water, like honey and must (for they are in a kind of 
ferment), and also bodies in which, though they 
contain water, air predominates, like oil, quicksilver 
and viscous liquids such as pitch and birdlime. 

a Aristotle uses the same word (t tjktov), both of substances 
that can be dissolved in water ( e.g . salt) and melted by fire. 


Solid bodies can be softened by heat if they are not (3) Soften- 
composed of water (as ice is) but are predominantly heat. by 
earthy : their moisture must not have been all 
evaporated (as in soda or salt) nor be disproportion- 
ately small in quantity (as in potter’s clay), and if they 
are either tensile but not absorbent or ductile without 
a preponderance of moisture, fire will soften them. 
Examples are iron and horn. 

Of bodies that can and cannot be melted some can ^ le s ^ teT1 * 
be softened in water, some cannot ; thus bronze, water. 7 
which will nlfelt, cannot, but wool and earth can, for 
they can be soaked. Bronze, of course, though it can 
be melted, cannot be melted in water : but some 

1 seel. O.T., cf. 384 b 15-16. 



things also which can be melted m water cannot be 
softened, hke soda and salt, for nothing is softened 
in water which does not become softer when soaked. 

On the other hand, some things which water softens 
do not melt, like wool and gram. Anything which 
is earthy 'and has pores larger than the particles of 
water and harder than water can be softened by 
water But bodies that can be melted by w r atcr are 
porous throughout. 0 But why is earth melted and 
softened by moisture while soda is melted but is 
not softened ? Because soda is porous throughout 
and so its parts are dispersed at once by water ; but 
in earth the pores alternate and the effect differs 
according to which set the water enters. 

Some bodies can be bent and straightened, like (5) Flexible 
reeds and withies ; some cannot be bent, like eaithen- 
ware and stone. Things which cannot be bent and 
straightened are those which when curved cannot 
be bent straight and when straight cannot be bent 
into a curve, bending and straightening being the 
motion of bending straight or into a curve, for a thing 
is bent whether it is bent in or out. Bending, there- 
fore, is alteration of shape to convex or concave , length 
remaining unchanged. If we were to add “or to 
straight,” it would imply that a thing could be 
simultaneously bent and straight, and it is of course 
impossible for what is bent to be straight. And if 
everything that is bent is bent either in or out, and 

a If the pores remain intact the body is soflenable : if they 
yield the body melts. The latter alternative is expressed 
rather obscurely in the w r oids rrjtcra ... St* oXov (1. 21 ), wuth 
which we must presumably supply nopovs from 11. 19-20. 

2 Sea re 1. 21 ... ro irddos secludendum censent O.T. 



386 a 


av eirj /cat els to ev9v Kapijsis , aAA’ ecrrt kapifsis 
/cat evdvvois aAA o /cat aAA o. /cat ravra eortv 
/captTrrd /cat evdvvTa , /cat aKapTTTa /cat avev9vvra. 
Kat ra ptev /cara/cra /cat Opavcrra apa *rj x^pts, 
10 OtOV £vAoV p€V KCLTOLKTOVt dpOLVCFTOV 8* 0$, KpVQToX - 

Aos* Se /cat Atmos' dpavcrrov, kcltclktov S’ ov, /cepapto? 
Se /cat dpawTOV /cat kotoktov, Sta^epet 8 9 , oti 
/cara^ts* pev eoTtv els peyaXa peprj Statpeats: /cat 
X<*>picns, 9pav<ns Se ets* ra TvyovTa /cat nXelco Svotv. 
15 ocra ptev ow oura> Trerrrjyev coore mXXovs eyetv 
TTapaXXaTTOVTas nopovs , Opavora (pte^pt yap tovtov 
Stt'crrarat), ocra S 9 ets ttoAi/, /caTa/cra, ocra 8* apcjxjo, 

Kat ra pev dXaoTa, otov ^aA/cos* /cat Krjpos, 
ra S’ adXaoTa , otov Kepapos /cat vhcap, eortv Se 
OXacns hnrrehov /card pepos els ftados peTaoTaots 
20 a/cret ■>} TrXrjyfj, to S’ oXov a<j>fj. ear tv Se Ta rotat/ra 
/cat ptaAa/ca, 1 otov Krjpos pevovTOS tov aXXov em- 
Trehov Kara p epos pedtoraTat, /cat OKXrjpa, otov 
XuAkoS' /cat ra 2 adXaora /cat OKXrjpa, otov Kepapos 
(ov yap irreiKei els fia 60s to emVeSov), /cat vypct, 
25 otov uStop (to yap vSeop wet/cet pev, aAA 9 oi5 /caTa 
pepos, aAA 9 avTipedlaTarai) . rcov Se dAacrrwv ocra 
pev pevet 9Xao9evra /cat ev9XaoTa %etpt, TavTapev 
rrXaora, Ta Se 7 ) pt^ ev9Xaora, cbcrnep Xl9os rj £vA ov, 
rj ev9Xaora pev , pc?] ptevet Se 77 dXdocs, Vuorrep epiov 

1 /taAa/ca E O.T. Thurot : paAa/cTa Fobes cett. 

8 xaA/cos. /cat ra dOXaara O.T. Thurot : xaA/cosr, Ka ' L a#Aacrra 
Fobes : dXaard alii. 



if this means an alteration of shape either to convex 
or to concave, there is no such process as bending 
straight, but two different processes, bending and 
straightening. These, then, are the things that 
can and cannot be bent and can and cannot be 

Some things can be both broken and fragmented, (6, 7) 
others only one or the other. Thus wood can be 
broken but not fragmented, ice and stone can be mentation 
fragmented but not broken, while earthenware can 
be both fragmented and broken The difference is 
that breaking is division and separation into large 
parts, fragmentation into any number of parts 
greater than two. Things, therefore, that solidify in 
such a way as to have many alternating pores frag- 
ment (the pores allowing this degree of dispersion), 
and things that have long continuous pores break, 
while things that have pores of both kinds do both. 

Some things will take an impression, like bronze (8) Capable 
and wax, some things cannot, like earthenware and 
water. An impression is an indentation of part of 
a thing’s surface by pressure or impact, or, generally 
speaking, by contact ; and such things are either 
soft,® like wax, part of whose surface only is indented, 
or hard, like bronze. Things that cannot take an 
impression are either hard, like earthenware (for its 
surface will not yield inwards), or moist, like water 
(for water yields not by any part of it being indented, 
but by displacement). Of things that take an im- 
pression, those that retain it and are easily moulded 
by hand are plastic ; while those not easily moulded, (9) Pias- 
like stone or wood, or easily moulded but incapable tlcity * 

a fiaXaKa must be the right reading, for the contrast is 
with crKXrjpd : cf. 382 a 10. 


386 a * 

rj orrdyyov , ov rrXaora, aXXa meord ravr iorlv. 
30 ecm Se meord ova didovpieva els air a ovvievai 
Svvarai, els /3a dos rod emrreSov rrapaXXdrrovros, 
ov 8t.atpouju.6vou, /cat (p^) pe^torapevou aAAou 
aAAtp fJLoplov, otov to vScvp rroiet* rovro yap am- 
pe#tWaTat. eon Se evens r) KLvrjois vrro rov kc- 
386 b vovvros, rj ylyverau drro rrjs ctipecos' rrXrjyr) Be, orav 
drro rfjs <j>opds. me^erac Be ocra rropovs eyet Kevovs 
ovyyevovs ocvpbaros' /cat meord ravra ooa Bvvarac 
els ra iavrcdv Keva ervv te'vat rj els rovs eavrevv 
rropovs’ evlore yap ov Kevot eloiv els ovs ovvepyerai , l 
5 otov 6 fiefipeypevos orroyyos (rrXrjpeis yap avrov 
ol rropoi), aAA 9 &v av ot rropoi rrXrjpeis &oi paAa/cto- 
repcov rj avro to 7 re^VKos ovvievai els av to? 
meord pev ouv ear tv ofov orroyyos , Krjpos , adp£. 
drrleora Se r a p^ rrecfrvKora ovvievai dioei els 
rovs eavredv rropovs 8t a to 7 } p^ e^etv 77 o/cA^po- 
10 repcov eyeiv rrXrjpeis * o yap olSrjpos drrieoros /cat 
Atflos /cat uSa>p /cat 7rav uypov. 

LA/ora 0 eonv oocvv ovvarov eis to 7 rAaytov 
pied lor aoOai to errlrreBov * to yap eXteecrOal eon to 
errl to kivovv pieOloraoBai to errlrreBov ovveyes ov. 
eonv Se ra pev eA/cra, otov Qpl£, ipias, vevpov , 
15 orals, l^os, ra S’ aveA/cra, ofov uScop /cat XlBos. ra 
pev oiv ravra eonv eA/CTtx /cat meor&, otov epiov, 
ra S’ ou ravra, otov <f>Xeypia meorov pev ou/c 
eonv, eXterov Be, Kal 6 orroyyos meorov fiev, ovy 
eA/crov Se. 



of retaining an impression, like wool or sponge, are 
non-plastic but can be squeezed. Now things that 
can be squeezed are those that can contract mto 
themselves on pressure, their surface sinking m with- 
out beings broken and without displacement of one 
part by another such as occurs in water. Pressure 
is action by a moving force which remains in contact 
with its object : impact is action by impulse. And 
things can be squeezed which have pores empty of 
their own material and which can therefoie contract 
under pressure into the empty space within them, 
that is, into their own pores ; for sometimes the pores 
into which they contract are not empty, as, for instance, 
m a wet sponge, whose pores are full, but in that case 
the material filling the pores must be softer than the 
body which is to contract on itself. Sponges, wax 
and flesh can therefore all be squeezed : things that 
cannot be squeezed are those which are not con- 
stituted to contract on pressure into their own pores 
either because they have none or because they are 
full of a material harder than themselves. So iron 
cannot be squeezed, or stone, or water, or any liquid 
Ductile are things whose surface will extend in the ( 
same plane, for to be drawn out is to have the surface fc 
extended in the direction of the motive force without 
breaking. And some things are ductile, like hair, 
leather, sinew, dough and birdlime, some are not, 
like water and stone. And some things are both 
ductile and squeezable, like wool, some are not, like 
phlegm, which is not squeezable but is ductile, or 
sponge, which is squeezable but is not ductile. 

1 ivlore . . . avvepxercu seel. Fobes : om. J 3J1 H. 

3 avro O.T. : avro E CO n' SB N : avro Bret : iavraJi B x H : 
tavro J r ec : aura Fobes. 



886 b 

*'E artv Se Kal ra ptev iAara, olov ^aA/cos, ra 8 9 
dvfjAara, olov Aid os kcl l £vA ov. eartv 8’ iAara ptev 
20 ocra rfj a vrfj nA rjyfj Svvarat apta Kal els nAaros 
Kal els pados to intneBov pteO tor aad at Kara ptepos, 
dvfjAara Si ocra aSvvara. eartv Be ra fjtiv iAara 
dnavra Kal dAaard , ra Be dAaard ov ndvra iAara , 
olov £vAov • cos ptevrot ininav elnetv , avrtarpecj>et % 
25 rcov Be ntearcdv ra ptiv iAara ra S 9 ov, Krjpos pLev 
Kal nrjAos iAara , eptov 8’ ov [o*58 9 vBcop]. 1 

"Ecrriv Be Kal ra ptiv axtara, olov £vA ov, ra Be 
aaxtara, olov Kepaptos- eartv Se axtarov to Svva - 
ptevov Statpetadat ini nAeov fj to Btatpovv Btatpet • 
ayt^erat yap, orav ini nAeov Btatpfjrat rj to Si- 
30 atpovv Btatpet, Kal nporjyetrat fj Btatpeats* iv Se 
rrj rptfjaet ovk eartv tovto . daytara Be oaa ptrj 
Bvvavrat tovto ndayew. eartv Se ovre ptaXaKov 
ovSiv aytarov (A eyco Se tojv a/TrAco? ptaXaKcov Kal 
ptrj npos aAArjAa’ ovrco ptev yap Kal atSrjpos ear at 
387 a ptaAaKos) oilre ra aKXrjpd rravra, aAA 9 oaa ptfjre 
vypd iartv ptfjre dAaard ptfjre dpavard * rotavra S 9 
iarlv oaa Kara ptrjKos eyet rods nopovs, Kad 9 ovs 
npoa<j>ver at aAAijAots, aAAa ptrj Kara nAaros* 

TpLTjrd S 9 iarlv rcov avvearcorcov okAtjp&v rj 
5 ptaXaKcov oaa Bvvarac ptfjr e| avayKrjs nporjye tad at 
rrjs Btatpeaecos ptfjre Bpaveadat Btatpovpteva* oaa 
Be pur) vypa fj, 2 ra rotavra drpurjra. evta S 9 iarlv 
ravra Kal rptrjrd Kal ay tar a, olov (jvAov aAA 9 cos 
ini to noAv axtarov ptev Kara ro ptfjKns , rptrjrdv Se 
Kara ro nAdros' inel yap Btatpetrat eKaarov els 
10 no AAa, fj ptev ptfjKrj noAXa ro ev, aytarov ravrrj, fj 
Si nAdrr) no AAa ro ev, rptrjrov ravrrj . 

1 del. Thurot Fobes. 



Similarly some things are malleable, like binitase. 
some afe not, like stone and wood. And things are <in * 
malleable part of whose surface will yield and extend 
simultaneously under the same blow, while things 
with which this is impossible are noil-malleable. All 
malleable* things will take an impression, but not all 
things that will take an impression are malleable, 
wood for example : but, generally speaking, the two 
terms are convertible. Of things that can be squeezed 
some are malleable, some are not, wax and mud being 
malleable, wool not. 

Some things are fissile, like wood, some non-fissile, ( 13 ) Fib- 
like earthenware. Fissile are things in which division sllity 
can continue beyond the dividing agent : for a thing 
is split when it is divided to a point beyond that 
reached by the dividing agent and the division runs 
in advance of it, whereas in cutting this is not so. 
Non-fissile are things which have not this property. 

Nothing soft is fissile (I mean absolutely and not 
relatively soft, for iron can be relatively soft), nor 
are all hard things, but only things which are not 
liquid or impressible or fragmentable, that is to say, 
in which the pores along which they cohere run 
lengthwise and not crosswise. 

Cuttable are hard or soft solid bodies w T hich when (14) Out- 
divided do not necessarily split in advance of the tool unstable 
or break into fragments ; 'and everything that is 
not moist is uncuttable. Some things, like wood, 
can both be cut and split, but, generally speaking, 
things split lengthwise and cut crosswise ; for things 
are divisible into many parts, and if the parts making 
up the unit run lengthwise it is fissile, if they run 
crosswise it is cuttable. 

2 vypd, rj Bekker O.T. 



387 a 


Aa/cov. r olovtov Se yiyver at rfj € 7 raAAa£et ocra 
wanep ai aAvaecs avyKeivrai rcov acopdrov ravra 
yap em 7ToXv Svvarac eKretveaBac /cat r avvievai . 
15 ocra Se purj roiavra > i/jaBvpa, 

IhA7]rd S’ ocra rcov 7Tieard)v povipov e^et rr\v 
ttUglv, amA^ra Se ocra rj oAcos a rrleara rj prj povt- 
pov e^et rrjv rrUaiv. 

Kat rot pev Kavara ianv ra Se aKavara, olov 
£vAov pev Kavarov Kal epiov Kal oarovv, AiOos Se 
/cat icpvaraAAos aKavarov. ear iv Se Kavara ocra 
20 e^et TTopovs 8eKriKovs rrvpos Kal vyporrjra iv rots 
/car’ evdveoplav rropois aadevearepav i Tvpos. ocra 
Se fir) ex et yj laxvporipav, olov KpvaroXkos Kal ra 
crcfroSpa xAojpdy aKavara. 

Qvptara S’ iarl rcov atopdrcov ocra vyporrjra e^et 
piv y ovreo S’ *ix ei doare prj i^arpl^eiv rrvpovpevcov 
25^copts’* eanv yap dr pis yj wo Beppov KavariKov 
els aepa Kal irvevpa eKKpiais i£ vypov hiavriKYj . 
ra Se Bvpiapara 1 XP° VC P depa iKKplverai , /cat 
Ta p,ev a<f>avi^6peva £rjpd> ra Se 777 yiyverat . 
Sta<^epet S’ avrrj rj eKKpcacs, ore ovre Statm oore 
rrvevpa yiyverat . ear tv Se rrvevpa pvais avvex^jS 
so depos enl prjKos* Bvpiaais S’ iarlv yj vrro Beppov 
KavariKov kowyj e/c/c peats (jrjpov Kal vypov aBpocos * 



A thing is viscous when it is ductile as well as being (is) vis- 
liquid or soft. And this characteristic belongs to all 
bodies with interlocldng parts, whose composition is 
like that of chains ; for they admit of considerable 
extension and contraction. Bodies which have not 
this characteristic are friable. 

Compressible bodies are those which can be <i6) Coin- 
squeezed and retain the shape into which they have pressitolllty 
been squeezed : incompressible are either those 
which cannot be squeezed at all or those which 
when squeezed do not retain the shape into which 
they have been squeezed. 

Some things are combustible, some incombustible ; (17) com- 
for example, wood is combustible and wool and bone, hustibility 
while stone and ice are incombustible. All things are 
combustible which have pores which fire can pene- 
trate and which contain in their longitudinal pores 
too little moisture to overcome the fire. But things 
which have no pores or contain enough moisture to 
master the fire are incombustible, as, for example, 
ice and very green matter. 

Fumes are given off by bodies which contain 
moisture, but in such a way that it does not evaporate 
separately when they are exposed to fire. For vapour 
is a moist exhalation into air and wind, given off by 
moisture m a body when exposed to burning heat ; 
but fumes can be exhaled into the air in course of 
time, and either dry up and vanish or turn into earth, 
being a different form of exhalation which is not 
moist and 4 pes not become wind. (Wind is a con- 
tinuous current of air in a given direction.) But 
fuming is the exhalation of dry and moist together 
due to burning heat : hence it does not wet, but 

1 dviuaixara Ei : dvjjuara Fobes. 




887 a 

Stonep ov StatVet, dXXa xpcofJLaTL&L paAAov. ecrrt 
387 b S 9 rj [lev £vXc68ovs Gcoparos 6vp,LaGis kclttvos . A e'yco 
yap /cat ocrra /cat rpt^as* /cat 7rav to tolovtov iv 
ravrep * ov yap /cetrat ovo/xa kolvov, aXXa /caT* 
avaXoyiav ojjlcvs iv ravrcp navr 9 iarLv , dxjnep Kal 
’EprreSo/cATjs* (f>rjOLV 

5 ravra rplyes /cat <f>vXXa /cat olcovcov nrepd ttvkvol 

Kal XorriSeg yiyvovrai ini o*Tt/3apotcrt pbiXeaoiv. 

rj Se nlovos dv^iacns Xiyvvs, rj Se Xmapov Kvlaa. 
Sta rovro to eXatov oi>% e^ierat ovSe na^vverat, on 
dvpuarov ionv aXX 9 ov/c drpiorov vScop S’ ov 0v- 
puarov aXX 9 arpLcorov. otvos 8* o pciv yXvKvs Bvpua- 
10 rat. mcov yap, /cat ravra noizl rep iXaicp • ovVe 
yap vno ipvxovs nrjyvvrai , /caterat re. ear tv Se 

ovoptart otvos, zpyqp 8* ov/c eortv ov yap olvcx)8rjs o 
Xupios’ Sto ov pLtOvGKe i } 6 rvx<ov 8 9 olvos (puKpav 
8* eyet Bvplaoiv' Sto avurjOLv <^Aoya). 

Kavcrra Se So/cet etvat oo-a ets* ri<f>pav StaAveTat 
15 t<w Gcopidrojv. ndiGX^L Se rovro ndvra oaa rri- 
nrjyev rj vno Beppuov rj in a/x^otv, «/fvypov /cat 
BeppLov- ravra yap <j>alverai Kparovpev a vtto tov 
nvpos * rjKLGra Se tcov XlBcov rj a<j>payis s 6 /caAov- 
p,evos avdpa £ . tcov Se Kavarcov ra pkv <f)XoyiGrd 
ionv ra S 9 a^Aoytora* rovroov S 9 evia dvBpaKevra, 
20 <j>Xoyiard /xev o5v ocra <f>Xoya Svvarat napex^adar 
oaa Se aSvvara, acj)X6yiara. eon Se (j>Xoyiord oaa 

a The text and meaning of 387 a 24 f<mv yap . . . 31-32 
ypaj/xart^ct fxSXXov is uncertain. I follow Fobes’s text, with 
the substitution of dv{udfj.ara for Qv/uard in 1. 26, and take 
the argument to be as follows : Fumes are given off by bodies 
containing moisture when the moisture does not evaporate 
separately (dvfuara, Ov{judiJ,aTa> dvpiaois contrasted with 


rathev discolours things. 0 The fumes of woody 
material are smoke. And I include in this designa- 
tion bones and hair and all such things : for there 
is no common term for them but they are analogous 
and so .classified together. So Empedocles says : 
“ The same are hair and leaves and birds’ thick 
feathers and scales upon strong limbs.” h The fumes 
of fat are sooty, of oily substances steamy. The 
reason why oil does not boil or thicken is that it 
gives off fumes but does not evaporate : water, on 
the other hand, evaporates but does not fume Sweet 
wine fumes, being fat and behaving in the same way 
as oil, for cold does not solidify it and it will burn. 
And though called wine, it has not the effect of wine, 
for it does not taste like wine and does not intoxicate 
like ordinary wine. It gives off few fumes and so is 

Combustible bodies are those which dissolve into 
ash. And all bodies do this which have been solidified 
by heat or by both heat and cold, for we find them 
mastered by fire. Least affected by fire is the gem 
commonly called carbuncle. Of combustible c bodies 
some are inflammable, some are not, and some of the 
former can be carbonized. Inflammable bodies are 
those which can produce flame ; those which cannot 
are uninflammable. Bodies which are not moist but 

d T/u'sr, a Tjjui&iv : cf. the contrast between dvfuarov and arfuarov 
in b 7-8). Evaporation (arpls) is also a moist exhalation, but 
fuming differs fiom it in that evaporation takes moisture off 
and is moist? fuming takes moist and dry off together and 
does not moisten but discolours. Cf, also the moist and dry 
exhalations of Book II. ch. 4. & Diels 31 B 82. 

0 Aristotle returns to combustibility ((17) above) and con- 
siders certain forms it takes ( e.g . inflammability) and its rela- 
tion to fuming. 



387 b 

prj vypa ovra uvpiara eonv mrra oe rj eAqiov rj 
Krjpos paXXov pier aXXoov fj kcl6 9 avrd <f>Xoyiord r 
paXiora 8 9 oca Karrvov dvirjoiv. avdpaKevra 8* 
oora tcuv roiovrcov yfjs rrX eov e^et fj Karrvov. in 
25 8* evta rrjKrd ovra ov (f>Xoyiord ianv, olov*xolXk6s } 
Kal <j>Xoyiora ov rrjKrd , olov £vXov, ra S’ dp (f>co, 
olov Xtfiavooros . alnov S 9 on ra piv £vXa adpoov 
eyet ro vypov, Kal 8 1 oXov avv^xes ionv } djore 
8ta/caecr0at, 6 Se ^aA/co? Trap 9 e/caorov piv pepos, 
30 ov owe^es* Se', /cat eXarrov rj cbore ejfXoya rroifjoai * 
6 8e Xifiavcoros rfj piv ovrcos rfj 8 s e’/cetWs e^et. 
</)Xoyiord S 9 icrrlv rcov 8vpuarcov oca prj rrjKrd 
ionv Sta to paXXov elvai yrjs. ro £rjpov yap 

388 a ko ivov rep Ttvpi' rovr ovv deppov av yivrjrai ro 

£rjpov , 7 Tvp ytyver at. Sta rovro rj <f>Xo£ rrvevpa 

fj Karrvos Kaopevos eartv. 1 £vXoov piv ovv rj 6v- 
piaois Karrvos, KTjpov Se /cat Xcftavcorov Kal rcov 
roiovrcov Kal Trlrrrjs , Kal oc ra e^et rrlrrav fj roiavra, 
5 Xiyvvs, iXalov Se /cat ooa iXaicbSrj, Kvioa, Kal oa a 
rjKiara /caterat pov a, on oXiyov tjrjpov e^et, fj Se 
fterajSacrts* Sta rovrov , pteTa S 9 iripov rdy^ra* 
rovro yap ionv ro rriov, %rjpdv Xirrapov. ra piv 
oSv iKdvpicopeva [rcov vypcovf vypov paXXov, cos 
eXaiov Kal rrirra, ra Se Kaopeva £ 7 ] pov. 

1 to irjpov 1. 32 • . • ionv mterclusionem distinxit Thurot, 
habet Fobes. 

2 seclusi : del. O.T. 

fl Cf. 387 b 22. 


METE0R0L0G1CA, IV. ix 

contain fumes are inflammable. Pitch, oil and wax 
are more inflammable when mixed with other things 
than by themselves. Most inflammable of all are 
things which produce smoke. All materials of this 
sort which contain more earth than smoke can be 
carbonized. Some bodies that can be melted are 
not inflammable, like bronze, and some inflammable 
bodies will not melt, like wood, while some bodies 
melt and burn like frankincense. The reason is that 
the moisture in wood is concentrated and distributed 
evenly so that it can be burnt out, while m bronze 
it is dispei sed into each part and not continuous and 
is not sufficient m quantity to give rise to flame, 
whereas m frankincense both conditions obtain. 
Bodies which fume and do not melt because earth 
preponderates in them are inflammable. For m their 
dryness they have a factor m common with file, and 
when this dryness becomes hot, fire is produced : 
flame, therefore, is burning wind or smoke. The 
fumes, then, of wood are smoke, the fumes of wax and 
frankincense and the like, of pitch and materials 
containing pitch or similar constituents, are sooty, and 
the fumes of oil and oily substances are steamy, as 
are also those of substances which do not bum readily 
by themselves, having little dryness (by which the 
transition to fire is effected) but do burn readily with 
other things a ; for fat is a combination of dry and oily. 
And bodies which give off fumes are predominantly 
moist (e.g. oil and pitch), bodies which burn are pre- 
dominantly $ry. 





Dry and moist tn homoeomerous bodies Hoping thus 
described the properties which distinguish homoeomerous 
bodies, we must determine m what proportion dry and moist, 
i.e. earth and water, their material cause, are present m them 
(388 a 10-25). All bodies are either liquid or solid , and there 

388 a 10 Tovrois Sc rots rrad'jjfJLacrLV Kal ravrc us rats Sea - 
<j)opais ra opioiofjieprj rcov acopidrcov, coarrep eiprjrai , 
Sia (f>ep€i aXXrjXa>v Kara rrjv a<j>rjv 3 Kal ere xvpots 
Kal dapiais Kal XP C opiaaiv* Xiyto S’ opLOiopiepr) olov 
ra re pieraXXevopieva — ^aA/cov, XP VU ° V > apyvpov, 
15 Karrirepov , aiSypov, A lOov, Kal raAAa rex roiavra, 
Kal oaa e/c rovrcov yLyvera i eKKpcvojJLeva — /cat Ta 
iv rois ttyois Kal </>vrois, olov crdpKes, oerra, vevpov , 
Seppia, OTrXdyxvov, rpix^s, Ives, <f> Xefies, Sv rjSr) 
avviarrjKe ra avopioiopiepTj, olov 7Tp6crco7rov , X^P* 
mils , Kal rdXXa ra roiavra, Kal iv <f>vrois £vXov, 
20 <f>\oi6s, (fyvXXov, pi£>a, Kal oaa roiavra. irrel S e 
ravra piev vtt 9 aXXrjs alrias avviarrjKev, i£ <Lv Sc 
ravra vXrj p,ev to £v)p6v Kal vypov, ware vS cop Kal 
yrj (ravra yap Trpo^aveardrrjv e^ct rrjv Svvapuv 
eKarepov eKarepov) , 'ra Sc rroiovvra to 6epp,ov Kal 
25 ipvxpov (ravra yap avviarrjaiv Kal 7rrjyvvaiv 

a 385 a 8. 

h If we take iv <f>vrols . . . roiavra (11. 19-530) as parallel 
to the whole clause Kal ra iv rots £,4>ois Kal (jwroXs « . . TaAAa ra 
roiavra (11. 16-19) with the O.T., wood, bark, etc., are given 
as examples of homoeomerous bodies . if we take them as 
part of the clause beginning it; <5v (1. 1 8) they are examples 
of anhomoeomerous bodies. In fact, wood and bark are 


argument ( continued ) 

are various principles by which the proportion can be deter- 
mined for* liquids and solids (388 a 25 — 389 a 7). The 
proportions for homoeomerous bodies are determined and these 
bodies classified accordingly (389 a 7-23). 

These are the different characteristics which, as we The homoe- 
have said,® distinguish homoeomerous bodies from bodies 118 
each other to touch ; and they are further distin- w ^j 0 Jg°' f 
guished by taste , smell and colour. By homoeomerous earth and 
bodies I mean, for example, metallic substances (e.g. Jhe^con- 
bronze, gold, silver, tin, iron, stone and similar ma- tain i 
tenals and their by-products) and animal and vege- 
table tissues (e.g. flesh, bone, sinew, skm, intestine, 
h air, fibre, veins) from which in turn the anhomoeomer- 
ous bodies, face, hand, foot and the like, are composed ; 
in plants, examples are wood, bark, leaf, root and the 
like. 6 The non-homoeomerous c bodies owe their 
constitution to another cause ; the material cause of 
the homoeomerous bodies which make them up is 
dry and moist, that is, water and earth, which display 
most clearly these two characteristics ; their efficient 
cause is heat and cold, which produce concrete 

clearly homoeomerous, leaf and root pretty clearly not 
homoeomeious (De An . 412 b 2-3 : though at 389 a 13 below 
<f>vXXa are listed among homoeomerous substances). I suggest 
that Aristotle is writing loosely and that the phrase is added 
on to the end of the sentence to give examples from plants 
parallel to those given for animals, and that examples of both 
kinds of substance are therefore included. 

0 ravra (1. 20) must refer to the last-named , i.e. anhomoe- 
omerous bodies (A lex. 219. 20), and not to the homoeomerous 
(O.T., Ideler) ; 4( &v . . . vXy (1 21), if expanded, would be 
GKeivcov Be, e£ wv ravra aweary Kev, vXy (Alex. 219. 21-22). 



388 a 

e/cetV ojv), Xaficoptev rcov optotoptepatv rrola yrjs et8r) 


v Ecm 8 rj tcov ocoptarcov rcov dehrjpttovpyrjpbivcov 
ra ptev vypa , ra 8e ptaXaKa, ra Se oKXrjpa * rovrcov 
Se orrocra OKXrjpa rj ptaXaKa (ort) 1 nrji*et ear tv, 
etprjrat nporepov . 

30 Tcov p-ev ovv vypcov ooa ptev i^arptt^erat, vSaros , 
ooa Se ptrj, rj yrjs rj Koivd yrjs /cat vSaros, otov ydXa, 
r) yrjs Kat aepos, otov gvAov, rj voaros Kat a epos’, 
otov eXatov. /cat ooa ptev vno depptov nayoverat, 
Kotvd ( dnoprjoete S’ dv rts nepl otvov rcov vypcov * 
388 b rovro yap Kat i£arptto9etr) dv, Kat TTayvverat atone p 
o veos * atrtov o ort ovre ev evt etoet Aeyerat o otvos, 
Kat ort aXXos aXXa>s * o yap i/e'o? ptaXXov yrjs rj 6 
naXatos * Sto /cat nayoverat rep depptq) ptaXtora /cat 
5 rrrjyvvr at rjrrov vrro rov ipvxpov * e^et yap /cat 
depptov noXv /cat y-rj?, doonep 6 iv 9 Ap/ca8ta ovreos 
ano£rjpatverat vnep rov Kanvov iv rots aoKots wore 
£voptevos ntveodar el 8rj anas IXvv e^et* ovreos 
iicarepov ior tv, rj yrjs rj vSaros, cos ravrrjs e^et 
nXrjdos)' ooa Se vno \jjvypov naxvverat, yrjs * ooa 
10 S 9 vn aptc/iotv, Kotvd nXetovcov, otov eXatov /cat pteXt 
Kat 6 yXvKvs otvos . 

T cov Se ovveordoraov ooa ptev nenrjyev vno ifsvxpov, 
vSaros, otov KpvoraXXos, X L( ^ V » X^ a £ a > 'ndyyr\' 
ooa S 9 vno depptov, yrjs, otov Kepaaos, rvpos, 
1 ort ci. O.T. 2 ti4\i ci. Vicomercatus. 

a 383 a 25. 

b Idelei accepts Vicomercato’s conjecture “ honey.” 
c Of. 380 b 32, 384 a 5, 387 b 9. 



homoeomerous bodies out of water and earth. Let 
us therefore consider which of the homoeomerous 
bodies are composed of earth, which of water, and 
which of both 

Bodies which are finished products are either Bodies 
liquid or 'soft or hard : and those which are soft or classifled as 
hard are, as has been explained, the result of solidi- 

Liquids which evaporate are made of water ; those (l) Liquid 
which do not are made of earth or aie a mixture of 
earth and water, like milk, or of earth and air, like 
wood, 6 or of water and ail, like oil. Liquids whose 
density heat increases are a mixture. (Among the 
liquids, wine c presents a difficulty, for it evaporates 
and also thickens, as new wine does. The reason is 
that there is more than one kind of liquid called wine 
and that different kinds behave differently. For new 
w r ine contains more earth than old, and so thickens 
most under the influence of heat, but solidifies less 
under the influence of cold ; for it contains con- 
siderable quantities of heat and earth, as m Arcadia 
where the smoke dries it up in the skins to such an 
extent that it must be scraped off before it is drunk. 

If, then, all wine has some sediment, whether earth or 
water predominates m it will depend on the amount 
of sediment present ) Liquids whose density cold 
increases are earthy : bodies whose density is in- 
creased both by heat and cold are compounded of 
more than one element, like oil and honey and sweet 

(a) Solids which solidify as a result of cold are com- (2) Solid 
posed of water, for example, ice, snow, hail and frost ; 

( b ) those which solidify as a result of heat are com- 
posed of earth, for example, earthenware, cheese, 



vlrpov, aX es* oaa S’ vt t dp <j>olv ( rotavra S ? iarlv 
oaa ipv^et* ravra 8 9 iarlv oaa ap(f>otv areprjoet, 
15 /cat Beppov Kal vypov avve^tovros rep Beppcp m ol 
pev yap aXes vypov povov areprjaet rrrjyvvvrat , /cat 
oaa elXiKpivrj yrjs , o Se KpvaraXkos BeppdG povov), 
ravra S’ ap<f>oiv. St o /cat i5tt’ ap<f>olv /cat et^ev 
ap<j> a>. oacov ptev o5v aTrav i^tKpaaBrj, olov /cc- 
papos r\ rjXeKrpov (/cat yap to rjXeKrpov, Kal oaa 
20 Aeyerat cos Sa/cpua, i/jv£et iarlv, olov apvpva, 
Xtfiavcoros, Koppf Kal to rjXeKrpov Se rovrov rov 
yevovs eotKev, Kal rrrjyvvr at' iprreptetXr]ppiva yovv 
lq>a iv avrep (f>alverat • wo Se too rrorapov to 
Beppov itjidv toorrep rov eijjopevov peXtros, orav 
els ilStop acf)eBfj, iljarpl^et to vypov), ravra rravra 
25 y^s. /cat to, ptev arrjKra Kal dpaXaKra, olov to 
rjXeKrpov /cat At0ot eVtot, (Zaire p ol rrcopot ol iv rots 
07T7]XaloLS‘ Kal yap ovrot opolcos ylyvovr at rovrots, 
Kal oi>x <Z$ vi to rrvpos aAA’ cos* viro rov xjjvxpov 
Ste^tovros rov Beppov avveijipxerat to vypov vitq 
rov il; avrov e^tovros Qeppov • iv Se rots irepots 
30 imo rov egcvBev rrvpos , oaa Se prj oXa, yrjs pev 
ian pdXXov, paXaKrd Si, olov alSrjpos Kal Kepas. 
(Xtfiavcorol Se /cat Ta rotavra irapa7rXr]alo)s rots 
tjvXots dr pl^e t.) 1 hr el ovv rrjKra ye Bereov /cat oaa 
rrjKerat vrro rrvpos > ravr iarlv vSarcoSearepa, evta 
389 a Se /cat Kotva, olov KYjpos * oaa Se irro oSaTos, ravra 

1 XifiavcoTol . . . arfi t£ec fortasse post ko/ijuc 1. 20 supra 



soda, salt ; (c) those which solidify as a result of both * 
are composed of both and so are solidified by both 
causes and contain both constituents. (Into this last 
category fall things solidified by cooling, that is by 
deprivation both of heat and moisture, the moisture 
escaping with the heat : for salt and things composed 
purely of earth solidify when deprived of moisture 
only, while ice, on the other hand, does so when 
deprived of heat only) ( d ) Solids from which all 
moisture has been evaporated, as e.g. earthenware 
or amber, are composed of earth. (For both amber 
and substances called tears are formed by cooling, 
for example myrrh, frankincense and gum : and 
amber appears to belong to this class, as the insects 
trapped in it show that it has formed by solidification. 
The heat expelled by the cold of the river evaporates 
the moisture in it, as it does in boiled honey when it 
is dropped into water.) And some of these solids 
cannot be melted or softened, like amber and some 
kinds of stone, for example stalactites in caves ; for 
these too are formed in the same way, being solidified 
not by fire but because their heat is driven out by 
cold and their moisture accompanies the heat when 
it retires In the others b the cause is external fire. 
( e ) Solids from which the moisture has not wholly 
evaporated contain a preponderance of earth but can 
be softened by heat like iron and horn. (Frankin- 
cense and similar bodies give off vapour rather as 
wood does.) (f) Finally, since things that are melted 
by fire must%be included in the class of things that 
melt, they will in general be composed largely of 
water, though some, like wax, will be composed of 
both water and earth on the other hand, things that 

a Of. 383 a 13. 6 i.e. that can be melted, e.g. salt. 



8e yfjs' ocra Se ptr} 8 ’ v<j > 5 eripov, ravra 77 r yrjs fj 
dpb(f)olv . 

E t ovv drravra ptev rj vypd 7} rT€7rr)yora 3 tovtqjv 
he rd iv rots elprjpLevois rradeotv, /cat qvk eanv 
5 pera^Vy arravr av €lt) etprjpieva ots Siayvcvaopieda 
rrorepov yrjs 77 v8 arcs rj rrXetovcov koivov, /cat 
7 TOrepOV VTTO TTVpOS GVV€Grr]K€V rj ijjvxpov rj apL(f)OLV . 

Xpi/aos* ptkv 8rj /cat a pyvpos /cat ^aA/cos /cat 
Karrtrepos /cat ptoAvfiSos /cat vaXos /cat At 0 ot rroXXol 
avcovvptot v8aros’ rravra yap rr\Kerat ravra deppttp, 
10 en otvot eVtot /cat oSpov /cat o£o S’ /cat Kovta /cat opos 
/cat tx<ip vharos’ rravra yap rrrjyvvrac ifjvypcp. 
GiSiqpos Se /cat /cepas' /cat oVi/£ /cat oerrow /cat 
vevpov /cat £vAov /cat rplyes real <f>vAAa /cat <^>Aotos 
y^S* ptaAAov* ert rjXeKrpoVy aptt/pva, Xl^avoSt kcli 
15 rravra rd SaKpva XeyopL€va 3 /cat nedpos, /cat ot 
KaprroLy otov rd x € $porrd 3 /cat ottos' (ra rocavra yap 
rd fikv G<f)68pa 3 rd Se rjrrov ptev rovrcov, optcos Se 
y^S“ ra ptev yap ptaAa/CTa, ra Se dvpttara /cat ifjv£ei 
yeyevrjpteva) * ert virpov, a Acs, AiOojv yevr], og a ptTjre 
*/a/£et ptTfre rrjKra . a!pa Se /cat yoi^ /cotva y^s* /cat 
20 vharos /cat a epos', to ptkv tx ov ufya tvas ptaAAov 
yrjs (8 to ipvx^ rrrjyvvrat /cat zSyptp nj/cerat), rd Se 
ptrj eyovra tvas v8a ros (Sto /cat ou rrrjyvvrat ) . yovT? 
Se rrr\yvvrai t[nj^€L i£tovros rov vypov puera rov 



are melted by water will be composed of earth, and 
things melted by neither of earth or both. 

If, then, all things are either liquid or solid, and 
if the things qualified by the characteristics we have 
described are covered by this alternative, and there 
is no intermediate possibility, it follows that we have 
enumerated all the criteria whereby we can dis- 
tinguish whether a thing is composed of earth or of 
water or of more than one element, and whether it 
is formed by fire, by cold or by both. 

The following are therefore composed of water : The piopoj- 
gold, silver, bronze, tin, lead, glass and many lands homoeomer- 
of stone which have no name, for all of these are ous bodies^ 
melted by heat ; in addition, some wines, mine, e erimne 
vinegar, lye, whey and serum, for all of these are 
solidified by cold. Earth preponderates m the 
following : iron, horn, nail, bone, sinew, wood, hair, 
leaves and bark, besides amber, myrrh, frankincense, 
the drop-like substances, stalactites, and produce 
such as vegetables and corn (in these the proportion 
of earth varies but all are earthy, for some can be 
softened by fire, others give off fumes and are pro- 
duced by cooling) ; in addition there are soda, salt, 
and those kinds of stone that are neither formed by 
cooling nor able to be melted. Blood and semen, on 
the other hand, are composed of earth, water and air, 
blood which contains fibres having a preponderance 
of earth (and so being solidified by cooling and melted 
by liquid), blood which contains no fibres having 
a preponderance of water (and so not solidifying) ; 
semen is solidified by cooling when its moisture leaves 
it at the same time as its heat. 





Hot and cold m solids and liquids , (1) Bodies composed of 
water are , generally speaking , cold, (2) bodies composed of 
earth hot , though bodies composed of either alone tend to be 
cold, (3) Bodies composed of more than one element tend to 

389 a 24 IIo?a §€ 6eppa fj ipvypa to ov TTemqyorajv fj rcov 
25 vypcov, €K rcov elprjpivoov 8ei fierahtcoKeiv, oaa 
fji€V oSv vSaros, cos im to ttoXv ifjvypa, iav pfj 
dXXorplav eyrj Oepporrjra, olov Kovla, ovpov, olvos • 
oaa 8e yfjs, cos* em to ttoXv Oepp a 8ia rrjv tov 
depfjiov Srjfjuovpylav , olov rcravos Kal reef) pa. 

Aet 8e XafieTv rrjv vXrjv ipvyporrjrd rev a etvar 
so irrel yap to £rjpov Kal to vypov vXrj (ravra yap 
TraOrjTiKa), tovtcov 8i acopara pdXiara yrj Kal 
v8cop ear tv (ravra yap i/jvyporvjn doptarat), SrjXov 
389 b on rravra rd ado para oaa eKaripov drrXcos tov 
arotyetov, ijjvypa paXXov ianv } iav pfj eyrj aAAo- 
rpLav depporrjra, olov to £iov liScop fj to 8ta ri<f)pas 
rjdrjpivov Kal yap tovto eyet rrjv €K rrjs reef) pas 
depporrjra • iv airaai yap ian depporrjs, fj rrXeicov 
5 fj iXarrcov, rots rreirv poo pivots' 8 to Kal iv rots 
aarrpoLS £a)a iyylyverar eve an yap depporrjs fj 
<j>0€Lpaaa rfjv eKaarov otKetav depporrjra. 

"Oaa 8e kolv a, eyei depporrjra' avvearrjKe yap 
ra irXeiara vtto depporrjros rreijsdarjs . evta 8e 
S 66 


argument ( continued ) 

be hot , though those that contain a 'predominance of water 
tend to be cold . 

Note. — Ch. 11 is complementary to ch. 10 ; ch. 10 deals 
with the proportions of dry and moist %n homoeomerous 
bodies , ch. 11 with the proportions of hot and cold . 

We must proceed to examine on the basis of what 
has been said which solids and which liquids are hot 
or cold. (1) Those composed of water are, generally- 
speaking, cold, unless they have some external source 
of heat (as have lye, urine and wine) ; (2) those com- 
posed of earth are generally hot, having been manu- 
factured by heat, like lime and ash. 

It must be understood that cold is in a sense the 
material factor. For as dry and moist are matter 
(being passive), and find their principal embodiments 
in earth and water which have cold as a defining 
characteristic, it is clear that all bodies that are made 
of either element alone tend to be cold unless they 
have an external source of heat like boiling water or 
water strained through ash, which contains the heat 
from the ash ; for everything that has been burned 
contains heat to a greater or lesser degree. The 
presence of heat is the reason why worms are gener- 
ated in rotten material, the presence, that is, of the v 
heat which has destroyed the material's own natural 
heat. a 

(3) Things composed of more than one element 
contain heat, having most of them been formed by 
concoction by heat, though some are the products 
Cf. 379 b 6, ch. 1, note a on p 296. 



339 b 

crrjifteLS etatV, otov ra avvrrjypLara lm doare eyovra 
10 jttev rrjv <f>vcw Oeppid /cat alpha /cat yovrj /cat pivz Ao? 
/cat 07T0S* /cat rravra ra roiavra , <f>6€ipopeva Se /cat 
i^iarapLeva rfjs cjyvaecos ovKerr AetVerat yap rj 
vXr), yrj oficra rj vBcop* Sto apufiorepa So/cet rtatv, 
/cat ot phev xfsvxpa ot Se Oeppia ravra <f>aotv efv at, 
opcbvres, orav piiv iv rfj dj>vaei coaiv, deppta, orav 
15 Se vcopiodajcnv, TrrjyvvpLeva. e^et jttev ofiv ovrtos, 
opbcos oe, a)orr<zp ouopiarai, ev ol$ p,ev rj vAr) voaros 
to rrXelarov, i/jvypd (dvrt/cetrat yap phdXiara rovro 
rep TTVpi), iv otg Se yrjs rj dipos , deppborepa. 

'Lypufiaivet Se tt ore ravra yiyveoOai ifjvxporara 
/cat Oepphorara dXXorpLa deppLorrjri' ocra yap p*d- 
20 Atora rriirriye /cat crrepecorepa ianv , ravra i/Jvxpd 
re puaXiara, idv crreprjdf) 6epp,6rr)TOS 3 /cat /caet 
phdXiara y idv Trvpoodfj, otov vSc op Karrvov /cat o XWos 
vSaros /catet phdXXov. 

1 avvrrjyfj,ara $8 9JI $3 ret Ap : avvTt]Krd Fobes : cf. L&S 9 , S.V. 
a Cf. De Gen . An. i. 18, 724 b 21 ff. 



The next step is to deal in detail with the homoeomerous 
bodies , which we are now m a position to classify according 
to their material constituents , and which ar$ in their turn 
the material of anhomoeomerous bodies (389 b 23-28) In 
all cases the formal element is even more important than the 
material, though the more elementary the body the less obvious 
this is. Even the elements have their final cause, which is 
still more obvious m the parts of the body , each of which has 


of decay like the waste products a of the body. So 
as long as blood, semen, marrow, rennet and the like 
keep their proper nature they are warm, but once they 
perish and lose their proper nature they lose their 
warmth,^ for all that is left is their material factors, 
earth and water. So there are two views about them, 
and some regard them as cold, some as hot, seeing 
that as long as they retain their nature they aie hot, 
but when they depart from it they solidify . b This 
is true. Nevertheless, as we have laid down, things in 
which the material factor is mainly water are cold 
(for water is the extreme opposite of fire), things in 
which it is mainly earth or air contain more heat. 

It sometimes happens that bodies which are ex- 
cessively cold become excessively hot under the 
influence of external heat — for the most solid and 
rigid bodies are also the coldest if deprived of heat, 
but they give the most heat after exposure to fire : 
thus water gives more heat than smoke and stone 
than water. 

* Of 389 a 20-21. 


argument (continued) 

its specific function . So we may lay it down m general that 
things are what they are because of their ability to perform 
some function And though heat and cold and their effects 
may be sufficient to account for the production of homoe- 
omerous substances , it is clear that they are not sufficient to 
account for bodies made from those substances ; for in their 
production human craftsmanship or nature is also a factor 
(389 b 28 — 390 b 14). In dealing with the homoeomerous 



bodies we should therefore , if possible , look for formal , 
material and efficient causes . TEe caw £Acw proceed to an - 

389 b 23 9 E7ret Se nepl rovroov Sicbpiorai, Kad 9 eKaarov 
Xeyeopev rl aap£ rj oarovv rj rcov aXXcov rcqv opoc o- 
25 pepcov exopev yap Sv rj rcov opoiopepeov envois 
avvearrjKev , ra yevy] avrcbv, rlvos eKaarov yevovs , 
Sta rrjs yeveaecos' etc pev yap rcov GTOiyeluyv *ra 
opotopeprj, €K Se rovroov cog vXrjs ra oXa epya 
rrjs <j>vaeeos. 

"EcrTtv S’ anavra eos pev i£ vXrjs Ik rcov elprj- 
pevcov 3 cos Se Kar 9 ovatav rep Xoyep . del 8e pdXXov 
30 8 rjXov ini rcov vorepeov ical oXeos oaa otov opyava 
Kal eveKa rov . pdXXov yap SrjXov on 6 veKpos 
avdpeorros opeovvpcos . ovreo rolvvv Kal reXev- 
390 a rr\aavros opeovvpcos, Kaddrrep Kal avXol Xldivoi 
XexOetrjaav (av} 1, otov yap Kal ravra opyava arra 
eoiKev elv at. fjrrov S’ ini aapKos Kal oarov ra 
roiavra SrjXa. en 8’ ini nvpos Kal vSaros fjrrow 
ro yap ov eveKa rjKiara ivravda SrjXov, onov 8 rj 
5 nXelarov rfjs vXrjs' eoanep yap el Kal ra eayara 
Xr)<f>9elr), rj pev vXrj oiiSev dXXo nap 9 a vrrjv, rj S’ 
ovala ovSev aXXo fj Xoyos , ra Se pera£v avaXoyov 
rco iyyvs etvai eKaarov , inel Kal rovroov onovv 
ionv eveKa rov , Kal ov navreos e^ov vScop rj nvp, 
eoanep ov Se adp£ ovSe onXayyyov . rovroov S 9 en 
10 pdXXov npoaeonov Kal X € ^P m dnavra 8' iarlv cope- 
apeva rep epyep * ra pev yap Svva peva noielv ro av- 
reov epyov aXrjdeos ionv eKaarov y otov d(j>6aXpos 
' 1 av suppl. Thm ot O.T. 



homoeomerous bodies and, finally, to things made up of them 
(390 b 14-22). 

Having dealt with these matters, let us proceed to 
give separate accounts of flesh and bone and the other 
homoeomerous bodies. We can tell from their 
generation what is the constitution of the homoeo- 
merous bodies, what are the classes into which they 
fa-11 and to which class each belongs ; for the homoeo- 
merous bodies are composed of the elements, and 
serve in turn as material for all the works of nature. 

But while the material of all the homoeomerous 
bodies is the elements we have mentioned, their 
essential reality is comprised in their formal defini- 
tion. This is always clearer in the higher products 
of nature and, generally speaking, in things which 
are instrumental and serve a particular end. Thus 
it is only too clear that a corpse is a man in name only 
So also the hand of a dead man is a hand in name only, 
just as a sculptured flute might still be called a flute, 
for it also is an instrument of a kind. The distinction 
is less clear in the case of flesh and bone, and less 
clear again in the case of fire and water. For the 
final cause is least obvious where matter predominates. 
For just as, to take the two extremes, matter is 
simply matter, essential reality is simply formal 
definition, so things intermediate are related to these 
two extremes according to their proximity to each ; 
for each of them has some final cause, and is not just 
water or fire, nor just flesh and intestines. And the 
same is evSn truer of face and hand. All these things, 
in fact, are determined by their function, and the true 
being of each consists in its ability to perform its par- 
ticular function, of the eye, for instance, in its ability 

37 1 


390 a> 

et 6 pa, to 8e jjlt] 8vvapLevov opLtovvpLcvs, otov 6 
Tedvews rj 6 Xt6ivos m ov8e yap Trpicov 6 £vX ivos, 
aAA rj cos* etKcvv. ovrco roivvv Kai aa /)£• aAAa 
15 to epyov avrrjg rjrrov SrjXov fj to rrjs yXcoTTrjs . 
o/xotco? 8e /cat rrvp' aAA 9 ert 'tjttov tacos 8ifXov </>v- 
olkoos ?} to rrjs crapKos epyov. optoltos 8e Kai tol 
ev tols (f>VTol$ Kai tol aiftvxa, otov %aA/cos: /cat 
apyvpos’ TravTa yap 8vvdpLet tlvl euTtv rj tov rroieiv 
rj tov rraoyeW) doarrep oap£ Kai vevpov aAA 9 ot 
20 Aoyot a vtcov ovk aK pi pels. &OTe rroTe yrrapyet Kai 
7 TOTe oil, ov pa8tov 8u8etv, av ptrj a<f>o8pa e£tTr)Xov 
fj Kai Ta ox^/xaTa ptov a fj Xotrrd, otov Kai Ta tcov 
rraXaiovpbevcov veKpcov ocoptaTa e^atyvrjs T€<f>pa yt~ 
yve Tat ev rats drjKa ts m /cat Kaprrol ptovov to) crxy~ 
390 b pbaTL, Trj S 9 aladrjaet 1 ov <f>aivovTat, TraXaiovpLevot 
acfioSpa* Kai Ta €K tov yaXaKTOS TrrjyvvpLeva. 

Ta ptev odv TOiavTa pLopia deppLOTrjTt Kai if/vxpd- 
TrjTt Kai Tats vtto totjtojv Ktvrjaeatv evSex^rai yl- 
yveoQat, rrrjyvvpLev a tw deppLco Kai to> ifsvxpq*' 
5 Xeyco 8 9 oaa opLoiopteprj, otov adpKa , octovv, Tplxas, 
vevpov, Kai oaa TOtauTa* rrdvTa yap Stac^epet Tats 
rrpoTepov elprjpLevats 8taf>opaZ$, Tacre t, eXtfei, 6pav - 
oe t, oKXrjpOTrjTL, ptaXaKOTrjTt Kai tols aXXois tois 
tolovtois' TavTa 8e vtto depptov Kai ipvxpov Kai tcov 
10 Kivrpeaw ytyveTat pLecyvvpLevov. Ta S 9 €/c tovtojv 
ovveoTCOTa ov8evl av Irt 8o£eiev tol dvopLOiopeprj, 
otov Ke<j>aXr) t) X € ' l P V ^ovs 9 aAA 9 ooarrep Kai tov 
XoXkov ptev ^ dpyvpov yeveadai atTta if/vxpoTrjs Kai 

1 rfj 8* aXaQrjoei SQl 2B : Kara rrjv S’ at odrjcnv ci. Thurot : r rjv 8* 
alodr\oiv Fobes. 



to see.; while if it cannot perform its function it is 
that thing in name only, like a dead man or a stone 
figure of a man. Nor is a wooden saw, properly 
speaking, a saw but merely a representation of one. 
This is a]l equally true of flesh, but its function is less 
obvious than that of,eg , the tongue ; it is true of 
fire, but its natural function is even less obvious than 
.that of flesh. It is equally true of plants and inorganic 
bodies like bronze and silver, for they are all what 
they are because of their ability to perform some 
active or passive function, like flesh and smew, but 
their precise formal definitions are not apparent, and 
so it is difficult to perceive when they are operative 
and when they are not, unless the particular body 
is very decayed and retains few of its properties 
but its outward appearance. For example, ancient 
corpses sometimes suddenly turn to dust in their 
tombs, and some fruits when they get very old retain 
only their appearance and not their other sensible 
qualities, as do also solids formed from milk. 

Heat and cold and the motions set up by them are 
therefore, since solidification is due to heat and cold, 
sufficient to produce all parts of this sort,® that is to 
say, all homoeomerous parts like flesh, bone, hair, 
smew and the like : for these are all distinguished 
by the differentia we have already described (tension, 
ductility, fragmentability, hardness, softness and the 
rest) which are produced by heat and cold and the 
combination of their motions. But no one would 
suppose that this was the case with the anhomoeo- 
merous bodies which they m turn compose (for 
example, head, hand or foot), for though cold and 
heat and their motion will account for the production 

a Cf. Introduction, pp. xv-xvi. 



390 b \ 

depptorrjs /cat Kivrjcris, rov Se irplova fj <f>tdXr)v fj 

KLpCOTOV OVK€TL, dX A’ ivTCLvda pt€V reyv^i €K€t 8e 

Averts f) dXXr) ns atria 

15 El ofiv eyoptev T w°s yevovs eKaarov rcov opto to - 
ptepcov, XrjTrreov /ca0’ eKaarov rt ianv , otoV rt alpta 
fj adp£ r) arrippt a /cat rcov aXXcov e/caorov ovrco 
yap ta\ U€v eKaorov Sta rt /cat rt ianv, iav rj rr)v 
vXrjv fj rov Xoyov eya iptev, ptaXtara S’ orav aptdpto 
rfjs T€ yeviaetos /cat <f>6opas, /cat ttoOgv fj dpyy) rfjs 
20 Ktvtfaecos. S'rjXcodivrcov Se rovrcov optotoos ra av- 
optotopteprj decoprjriov, /cat riXos ra €/c rovrcov 
avvearcora, otov dvdpcorrov, <f>vrov , /cat TaAAa ra 
rotavra . 

0 C/. Be Gen . et Corr. 11. 9 , Be Part. An. 11. X. 



of bronze or silver, they will not account for the pro- 
duction of a saw or a cup or a box. Here human 
craftsmanship is the cause, while m other cases it 
is nature or some other cause. 

Knowing, therefore, into which class each of the 
homoeoifterous bodies fall, we should proceed to 
describe each of them, giving the definition of blood, 
flesh, semen and all the rest. For we know the cause 
and nature of a thing when we understand either the 
material or formal factor in its generation and de- 
struction, or best of all if we know both, and also its 
efficient cause. When we have thus explained the 
homoeomerous bodies we must similarly examine 
the anhomoeomerous, and finally the bodies composed 
from them, such as men, plants and the like. a 



Ach’aea, 45 , 1207, 019 
Achelous Rivei, 99, U5 
Active and passive factors, 
291-297, 311 if., 317, 339, 

Aedopsus, 907 
Aegean Sea, 199 
Aegon Rivei, 99 
Aegospotanu, 55 
Aeschylus, 41, 45 
Aesop, 143, 115 
Aether, 13, 237 
Aethiopia, 87, 183 
Aethiopian Mts., 97 
Air, 7, 11, 15, 20, 21, 25, 
31, 33, 37, 51, 69, 131, 

Ammon, 119 

Anaxagoras, 39, 59, 81, 85, 
125, 147, 199, 227 
Anaximander, 89, 124 
Anaximenes, 124, 129, 199, 

Animal tissues, 339, 359 
Antiphon, 125 

Aparctias, 189, 193, 195, 197 
Apeliotes, 189, 199 
Arabia, 87 * 

Aral Sea, 127 
Araxes, 95 
Arcadia, 101 

Argestes, 191, 193, J95, 197 
Argos, 113 
Aikyman Mis., 97 
Asia, 95 
A stems, 47 

Auroia boi calls, 34 ff. 

Baetius River, 95 
Bcai (constellation), 97, 181 
Bud winds, 179 
Boiling, 305 
Boieae, 171, 189 
Bosphoius, 119, 243 
Bi caking, 317 

Caecias, 191, 10 3, 195, 197 
Canopus, ill 
Caspian Sea, 127 
Caucasus Mts., 95, 97, 101 
Causes efficient, 9, 69, 315, 
359, 373-375; final, 299, 
307,371-373; for nial, 299, 
315, 371, 373; material, 
9, 293, 359, 367, 371 
Celestial region, 9, 13, 19, 21, 
25, 171 
Chaonia, 161 
Chaiybdis, 145 
Choaspes River, 95 
Chremetes River, 99 
Ciicle, ever-visible, 179, 191 

1 The references are to pages of tins edition. 



Cleidemus, 22 9 
Climatic changes, 107 ff. 
Cloud, 17 ff , 27 , 71, 223 
Cold, 33, 71, 77, 83, 165, 291- 
297, 317, 339, 359, 367 
Combustibility, 353, 355 
Comets, 38 ff., 51 ff. 
Compressibility, 353 
Concoction, 299 
Condensation, 21, 33, 35, 37, 
71, 73, 93, 223, 224, 247, 
253, 255, 285 
Coraxi, 101 
Corinth, 57 

Crown (constellation), 181 

Cuttability, 351 

Cycle of knowledge, 13 

Dareius, 117 
Dead Sea, 159 
Decay, 293-297 
Deeps of Pontus, 97, 101 
Deluges, periodic, 113, 115 
Democritus, 39, 47, 59, 125, 
143, 199, 201 
Destruction, 293-295 
Deucalion, 115 
Dew, 73-75 
Diagram, use of, 67 
Digestion, 137, 149, 299, 301, 

Diogenes of Apollonia, 124, 

Dodona, 115 

Dog (constellation), 47, 177 
Dolphin (constellation), 63 
Drizzle, 71 
Drought, 167 

Dry, 291-297, 311 ff., 317, 
339, 359, 367 
Drying, 317 
Ductility, 349 

Earth, 7, 133, 333, 319 ff., 359, 
365, 367 

Earth . habitable zones of, 
179 , noitherly parts high, 
129 , size of, 13, 61, 133 
Earthquakes, 199 ff., 205 ff. ; 
and eclipses, 215 ; and 
islands, 221 ; and tidal 
waves, 219; and water, 

Egypt, 111 

S tians, 45, 47, 117 

ents, 7, 9, 131, 291, 371 
Empedocles, 125, 149, 227, 
313, 355 

Encroachment of sea, 109, 
113, 119 
Ephesus, 239 
Erytheia, 161 

Etesian wnnds, 175, 177, 179, 

Euboea, 207 
Euclees, 45 
Euripus, 207 
Euronotoi, 191 
Europe, 97 

Eurus, 191, 193, 195, 197 
Euxme, 97, 129 
Evaporation, 69, 145, 155, 
165 ; of wine, 157 
Exhalation, 21, 26, 29, 33, 35, 
55, 63, 69, 71, 133, 151, 
221, 223, 233, 287, 353 

Fifth element, 13, 19 
Fire, 7, 15, 21, 31, 51, 63, 
131, 295 - 

Firewind, 237 
Fissility, 351 
Flame, 31, 135 
Flexibility, 345 


“ Fossiles,” 287 
Fragmentation, 347 
Fresh watei, 135 
Friability, 353 
Frost, 73, 75 
Fumes, 353. 355 

Generation, 293-295 
Geography, Ai istotle’s, 95 ff., 
102 ff. 

GOats,” 29, 33 
Great comet, 45, 55 

Hail, 77 ff. 

Halo, 241, 217, 251 ; shape 
of, 249 

Hardness, 313 
Hebrus River, 99 
Hellespont, 207 
Hellespontias, 197 
Hephaestus, 225 
Heracleia, 211 
Heracleitus, 124, 133, 135 
Heracles, 161 ; pillars of, 97, 
129, 183 
Hesiod, 123 
Hestia, 225 

Hiera (Aeolian Islands), 211 
Hippocrates of Chios, 41, 45, 
53, 89 
Homer, 111 

Homoeomerous bodies, 339, 
359, 371-375 

Hot (heat), 23, 71, 83, 291- 
297, 299, 317, 339, 359, 
367, 373 

Hurricane, 233, 235 
Hyrcanian SeA, 127 

Impressibility, 347 
Inachus River, 99 
Inconcoction, 301 

India, 183 
Indus River, 95 
Internal heat (of the body), 
1 37 295 

Iron, 287, 323, 343, 351 
Istrus River, 97, 141 
Italy, 211 

J upiter (planet), 47 

Libya, 97, 119, 155, 185 
Lightning, 223 if. 

Liguria, 101, 221 
Lipara, 211 

Lips, 191, 193, 195, 197 
Liquefaction, 319-325, 333- 

Liquids, 361 
Lyncus, 163 

Maeotis Lake, 95, 97, 119, 
129, 183 

Malleability, 351 
Maps, 181 ; Aristotle’s, 102 
Mediterranean Sea, 129 
Melting, 341 
Memphis, 111 
Mercury (planet), 41 
Meses, 191, 193, 197 
Metals, 287, 339, 359 
Meteoric phenomena, 39 ff. 
Meteorology, 5 
Milky Way, 57 ff., 63 ff. 
Millstones, 323 
Mist, 71 

Mock suns, 243, 283 
Moist, 291-297, 311 ff., 317, 
339, 359, 367 
Mountains, 93, 95 
Mud, beyond Pillars of 
Heracles, 129 
Mycenae, 113 



Natural and human activity 
parallel, 307, 309, 375 
Natuial place, 137 
Nessos Rivei, 99 
Nicomachus, 57 
Nile River, 99, 111, 119,141 
Notoi, 171, 191 
Nyse&, 99 

Ocean, river of, 7 1 
Olive oil, 307, 331 
Olympias, 19 J 

Orion (constellation), 47, 175 

Parnassus (Paropami&us), 95 
Peloponnese, 101 
Phaethon, 59 
Phasis, 97 

Phlegraean plain, 221 
Phoenicians, 191, 193 
Pindus Mts., 99 
Planets, 43 
Plasticity, 347 
Plato’s Phaedo , 139 
Pontus, 87, 129, 211 
Pores, 309, 341, 345, 347, 
349, 351 
Pyrene, 97 

Pyrimachus stone, 323 
Pythagoreans, 41, 59 

Qualities of bodies, listed, 

Rain, 71, 77, 167, 169 
Rainbow, 241, 253 ff. ; at 
night, 245 ; colours of, 
243, 255, 259 IF. ; primary 
and secondary, 261, 265 ; 
shape of, 241, 269 IF. 
Rawness, 303 
Red Sea, 117, 127 

Reflection, 41, bl, 243, 251, 
253 IF., 283, 285 
Rhipae Mts , 97 
Rhodope, Mt., 99 
Rhone River, 101 
Ripening, 301 
Rivei s, 91 ff. 

Roasting, 309 
Rods, 243, 283 

Salt water, density of, 159 
Saidinian sea, 129 
Scalding, 307 
Sen on, 191 
Scombrus River, 99 
Scythia, 97, 163 
Sea, 123 ff. ; advance and 
retreat of, 109 ; ebb and 
flow (tides), 127, 129 , 

origin of, 143 ff., saltness 
of, 131, 147 ff . ; sources 
of, 125 
Seasons, 71 
Selloi, 115 
Sesostns, 1J7 
Shooting stars, 29, 33 
Sicania, 163 
Sicilian Sea, 129 
Sicily, 163, 207 
Silting, 109, 119 
Silver Mts., 99 
Sipylos, 221 
Snow, 77 
Softening, 313 
Softness, 313 

Solidification, 315, 319-325, 
333-337, 341 
Solids, 36 1-363 
Solstices, 125, 133 
Spontaneous generation, 297, 

Squeezability, 349 



Stais, heat of, 23, 25 
Steel, 323 
Strata, 17 ff , 24 if. 

Strymon River, 99 
Sun, 23, 61, 69, 71, 133, 165, 

Sweat, 149,153 

Tanais River, 95, 119 
Tartarus, 139, 141 
Tartessus River, 97 
Teims, lack of specific, 299, 

Terrestrial region, 7, S 
Thebes, 11 i 

Thrascias, 191, 193, 195, 197 

Thunder, 223 ff. 

Thunderbolts, 237 

Tides, 127, 129 

Torches, 29, 33 

Twins (constellation), 47 

Tyrrhenian Sea, 129 

Umbria, 161 
Urine, 149, 153, 301 

Vegetable tissues, 339, 359 
Viscosity, 353 

Water, 13, 15, 21, 71, 131 ff., 
287,313, 317, 319 ff., 359, 
365, 367 
Wax jar, 159 
Whirlwinds, 235 
Wind, 89, 168 ff. ; and earth- 
quakes, 202 ff. ; and hurri- 
canes, etc., 233 ff. ; and 
thundei and lightning, 
225, 227 

Winds, diagiam and descrip- 
tion of, 187 ff. , prevalence 
of N. or S., 171, 185, 193 

Xenophanes, 1 25, 133, 147 

Zephyros, 189, 195, 199 



<&£ a>, 367 b 2 
*Aj 8$j]pLT7)s 9 3 65 a 19 
afipcoros, 380 b 3 
ayyeiov, 349 a 34, 35, b 15, 
353 b 21, 357 b 4, 358 b 35 
ayvo ta, 359 all 
ayovos , 346 b 35 
dyco, 359 a 28, 362 b 1, 363 
b 6, 373 a 11, 380 a 26 
dycoyifJLos* 359 a 8 
aSrjXos, 339 b 7, 13, 354 a 9, 
356 a 35, 373 b 19 
d&JAms, 355 b 32 
dSiaiperos , 343 b 31, 35, 344 
a 1 

aBwa/iia , 385 all 
aSvpareco , 375 b 14 
aBvvaros , 340 b t, 313 a 21, 
b 7, 345 a 32, b 12, 18, 353 
b 17, 31, 355 a 11, b 33, 
356 a 19, 32, 357 a 6, b 21, 
33, 362 b 14, 365 b 19 (bis), 
29, 372 b 2, 5, 376 b 3, 12, 
380 a 22, b 26, 386 a 4, 
b 22, 387 b 20 
demos, 349 b 9 (bis), 12, 352 
b 5, 12, 353*a 27 
dif/j, 338 b 24, 339 a 16, 18, 
36, b 3, 32, 340 a 3, 10 (bis), 

12, 17, 20, 22, 24 (bis), 32, 
34, 35, 36, b 2, 7, 10, 21, 
24, 31, 34, 341 a 3, 8, 17, 

27, 30, b 18, 342 a 1, 29, 
b 1, 5, 7, 344 a 11, b 5, 22, 
32, 345 b 33, 34, 346 a 6, 
9, b 18, 29, 31, 32, 347 a 3, 
34, 348 a 8, 10, b 13, 28, 
349 a 17, 20, 22, b 22, 24, 
354 b 8, 24, 355 a 24, 30, 
357 b 29, 360 a 20, 21, 26, 

28, 32, 361 a 24, 27, 364 
b 27, 365 a 32, 366 b 7, 23, 
367 a 11, 20, 25, 34, b 17, 
19, 23, 30, 368 a 16, 369 
a 27, 371 a 17, 372 a 30, 
b 16, 30, 34, 373 a 29, b 1,2, 
9, 15, 21, 374 a 2, 24, 376 
b 23, 26, 377 b 16, 25, 27, 
379 a 15, 28, 30, 31, 35, 
382 a 7, 383 b 24, 26, 31, 
384 a 1, 11, 15,16, b 16,18, 
19, 385 b 4, 387 a 25, 26, 

29, 388 a 31, 32, 389 a 20, 
b 17 

’A&p^crtv, 343 b 4 
adX aoTo$i 385 a 15, 386 a 18, 

a dpavaros, 385 a 14 

1 The Greek Index Is that of Professor Pobes* edition with preposi- 
tions, conjunctions and certain minor or common woids omitted I am 
grateful to Professor Eobes for permission to use his Index m this way. 
The references are to pages and lines of the Bekkei edition. 



aBpoi^u), 345 a 9, 346 a 92, 
347 b 6, 11, 349 b 4, 354 b 6 
adpoiais, 340 a 31 
aBpios, 354 b 12, 13, 355 b 26, 
31, 357 a 24, 361 b 18, 366 
b 31, 368 b 4, 370 b 7, 371 
bl,5, 377b 18,378a5,3S7 
b 27 

aBpows, 367 a 30, 387 a 31 
aBpouirepos, 348 b 1 1 (bis), 22 
aBvplaTOSt 385 a 18 
Alyaios, 354 a 14, 20 (bis) 
alywUs, 367 b 13 
Alyos norapoi, 344 b 32 
A lyiTTnos, 343 b 10, 28, 352 
b 21 

AtyviTTOs, 351 b 28, 34 
Alyoiv, 350 b 1 1 
AlSviiosy 366 a 29 
dffitoj, 339 a 25, 353 a 15, 356 
b 8 

alBrfp, 339 b 21, 24, 27, 365 
a 19, 369 b 14, 20 
AlBumia, 349 a 5, 362 b 21 
AlBumiKos, 350 b 1 1 
alBpia, 342 a 12, 34, 343 b 19, 
347 a 26, 27, 364 b 9, 367 
b 9, 369 b 23 

a“8pu>s, 358 b 1, 2, 364 b 10, 
12, 29 

aldpuoTaTos, 364 b 7 
atpa, 384 a 16, 25, 31, 389 
a 19, 20, b 9, 390 b 16 
alpaTcoSrjS, 342 a 36 
atvtTTo/xai, 347 a 6 
<u{, 341 b 3, 28, 31 
AtoXos, 367 a 3 
alpeoj, 359 a 27 
aXpw, 314 b S3, 371 b 28, 372 
a 13, 376 b 32, 377 a 27 
atoBriaiSi 341 a 14, 15, 344 a 5, 
366 b 30, 372 b 10, 374 

b 16, 382 a 17, 385 a l, 4, 
390 b 1 

<uo8t)t6s, 372 b 1, 373 a 23, 
382 a 18 

AlaxvXos, 342 b 36, 343 a 27 
Alamms, 356 b 11 
atria, 338 a 20 (?), b 26, 339 
a 24, 340 a 21, 25, b 18,31, 
341 a 15, 29, b 1, 4, 342 
b 14 (»), 21, 344 a 2, b 18, 
345 a 1 1 , 346 a 26, 30", b 2, 
20, 23 (»), 347 a 30, b 15, 
348 b 26, 30, 349 a 7, 10, 
b 81, 352 a 12, 17, 25, 353 
a 26, 33, b 14,* 354 a 33, 
b 2, 3, 355 b 20, 356 a 30, 
34, b 17, 19, 33, 357 a 14, 
358 a 3, b 13, 359 b 22, 
361 a 4, b 10, 20, 25, 363 
a 18, 364 a 13, b 30, 365 
a 5, 15, 25, b 13, 20, 366 
a 12, 29, b 3, 367 a 10, 22, 
b 4, 369 a 8, b 4, 22, 26 (’), 
370 b 33, 371 b 19, 20, 373 
a 30, 33, 374 b 18, 375 
a 32, 377 a 29, 379 b 2, 
381 a 11, b 13, 388 a 21, 
390 b 12, 14 

aiTiao/zai, 357 a 15, 368 a SO 
aiTtaTtov, 339 a 32, 359 b 9 
ainos, 338 a 20 (?), 339 a 29, 
31, 342 a 28, 36, b 14 (?), 
345 a 6, 9, 19, 346 b 23 (?), 
347 b 1, 19, 32, 348 a 15, 
31, 351 a 3, 26, 352 a 28, 
b 6, 354 b 21, 357 a 32, 
b 7, 22, 859 a 5, 360 b 12, 
17, 361 a 6P34, 369 a 2, 16, 
364 a 7, 365 a 3, 366 a 3, 
b 16, 367 b 7, 368 a 1, 27, 
30, 32, 34, 369 b 26 (’), 28, 
370 a 17, 372 a 17, 24, 



b 33, 374 b 6, 377 a 15, 
378 b 40, 379 a 20, 380 b 6, 
381 b 31, 382 a 27, b 15, 
383 a 8, b 16, 24, 384 b 2, 
3, 387 b 27, 388 b 1 
aKafifirroSi 385 a 14, b 28, 29, 
386 a 8 * 
atcapicuoSi 3 52 a 26 
aK&TCLKTos , 385 a l 4 
aKCLvoros, 385 a 18, 387 a 18, 
* 19, 22 

aKivYjola* 340 b 18, 366 b 6 
aKivrjTL^a), 379 a 34 
a.K fiasco, 351 a 29 
aKfu,^ 351 ’a 28 
atcorj, 369 b 9 

dKoXovdict), 340 b 17, 366 a 7, 

^ 369 a 3, 370 b H, 31 
a kovco, 348 a 25 
d*pa, 373 b 10 
aKpdrrjros , 384 a 33 
aKparos, 375 a 10 
aKplfieia, 362 b 25 
aKpiPrjs, 390 a 19 
a/cptjSooj, 363 b 32 
aKpifiaos, 341 a 14 
a/cpcrosT, 361 b 30 
aKpovvyov, 367 b 26 
atcpos , 350 a 32 
cLktls, 340 a 29, 32, 345 a 29, 
b 6, 346 b 24, 348 a 17, 
369 b 14, 25, 374 b 4 
aAea, 341 a 19, 347 a 20, 348 
b 4, 362 b 27, 366 b 5, 379 
a 27 

aA €€tvo$ 9 348 a 19, b 4, 9, 349 
# a 4, 8, 363 a 17, 364 a 23 
dX€€Lvorar 0 Si 3&8 a 30 
aAeei vorepos, 347 a 21, 348 b 6 
aAif&ta, 356 b 17 
dXrjdTjs, 343 a 35, 352 a 21, 22, 
358 a 16 

aXrjBcos, 390 a 1 1 
aXfia 9 343 b 23 
aX(j,vpLs 9 357 b 4 
aXpLvpos , 353 a 33, b 13 (bis), 
15, 16, 354 b 18, 21, 355 
a 33, b 4, 9, 357 a 6, 12,2 8, 
19, 22, 29, 34, 358 a 6, 27, 
b 14, 34, 359 a 6, 13, 21, 
23, b 4 

dX/j,vpoT7js , 353 b 13, 354 b 2, 
356 b 4, 357 a 5, 16, b 7, 
22, 358 a 4, 359 a 5 
aAoyoff, 355 a 21, 35, 366 a 9, 
369 b 19 
aXoycos, 362 a 14 
dXovpyds , 372 a 8, 374 b 33, 
375 b 11 

oAsr, 359 a 13, 29, 32, b 4, 383 
b 13, 20, 384 a 18, 385 a 31, 
b 9, 16, 388 b 13, 15, 389 
a 18 

aXvm$ 9 387 a 13 
aA vrof, 383 a 30, b 10, 12, 
384 a 34, b 7 
aA <f>irov 9 382 a 1 
&Xa>s 9 344 b 2, 6, 13, 18, 346 
a 5, 371 b 18,22, 372 b 12, 
373 a 27, b 34, 374 a 10, 15, 
377 b 34 

ap,dXaKTo$ 9 384 b 1 , 385 a 1 3, 
388 b 25 

dp,avpo$ t 343 b 12, 367 a 23 
dpLavp6r€pos 9 344 b 29, 367 
a 21, 375 a 30, b 3, 13 
dp.avpoco 9 367 b 28 
*A fipubvios, 352 b 32 
afi7rcoTis 9 366 a 19 
dfjivSpoSi 343 b 13 
dpLv8p6repos 9 372 a 2 
dp,vdi)Tov 9 37 5 a 23 
avafiacvcot 344 a 20 
dva{3Xe7rco 9 346 a 34 




avapparra), 368 b 29 
avayKa^a), 370 b 24 
avay/catos, 340 b 34, 341 b 7, 
17, 344 b 22, 348 a 30, 351 
a 30, b 6, 352 a 4, 354 a 10, 
b 23, 355 a 2, 356 a 31, 
b 20, 23, 357 a 2, b 27, 358 
a 23, 360 a 10, 14, 15, 17, 

361 a 18, 363 b 9, 364 a 11, 
365 b 16, 31, 367 a 23, 27, 

31, 368 a 5, b 3, 369 a 
19, 22, b 28, 372 b 4, 24, 

373 a 3, b 16, 19, 377 a 

dvdyier], 339 a 21, 340 all, 15, 
344 b 9, 345 b 8, 351 a 36, 
352 b 16, 17, 353 a 7, 13, 
21, 354 b 11, 357 a 11, 358 
b 4, 29, 359 b 31, 360 b 30, 

362 b 30, 363 a 12, 365 
b 23, 30, 32, 368 a 12, 370 
b 27, 372 a 27, 373 b 26, 

374 b 17, 375 a 5, 380 a 3, 
382 a 9, 10, 22, 384 b 4, 

_ 387 a 5 

dvaypd<j>a>, 350 a 17 
dvd yea, 344 a 6, 346 b 26, 347 
a 8, 14, 15, 20, 25, 27, 30, 

32, 349 b 3, 354 b 29, 355 
a 6, 26, 33, b 5, 356 a 20, 
b 22, 24, 30, 357 a 7, 14, 
358 b 13, 25, 26, 359 b 35, 

_ 360 a 1, 361 a 13, 376 a 1 
dvaycoyrj, 355 a 15 
dvahiScopi, 351 a 15, 17, 356 
_ a 2 

avaSuva), 356 a 25 
avaOvpUaaiSi 340 b 26, 27, 29, 
341 b 7, 33, 35, 342 a 4, 18, 
19, 22, 28, 344 a 10, 20, b 1, 
24, 346 b 32, 347 b 3, 11, 
357 b 24, 358 a 20, 22, 34, 

359 b 28, 360 a 8, 11, 15, 
b 1, 16, 18, 26, 361 a 3, 11, 
18, 19, 24, 31, b 1, 15, 16, 
26, 29, 362 a 3, 4, 364 a 12, 
365 b 22, 366 a 6, 16, b 8, 
10, 367 a 32, 368 a 8, b 15, 
34, 369 a 2, 12/26, 33, 370 
a 28, b 16, 371 a 5, 372 
b 32, 378 a 18, 21, 26, 29, 

_ b 2, 4, 384 b 33 
ava6vfudti>, 341 a 7, 344 a 21, 

360 b 32, 361 h 28, 366 a 5, 
368 a 13 

avaioOi)Tos, 374 b 35 
avaKapmu), 364 b *2, 25, 385 

, !? 33 

avaKapA/iis, 386 a 5 
avaKhams , 342 b 6, 11, 343 
a 26, 344 b 7, 13, 345 b 10, 
20, 29, 346 a 5, 348 a 17, 
370 a 16, 23, 372 a 18, 20, 
b 15, 34, 373 a 32, 33, b 3, 
23, 31, 33, 35, 374 a 2, 8, 
10, .33, b 22, 375 b 1 (bis), 
14, 26, 376 a 12, 377 b 18, 
378 a 2 

dvaKXdai, 340 a 28, 343 a 3, 
b 7, 345 b 27, 370 a 18, 372 
a 30, b 34, 373 a 3, 18, 35, 
b 7, 14, 374 a 23, 29, 375 
b 5, 23, 30, 376 b 9, 14, 
377 a 31, 33, b 6, 10, 12, 
32, 378 a 11 
avaKVKXe a, 339 b 29 
dvaXapfidva), 339 a 33, 345 
b 31, 380 b 19 
dvaXurKco, 368 a 10, 11, 382 
b 26 '• 

avaXoyta, 340 a 4, 387 b 3 
dvaXoyifcopai, 353 a 4 
dvdXo yov, 339 a 18, 347 b 14, 
351 b 4, 362 b 32, 363 a 



11 (?), 372 a 5, 375 a 4, 376 
a 29, 390 a 6 
dvdAoyos, 363 a 1 1 ( ? ) 
avaX vco, 339 b 2 
a.vavT'qSi 3 56 a 12 
*Ava£ay6pasi 339 b 22, 312 
b 27, 845 a 25, 348 b 12, 
365 a 17, 19,369 b H 
avag'qpa.Lvco, 355 b 26, 32 
i AvaiL/jL€vr)s, 365 a 18, b 6 
avaTT€Tavvv[Ui 363 a 16 
avapidfios, 355 b 22 
avapprjyvvfu , 342 b 14, 368 
a 26 

avappoSeu), 356 b 13 
dvacmaw, 373 b 10, 380 b 22 
dWAAw, 371 b 27, 372 a 28, 
375 b 20 

dvaroXij, 345 a 4, 361 a 9, b 23, 
32, 363 b 1, 1,5, 14, 18,21, 
364 a 17, 22, 25, 375 b 26, 
30, 377 a 3, b 28 
dvarperra) 9 368 a 31, b 31 
amrpei/ft?, 368 a 32 
ava <j>epo) 9 355 b 19, 360 b 34, 
361 a 35, 369 b 10, 371 
s a 14, 374 a 30 
dva<j>vad(a 9 367 a 16 
dva<f>vcrqpa 9 367 a 8, 15 
dvaxcopeu), 356 b 30 
aveifju , 350 a 13, 361 a 33, 
367 a 4 

aveA KToSt 385 a 16, 386 b 14 
avepios, 340 b 36, 347 a 27, 
349 a 12, 17, 20, 21 (bis), 
32, 34, 358 a 30, 360 a 19, 
20, 29, 32, b 27, 32, 33, 
361 a 3, T* 19, 29, 30, b 9, 

12, 362 a 31, b 34, 363 a 9, 

13, 17, 19, b 27, 364 a 3, 6, 
27, b 7, 365 a 11, 366 a 10, 
b 14, 33, 367 a 13, 33, b 4, 

25, 368 a 10, 29, 30, b 8, 
14, 18, 370 a 26, 29, b 8, 
19, 30, 371 a 2, 372 b 28 
dv€{jL(t>h7}s, 360 b 5 
dvipxopai , 358 b 32 
dv€vOvpro$i 385 b 29, 386 a 

dv4 X o), 343 b 3, 374 b 2 
avyAaro?, 385 a 16, 386 b 19, 

av$o$, 375 a 23, 28 
dv6paK€vros , 387 b 19, 23 
av$pa£, 387 b 18 
dvdpdbmvos, 353 b 6 
avOpamos, 339 b 21, 29, 343 
a 13, 20, 352 b 20, 359 a 18, 
389 b 31, 390 b 21 
dvhjpu, 367 a 6, b 30, 387 b 13, 

dvLa X (n 9 342 b JO, 373 b 13 
avoSos, 355 a 6 
avoiSeco, 367 a 3 
avofioiofiepris, .388 a 18, 390 
b 10, 20 

avTarroSCScDiu, 347 b 32 
dvreaTpapLpivaiS, 375 b 3 
avriVci/xcH, 354 b 18, 362 a 14, 
378 b 30, 379 b 19, 380 a 8, 

^ 381 b 15, 28, 389 b 16 
dvrUpovcns , 371 all 
dvrt/xe^io-T^t, 366 b 20, 367 
# b 24, 386 a 25, 32 
dvrivepUcmifUi 347 b 6, 348 
b 6, 16, 360 b 25, 361 a 1, 
382 a 12, 14, b 10 
dvTLirepLGraaLSi 348 b 2, 349 
a 8 

dvTL7rv4co 9 370 b 22 
avTiarpi^cot 386 b 24 
avTLTvnecOi 368 a 3, 370 b 18, 
371 a 25 

dvrt<j>pa^L5 9 367 b 21 



dvr i<f> parr co, 345 a 29, b 9, 
368 b 10 
a voodda), 348 a 20 
avcjfjLaXia, 369 b 1, 377 b 14 
avaifiaXos , 377 b 4, 8 
avcupaXcos, 385 b 9 
avwvvfj ios, 341 b 15, 359 b 30, 
# 381 b 6, 389 a 8 
a vcovvpicorepos, 381 b 15 
agia, 357 a 4 
agios, 384 a 4 
c&uv, 375 b 22, 376 b 30 
doiKrjros , 362 b 7, 9, 26 
do paros, 373 a 20, b 25 
aopioria , 361 b 34 
aopioros , 380 a 3, 29, b 14, 
381 a 14, 382 a 16 
drraBr\s , 380 b 10 
d7ravract), 353 b 22 
dirapKrias , 363 b 14, 29, 31, 

364 a 14, b 4, 21, 22, 29, 

365 a 2, 7, 8 
dnaprigcj, 340 b 35 
<X7rar/xt^o), 359 a 31 
dmiXrj , 369 a 32 

aireipi (et/xt), 350 b 26, 351 
b 6, 361 a 11, 383 a 9, 12 
dneipaias, 339 b 29 
aireipos, 351 a 12 
dveuTos, 371 a 3, 384 a 33 
am'nroraros, 358 a 6, 7 
dnepyagofiai, 378 a 16 . 
airipxo pai, 357 a 30, b 19, 
362 a 3, 384 a 5 
dWxcu, 345 b 21, 363 a 31, 32, 
33 b 8 9 

direiftla, 357 b 9, 379 a 2, b 13, 
380 a 6, 9,28, 381 a 12, 13, 
b 9, 20 

arrrjKTos » 385 a 12, 21, b 1 
dTTrjXiwTTjs, 363 b 13, 364 a 15, 
16, b 19, 365 a 10 

drrqXiairiKos , 364 a 21, b 28 
ameoros, 385 a 15, 386 b 8, 
10, 387 a 16 

amXyros, 385 a 17, 387 a 16 
amor os, 348 a 27 
anX avrjs, 343 b 9, 29, 344 a 36 
drrXaoros, 385 a 15 n 
ai tXztos, 355 b 23 
a rrXovs, 339 b 34, 341 b 7, 
378 b 28, 32, 379 a 3 
dirXcos, 3 65 a 26, 382 a 14, 1'5, 
19, 386 b 32, 389 a 32 
anvovs , 354 a 22, 361 b 6 
dnopidgofiai, 351 a 6, 364 
a 29, b 8, 365 b 4, 3o6 b 1 1, 
9 27, 368 b 10, 35 
arroyeios , 363 a 1 
dirohetKvvpii) 344 a 6 
dnohexopai, 346 b 1 
dTToMScopu, 339 a 7, 355 a 27, 
28, 358 a 3, 363 a 11, 365 
} a 34, 373 b 28 
aTTOKadaipto, 383 a 3 1, b 3 
aTTOKadapois , 383 b 4 
arroKpCva >, 340 b 20, 345 b 34, 
346 b 8 (bis), 349 b 26, 29, 
359 a 4, 360 b 34, 362 a 27, 
369 b 28, 372 b 32, 374 
a 35, 378 a 31, 32, 379 b 7, 
381 b 13 

oTroKpiois , 360 b 33, 366 b 12, 
381 b 11 

aTToXafi^dva >, 369 b 26, 372 
b 21, 375 b 27 
diroX^lTTO), 346 b 26, 353 a 22, 
364 a 26, 367 b 22 
arroXeupts, 346 b 30, 351 a 21, 
b 19 * 

aTroXva, ), 371 a 12 
drropapaivofjLai, 343 b 16, 367 
b 11,23, 372 b 29, 375 a 14 
dirogypaivco, 388 b 6 



d7rom>€cu 9 361 b 7, 366 a 33, 
382- b 26 

drrop€(x), 339 a 2, b 3, 340 b t, 
342 a 3, 355 a 35, b 24, 
357 b 26, 361 a 25, 362 
a 11, 388 a 33 

dvopLa, &51 b 15, 19, 22, 355 
b 21 

airoppectii 359 a 25, b 18, 374 
a 25 

dTTopp'qyvvpu i 365 b 8 
dnoppoLa, 367 b 6 
d7roppvTos t 353 b 32 
d7ropd)TCfgra , 383 b 20 
dvoa^4vvvp,i, 344 a J 8, 359 
b 6, 361 b 25 
dnoaTrdcOn 371 a 32 
a7roaTnvQrjplt,co 9 341 b 30 
dn6crTrjpLa 9 345 b 16 
d7rocrTiAl3io 9 370 a 14 
diroax^cOf 350 a 24 
dnoTelvo}, 343 b 22, 375 a 33, 
# 377 b 33 

dvroreAea), 380 a 5, 14 
d7roT€fjivco 9 377 a 8 
dnoros, 380 b 3 
dirovcriai 366 a 18, 382 a 33, 
s 383 b 3, 385 a 26, 28 
aTTOffiatvoi), 343 a J, 365 a 18 
drr6<l>aoLs 9 374 b 13 
d7ro<f>vadct) 9 364 b 8 
air pay pLowis*, 369 b 27 
o mttco, 342 a 4, 343 b 35 
d7rco6eo), 342 a 13, 20, 348 
a 15, b 1,358 b 1,360 b 21, 
364 a 9, 366 a 32, 367 a 16, 
20, 368 b 2. 370 b 20, 373 
s b 9 

cwrcoAeia, 351 b 11 
’ApajSta, 349 a 5 
apaiorepos , 364 b 25 
*A pdgjjs, 350 a 24 

’ Apyelost 352 a 9, 10 
dpyearrjSi 363 b 24, 29, 364 
a 18, b 5, 20, 23, 30, 365 
a 3, 8 

dpyrjst 371 a 20 
apyiAajSrjs, 352 b 10 
apyost 352 a 13, 14 
apyvpos , 384 b 32, 385 b 4, 
388 a 14, 389 a 7, 390 a 17, 
b 12 

'Apyvpovv ( oposOs 350 b 14 
dpL0pLos 9 357 b 28, 372 a 1, 385 
a 11 

’A p*a8ia, 351 a 3, 388 b 6 
apKTos, 343 a 8, 36, b 5, 350 
b 4, 7, 354 a 25, 28, 32, 
361 a 5, 16, 21, b 5, 362 
a 17, 21, 32, b 7, 9, 34, 363 
a 3, b 3, 15, 364 a 6, 365 
a 9, 377 a 15, b 27 
*A pKvvios, 350 b 5 
appLorrco , 353 a 19, 356 b 16, 
369 b 36, 372 b 15 
apovpa , 341 b 26 
appcDcrreo), 366 b 28 
dppoooria, 373 b 8 
apxaiov (adverbium), 351 b 34 
apxalosy 339 b 20, 352 a 35, 
353 a 34, 354 a 29, 355 
} b 20, 372 a 22 
dpxaiQraros, 352 b 20 
dpxy, 339 a 9, 11, 14, 24, 31, 
33, 340 b 18, 341 b 5, 31, 

344 a 17, 27, 31, 33, 34, 

345 b 32, 346 b 19, 21, 349 
a 28, 33, b 1, 28, 34, 350 
b 23, 351 a 26, b 12, 32, 
353 a 34, b 1, 5, 354 b 4, 
6,15, 20, 355 b 35, 356 a 4, 
8, 22, 33, b 1,357 b 23, 25, 
359 b 6, 27, 360 a 11, IS, 
33, b 30, 361 a 25, 28, 30, 



32, 36, b 2, 21, 364. b 16 
(bis), 20, 365 a 11, 366 a 7, 
12,22,368 a 8,34, b 19,21, 
27, 369 a 12, 370 b 14, 28, 
371 a 7, b 5, 11, 379 b 21, 
24, 381 b 24, 390 b 19 

apx o>, 339 a 9, 340 b 14, 356 
a 8, 10, 358 a 32, 362 a 25, 
365 a 9, 366 a 21, b 13, 
367 a 24, 373 b 14, 19 
dp X wv, 343 b 4, 20, 345 a 2 
daffeveca, 372 b 8, 373 b 3, 374 
a 23, b 29 

dodeveorepos, 359 a 33, 374 
b 12, 32, 375 a 34, 376 b 26, 
379 a 34, 387 a 21 
dadev-qs, 344 a 18, 361 b 15, 
362 a 23, 27, 369 b 5, 373 
b7, 375 b 14, 377 b 33, 378 
a 11 

’Affi'o, 350 a 18, 353 a 9 
dams, 349 a 35, 388 b 6 
dom's, 371 a 25 
*A<TTetoff, 343 b 19 
doTijp, 341 a 33, b 3, 28, 34, 

342 a 27, b 4, 21, 28, 31, 

33, 343 a 23, 28, 31, b 5, 
12, 17, 18, 26, 30, 33, 344 
a 15, 20, 24 (bis), 28, 32, 
33, b 8, 10, 14, 17, 34 (bis), 
345 a 7, 15, b 12, 35, 346 
a 6, 30, 36, 373 a 29 

dorparrq, 364 b 30, 32, 369 
a 10, b 6, 16, 18, 29, 370 
a 11, 15, 22, 23 (bis), 31, 
_ 33, b 7, 371 b 14 
aarpoXoyia, 345 b 1 
dorpoXoyiKos, 339 b 8 
darpov, 338 a 22, b 22, 339 
b 9, 14, 32, 340 a 21, 28, 
341 a 1 1, 22, 342 a 33, b 10, 

343 a 6, 344 a 35, b 2, 6, 

345 a 26, 27, 33, b 4, 7, 8, 

20, 29, 346 o 2, 8, 11, 19, 
25, 27, 28, 31, b 12, 355 
a 19, 361 b 33, 371 b 24, 
372 b 14, 373 b 12, 375 
b 26, 29 

aavpperpia, 380 a 32 
daxtoros, 385 a 16, 386 b 26, 

ara/crdrepos, 338 b 20 
dreyxros, 385 a 13, b 13 (bis), 

are Xeia, 380 a 6, 8, 31 (bis) 
dr evl£<o, 343 b 1 2 
anqicros, 378 a 23, 385 a 12, 

21, b 1, 12, 388 b 24 
drpqros, 385 a 17, 387 a 6 
drp.LS6op.aL , 346 b 25 
drpiSwSeorepos, 341 b 8 
dr/iiStoSijs, 358 a 22, 35, 360 

a 9, b 2, 16, 367 b 6, 378 

a ]9 27 29 

drpcfr, 340 b 25, 347 a 13, 
b 7, 8, 29, 349 b 23, 354 
b 30, 358 b 16, 17. 19, 364 
b 27, 383 a 24, 384 a 2, 388 
b 32 

drpis , 340 a 34, 35, b 3, 27, 
28, 341 b 10. 346 b 29, 32, 
347 a 4, 17, 19, 21, 24, 29, 
b 5, 18, 24, 350 a 13, 358 
a 31, 359 b 30, 360 a 2, 23, 
b 35, 364 b 29, 367 a 34, 
372 b 16, 32, 384 a 6, 387 
a 25 

drpioros, 387 b 8 (bis) 
droms, 342 b 4, 345 a 18, 348 
a 4, 349 b 21,350b 31, 355 
a 18, b 12, 24, 357 a 18, 358 
a 15, 360 a 27 
drpo<j>os, 384 a 25 
avavoLS, 379 a 5 



avyrj, 375 a 26 
avXoSt 399 b 32 
av£a), 351 a 31 , 355 a 2 1 
avTOfjLaTos* 353 b 28, 3 1 
avroiTT^s, 350 a 17 
avxpawi 360 b 1 1 
avxuioSi 344 b 20, 360 b 5 
(bis), 9, 361 b 9, 365 b 9, 
10, 366 b 3, 7, 8, 368 b 16 
dspaipeco, 351 b 32, 376 b 21, 
389 b 26 

dfavijs, 344 a 5, 377 a 8, 17 
fywti o>, 343 b 15, 31, 351 b 1, 
4, 354 a 31, 355 b 13, 29, 
356 a 24, 370 a 21, 387 a 27 
d(f>eifjct> 9 359 a 30, b 3 
d^rj, 382 a 19, 20, 386 a 20, 
388 a 12 

a<p6ovos, 360 b 11 
dfapu, 347 a 33 > 340 a 35 » b 
356 b 30, 368 a 17, 24, 388 
b 23 

d<f)LKv4ofxai 9 341 a 29, 343 a 20, 
355 a 5, b 31, 369 b 1 1, 375 
b 14, 378 a 10 

dcpLarrjpu, 347 a 4, 377 a 23, 
378 a 4 

dtphoyicrros, 387 b 18, 20 
a<popLa, 351 b 14 
<d<Popi&, 339 b 10, 350 b 23 
’A^cua, 343 b 2, 366 a 26, 
368 b 6 

dxavifr, 340 a 32, 355 b 31, 
367 a 19, 378 a 6 
’A^eAeSos 1 , 350 b 15, 352 a 35 
d X Ms, 361 a 28, 367 b 1 7, 373 
a 1, b 12, 17, 374 a 7, 18, 
377 b 19 ♦ 

axXvdjBijs, 367 a 20, 23 
axpoi^oLTioros, 371 a 2, b 9, 
377 b l 

a xvpov, 344 a 26 

aipis, 386 b 1 
dip is, 371 b 28, 29 
dipvxos, 390 a J 7 

pab%a), 357 a 2, 373 b 5 
pdBos, 339 b 12, 341 b 34, 342 
a -23, b 15, 350 a 31, 351 
a 6, 13, 354 a 18, 368 b 28, 
382 a 14, 386 a 19, 23, 30, 
b 20 

£a0vV, 351 a 12, 354 a 27 (bis) 
paBvraros, 354 a 21 
fiadvrepos, 354 a 19 
Ba KTpos, 350 a 23 
pdpos, 341 b 12, 355 a 31, b 5, 
356 b 18, 358 b 26, 359 a 6, 
8, 365 a 28, 368 b 35, 369 
a 23 

papvvcx) , 341 a 5 
fiapvraros, 340 b 20, 358 b 5 
fiapvT€pos , 381 a 5 
fiaaiXevs, 352 b 24 
fidois, 362 b 2 
jSeA tlov, 349 a 26 
PCa, 341 a 26, 31, 342 a 25, 
369 a 28, 379 a 6 
j 8m£a>, 368 a 28, 370 b 19, 371 
a 15 

fitcuos, 370 b 9 
puxiaKop at, 351 a 35 
£AeVw, 352 a 17, 373 b 4, 6, 
374 b 20, 26 
ft orfdaa, 379 b 23 
fiodwos, 342 a 36 
fiopias, 343 a 17, 345 a 1, 347 
b 2, 6, 358 a 35, 361 a 6, 22, 
b 11,362 a 11, 16, b 33, 35, 

363 a [2], 4, 6, 17, b 14, 

364 a 13, 15, 20, b 26, 368 
b 7 

fiopaos, 344 b 35, 347 a 36, 
37, b 9 (bis), 363 a 2, 364 



a 19, 371 a 3, 8, 377 b 

Bomropos, 353 a 7, 379 a 15 
jSouAopait 348 b 33, 349 a 90, 
b 15, 354 b 39, 363 b 31, 
384 a 7 
)3ot>s, 359 a 99 
fipaStSs, 341 a 23 
I SpaSvrara, 343 a 5 
ftpa&vrepos, 371 a 23 
PpaSvrjs, 357 b 34 
ppayv, 377 a 96 
ppaxfs, 347 b 22, 348 b 24, 
354 a 22, 382 b 14 
Ppaydrepos, 371 b 30 
fSpaxvn js, 354 a 18 
Ppe X «>, 359 a 22, 365 b 6, 385 
b 14, 18, 386 b 5 
Ppovrrj, 369 a 10, 29, b 1, 3, 8, 
17, 19, 29, 370 a 22, 24,27, 
31, 33, b 7, 371 b 11, 14 

yoAa, 338 b 22, 339 a 34, 342 
b 25, 345 a 9, 12, 20, 25, 
26, 31, 32, 36, b 11, 19, 23, 
26, 346 a 17, b 2, 5, 13, 380 
b 8, 32, 381 a 7, 382 b 12, 
383 a 22, 384 a 16, 24, 30, 
388 a 31, 390 b 2 
yaXijvij, 367 b 15 
Tap.riXuuv, 343 b 5 
yeyjpost 380 a 24 
yeirvtaaiS) 363 a 14 
yeirndu), 338 b 21, 350 a 5, 
360 b 20, 363 b 22, 368 b 15 
yeXdojf 369 a 32 
yeXoios, 359 a 26, 354 b 33, 
357 a 24 
yeX oicus, 362 b 12 
yepU£ w, 359 all 
y<Wsr, 338 a 94, 340 b 37, 342 
a 14, 346 b 19, 23, 347 b 

22, 34, 348 a 15, 349 b 2, 

351 a 20, b 9, 352 a 25, 
b 17, 353 a 34, b 6, 354 b 1, 

28, 355 a 30, 356 b 8, 35, 

357 b 17, 358 a 2, 27, 361 
a 32, 36, 365 a 11,374 a 14, 

377 b 25, 378 b'28, 32, 379 
a 3, b 8, 389 b 26, 390 b 19 

yevvaai, 311 b 36, 357 a 5, 6, 

378 a 32, 379 a 1 

yevos, 353 b 32, 365 a 15l 378 
a 22, b 6, 383 b II, 388 
b 21, 389 a 18, b 25, 26, 
390 b 15 

yecoSrjs, 359 a 4, 24, 384 a 20 
yfj, 338 b 25, 339 a 16, 17, 19 
(bis), 28, 37, b 4, 6, 11, 13, 
31, 340 a 6, 7, 22, 27, 28, 

29, 34, b 3, 10, 21, 25, 26, 
35,37,341 a 11, b 6, 9 (bis), 
10, 20, 342 a 10, 343 a 12, 
344 a 9, 12, b 12, 345 a 27, 

30, b 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 346 
b 11, 17, 24, 29, 31, 347 
a 8, 10, b 27, 29, 318 a 9, 

17, 20, 24, 29, 34, b 4, 349 
b 4, 18, 20, 22, 23, 24, 29, 

31, 33, 34, 350 a 2, 16, 
b 24, 36, 351 a 2, 11, 14, 

19, 22, 25, 27, 30, 33, b 9, 

352 a 27, b 6, 28, 353 a 21, 

23, 25, b 1, 7, 12, 14, 16, 

18, 354 a 7, 10, 12, 25, 28, 
30 (bis), 32, b 9, 23, 31, 
355 a 22, 23, b 18, 35, 356 
a 14, 24, 357 a 7, 10, 15, 

20, 25, b 6, 9, 12, 13, 18, 

358 a 15, ft, b 6, 30, 31, 

359 b 7, 10, 360 a 5, 6, 7, 8, 
16, b 31, 361 a 17, 23, 31 
(bis), 34, b 1,3, 17, 362 a 5, 
35, b 4, 5, 13, 364 a 10, 11, 



365 a 14, 31, 27, b 1, 7, 13, 
24, 366 a 3, 10, 16, 28, 32, 
S3, b 17, 22, 29, 32, 367 
a 3, 9, 12, 16, 24, b 5, 16, 
24, 368 a 14, 16, 21, 25, 30, 
b 1, 10, 13, 19, 23, 369 a 3, 
370 a 96 (bis), b 27, 37 1 
a 1 1, 372 a 12, 373 a 23, 
375 b 28, 377 a 19, 23, 25, 
378 a 5, 7, 10, 13, 15, 16, 
20, b 3, 379 a 15, 23, 382 
a 3, 5, 6, b 3, 6, 32, 383 a IS, 
26, 27, b 9, 12, 19 (bis), 20, 
22, 384 a 3, 8, 15 (bis), 17 
(bis), 28, b 16, 19, 20, 30, 
385 a 27, 31, b 2, 8, 14, 19, 
22, 25, 387 a 27, b 24, 32, 

388 a 22, 25, 30 (bis), 31, 
b 3, 5, 8, 9, 12, 16, 24, 30, 

389 a 2 (bis), 5, 13, 16, 19, 
20, 27, 31, b 12, 17 

yrjpas, 351 a 28, 379 a 5 
yripaoKta , 351 a 34 
yiyvuiaKto, 357 a 28 
■yXevKos, 379 b 30, 380 b 32, 
384 a 5, 385 b 3 
yXCoxpos, 383 b 34, 385 a 17, 
b 5, 387 a 11 

yXiaxpoTQs, 382 b 14, 16, 384 
a 2 

yXvKiis, 355 a 33, b 5, 7, 9, 
357 a 9, 29, b 1, 358 b 13, 
15, 359 a 26, b 14, 385 a 3, 
387 b 9, 388 b 10 
yXvKifraTos, 354 b 29, 357 a 30 
yXcbrra, 390 a 15 
yovrj, 389 a 19, 22, b 10 
yivipx>s, 373 8 31 
Tpaims, 352 b 2 
ypapiuij, 367 b 10, 373 a 5, 
375 b 21, 376 a 2, 10, 19, 
377 a 5 

ypac/ie ds, 349 b 1, 372 a 7 
ypdtj Sto, 349 b 1, 355 b 33, 362 
b 12, 13, 363 a 26, 373 a 16, 
376 b 9 

yaivta, 373 a 12, 375 b 24, 376 
b 12, 13, 29, b 9, 16 (bis) 

Sdxpvov, 379 b 31, 388 b 19. 
389 a 14 

SdxrvXos, 342 a 10, 369 a 23 
Scads, 341 b 3, 28, 32, 342 b 3, 
16, 344 a 26 
Aapelos, 352 b 28 
Sai/iiXeia, 343 a 10 
8 elxvvpj., 339 b 32, 345 b 1, 
362 b 15, 372 a 32, b 10, 
376 b 5, 10, 31 
S«Ai?, 371 b 25 
SeKTiicds, 387 a 20 
SeA <f>k, 345 b 22 
Scp/tia, 388 a 17 
AeiwaAtW, 352 a 33 
Seyopui, 342 b 6, 13, 349 b 18, 
350 a 9, 352 b 8, 356 a 26, 
361 a 17, 365 b2, 3,366b 1, 
385 b 26 

8 ecu, absum, 340 b 14, 24, 341 
a 10, 21, b 18, 342 b 24, 343 
a 28, b 10, 27, 345 a 19, 35, 
b 24, 36, 346 a 7, 347 a 2, 
b 34, 348 a 22, b 5, 349 
a 34, b 25, 350 b 22, 25, 
352 a 15, b 11, 353 b 18, 
21,27, 356 b 25, 357 b 11, 
358 a 18, b 31, 359 b 5, 360 
a 31, 362 a 28, 363 a 10, 25, 
28, 365 a 26, b 12, 866 b 14, 
23, 29, 369 a 12, b 21, 371 
b 7, 21, 372 a 25, 32, 373 
a 19, 374 b 9, 24, 379 b 14, 
17, 383 b 22, 389 a 25, 29 
SijAos, 344 a 4, b 20, 345 a 22, 



346 a 35, 347 a 24, b 33, Sta*ao>, 387 b 28 

348 a 13, 32, b 2, 349 a 30, Sta/cci/tat, 360 b 24 

b 19, 350 a 15, 22, 352 b 23, WoWo, 348 b 36 

33, 354 b 10, 355 a 13, 356 Sta/coa/teco, 338 a 22 

b 8, 20, 357 a 21, 29, b 6, Sta/cpt£da>, 367 b 11 

25, 358 b 34, 359 b 20, 360 Sta xrptVcu, 340 a 10, 29, b 13, 

a 15, 361 a 31, 36, b 3, 362 341 a 1 7, 28, 3441) 22, 345 

b 32, 363 a 9, 364 a 27, a 8, b 34, 346 a 9, 15, b 22, 

365 b 19, 367 a 8, 368 a 9, 354 b 30, 361 b 17, 367 

371 a 7, 29, 372 b 32, 373' a 25, 369 a 17, 370 a 30,, 

b 17, 374 a 22, b 7, 28, 375 381 a 6 

b 19, 376 b 5, 378 b 21, 382 Sta Kpiais, 340 b 3, 341 b 15, 

a 18, b 31, 383 a 9, 389 368 b 28, 369 b 35 

a 32, b 29, 31, 390 a 2, 4, StoAa^ts, 369 b 15, 370 a 24 
14, 16 ScaActWcu, 346 a 36, &62 a 28 

BtjXoco, 347 b 21, 349 b 35, StaAvto, 343 b 25, 26, 344 b 23, 

351 a l,b 35, 352 b 19, 369 346 a 13, 347 a 35, 355 

b 9, 372 b 22, 380 a 2, 390 a 31, 367 a 24, 373 a 28, 

b 19 374 a 13, 377 b 31, 378 a 1, 

8r)puovpyeco , 384 b 26, 388 a 27 4, 7, 387 b 14 

SrjfiLovpyia , 389 a 28 Sta/xapravco, 375 a 27 

ArnioKpLTOSt 342 b 27, 343 Siapizvco, 351 a 34, 355 a 11, 
b 25, 345 a 25, 356 b 10, b 27, 356 b 20, 357 b 27, 

365 a 18, bl 358 b 30 

8iayiyva>OKa) 9 389 a 5 Bidder po$ 9 342 a 26, 363 a 34, 

Staypa/xju-a, 375 b 18 b 2, 6, 9, 10, 17, 20, 26 

Sta Se^op-at, 363 a 7 (bis), 31, 34, 364 a 2, 28, 

StaStSajp-t, 344 a 29, 350 b 29, 376 b 14, 377 a 3 

360 a 5 Stavoeo/xat, 355 b 29 

StaSpoptiy, 341 a 33, 342 a 7, Stavota, 356 b 31 

344 a 15, 28, 32 (bis), 346 Stavrt acojt, 38? a 26 

b 12 Sta vtos 9 385 b 10 

8ta0eco, 341 b 2, 342 a 27, b 21 Siamdaco, 350 a 8 

Statvco , 387 a 28, 31 StamWco, 365 b 12 

Statpeats, 372 b 1, 4, 26, 373 Stavn^, 370 b 6, 384 b 18 

a 23, 386 a 13, b 29, 387 a 5 Sicwrvo^, 368 b 9 

Statpcros, 372 b 3 Stairopeco, 340 a 19, 342 b 26, 

St atpe'co, 363 a 29, 366 a 12, 349 a 13 * 

379 b 5, 385 b 24, 386 a 3 1 , Stap/cea), 349 b 1 1 , 352 b 4 

b 27, 28 (ter), 29 (bis), 387 Stappatvo/iat, 341 a 30 

a 6, 9 Staaetco, 359 a 22 

Stttfcatto, 345 a 17 Staa/ceSavwju,t, 346 b 27 



StacnroOTS, 379 b 19, 90, 99 
Siaenraco,-367 a 99, 379 b 91, 
26, 378 a 6, 8 

StaoTrctpco, 344 b 33, 369 a ^5 
Stacrracn $■, 350 b 36 
8iacm7/xa, 340 a 1, 37, 345 b 3, 
17, 376 b*8 
8t acrTpe<f>a), 383 a 25 
Siarelvcot 355 b 26, 367 b 10 
Sw/reAcco, 341 a 8, 351 a 23, 
37& a 16 

8ta t^kco, 385 a 28 
Star/xt^co, 341 b 23* 353 b 8, 
357 a 11 

St arpifir}, 374 a 12 
Starpt^So), 3o3 a 35 
Starrco, 341 b 35 
8iavAam£a>, 366 a 27 
Bia^aLvco, 342 b 6 
8ia<f>€po), 340 a 13, 341 b 5, £2 1, 
347 b 15, 349 a 23 (bis), 
350 a 10, 351 a 33, 353 b 25, 
355 b 27, 356 b 12, 26, 357 
a 22, b 34, 359 a 7, 360 
a 15, 18, 362 b 20, 365 b 15, 
368 a 18, 369 b 30, 372 a 19, 
374 a 1, 4, b 22, 375 a 24, 
b 33, 376 a 22, 377 b 11, 
381 a 10, 385 a 1, 8, 19, 
b 26, 386 a 12, 387 a 28, 
388 a 11, 390 b 6 
Sta^euyo), 357 b 22 
Sta^fleipco, 352 b 29 
Sta <f>opa, 340 b 9, 347 a 10, 
353 b 29, 359 b 20, 368 
b 22, 371 b 16, 378 a 16, 
380 b 31, 388 a 10, 390 b 7 
Sta^oposr, 360 b # 14 
Stax«o, 370 b 5, 376 b 23 
SuixvcxLs, 382 a 30 
StSujaos, 343 b 31 
StSwp-t, 359 a 27, 368 b 9, 

[26], 376 a 4 (bis), 5, 7, 
381 b 10 

Stetjut (et/Ltt), 365 b 34, 371 
a 22 

Ste^€(/Ltt, 388 b 28 
Stelep^o/tat, 368 a 6 
BtepxofiaLj 339 a 5, 344 a 30, 
368 a 4, 371 a 27 
St€^w, 362 b 35 
Bidden), 354 b 17, 359 b ?, 368 
a 22, 371 a 27 
Sitjko), 360 b 13, 363 a 5, 18 
Sttweo/uat, 374 b 15 
Buarqpu, 339 a 27, 371 b 12, 
14, 386 a 16 
SCvrj, 370 b 22, 371 a 11 
Stvos, 370 b 28 
Sto8oy,351 a 6, 384 b 10 
Stovoad£oj, 350 b 12 
Siopaco, 390 a 20 
Stopt^o), 339 a 11, b 15, 26, 
340 b 5, 34 L b 1,353 b 30, 
364 a 4, 22, 378 b 10, 26, 
380 a 10, 381 a 21, 389 
b 15 , 23 

SiopurpioS) 339 a 34 
StopvrTco, 352 b 25, 29 
SittAous, 339 a 14, 341 b 8, 
357 b 24, 360 a 9, 375 a 30, 
378 a 17 

StVAco/xa, 346 a 24 
S Is, 339 b 28, 356 b 13, 372 
a 29 

StTTo?, 369 a 13 
Si &pv£ 9 350 a 1 
S okso) 9 339 b 23, 340 a 36, 341 
a 35, b 34, 342 a 32, b 3, 
16, 18, 29, 343 b 34, 344 
a 24, 25, 347 b 35, 348 a 14, 
349 a 23, b 3, 354 b 4, 15, 
360 a 3, 361 b 30, 366 a 27, 
367 a 33, 368 a 24, 370 



a 17, 371 b 2, 372 b 2, 3, 
373 a 20, 26, b 5, 375 a 11, 
377 b 3, 383 a 4, 387 b 13, 
389 b 12, 390 b 10 
Sofa, 339 b 19, 29, 34, 343 
b 25, 354 b 19, 370 a 17 
hpaui, 359 a 16 

Spoaos, 347 a 16, 18, 22, 36, 
b 17, 20, 31, 349 a 9, 378 
a 31 

Swa/iat, 339 a 6, 341 a 17, 343 
a 13, 347 a 27, 32, 351 a 13, 
34, b 18, 352 all, 355 a 2, 
363 a 5, 365 b 3, 34, 366 
b 24, 28, 368 a 5, 13, 22, 
b 2, 20, 370 b 31, 371 a 10, 
12, 372 a 6, 373 b 9, 380 
a 14, b 9, 381 a 4, b 2, 385 
a 2, 4, b 30, 386 a 30, b 3, 
20, 27, 30, 387 a 4 r 14, 
b 20, 390 a 10, 12 
Svvafiei, 339 b 1, 340 b 15, 28, 
29, 358 b 8, 369 a 14, 370 
b 13, 378 a 33, 390 a 18 
Si Ivafus, 339 a 23, 32, b 17, 
24, 340 a 14, 16, 345 b 33, 
347 a 8, 351 a 33, 357 b 3, 
358 a 24, 359 a 33, b 10, 13, 
366 b 16, 22, 367 b 5, 369 
a 5, 370 b 14, 378 b 29, 33, 
34, 379 a 20, b 4, 11, 382 a 
5, 31, 385 a 11, 20, 388 a 23 
Suvaros, 344 a 6, 345 b 28, 348 
a 5, 357 a 19, 360 a 17, 362 
a 33, b 6, 34, 370 a 7, 386 
b 11 

Svvco, 361 b 31, 371 b 27, 372 
a 28, 373 b 13 

StW, 343 b 15, 361 b 32, 371 
b 26, 375 b 26 

Suojtt}, 343 b 3, 350 b 1, 361 
a 9, 363 a 34, b 5, 6, 12, 19, 

25, 364 a 21, 24, 26, 365 
a 7, 367 b 9, 372' a 14, 16, 
377 b 28 

SoCToptoToff, 378 b 24, 381 b 29 
Swxtopia, 368 a 5 
Svai (veibum), 342 b 10, 343 
b 22 * 

AwScivrj, 352 a 35 

lap, 347 b 37, 348 b 26, 38, 
365 a 2, 366 b 2 
iapivos, 364 b 1 
Ida), 347 b 10, 356 b 28, 372 
b 21 e 

IjSSopij/coaror, 362 a 24 
l/Sevoy, 384 b 17, 18 
'E/S pos, 350 b 17 
eyyiyvopai, 359 a 21, b 10, 
369 b 12, 370 a 6, 24, 379 
b 6, 381 b 10, 389 b 5 
lyKara/cAeico, 378 a 15, 29, 
> 381 b 2, 384 b 34 
lyKaraAciVo), 368 a 4 
eytajKXios, 339 a 4, 311 b 14, 
344 a 9 

l"/«ru/cAco>s‘, 339 a 12 

eyyeipcaj, 352 b 27 

eyxwcris, 352 b 34 

ISeopa, 359 b 16 

IS pa, 350 a 34, 35, 356 a 4 

ISa)Si 7 , 381 a 2 

ISIAa j, 347 a 5 

eBrns, 350 a 34, 351 b 11, 16, 

I0o>, 367 b 7 

elSoj, 338 b 25, 339 a 29, 357 
b 28, 31, 359 b 28, 360 
a 18, 363 "k 32 (bis), 378 
a 20, b 28, 379 b 10, 17, 26, 
380 b 32, 381 b 4, 24, 382 
a 29, b 11, 13, 383 b 14, 
388 a 26, b 2 



elSaiXov, 373 b 5 
ei/cd£o>, 366 b 29 
zik6t<a>$, 372 b 22 
glkcov, 390 a 13 
elAeco, 356 a 5 

etAiKpwrjs, 340 b 8, 388 b 16 
etfu, 365 b 31, 34, 368 a 20 
eipeoi a, 369 b 10 
«V/?dAAo>, 351 a 10, 356 a 11, 
359 b 19 

c&j3A*rct>, 377 b 1 
€tcr€Lfju 9 359 a 2, 383 a 9, 28 
elcepxopiai, 355 b 7 
cicoSos 1 , 384 b 21 
elcroucitcOf 351 b 31 
elaTTLTrrco, 371 b 7 
€t<T77A€cu, 350 a 31, 353 a 3 
elapea), 356 a 16 
€KpaAA(o, 367 b 13, 375 b 31, 
376 a 1, 380 a 26 
e/f8tSct)fu, 351 a 11 
e/c0A#?co, 341 a 5, 342 a 1, 9, 
369 b 5, 371 a 18,383 a 18, 
385 a 25 

e*0A«/*s, 342 a 15, 369 a 22 
eKdvjJudoj, 388 a 8 
eV/coucu, 341 b 16, 20, 36, 342 
^ a 17, 344 a 18 
€KKavGLSt 342 a 2, 15 
e/c/cdw, 341 b 23, 384 a 20, 23 
€KK€LpLai, 376 a 10 
eKKpLvco, 342 a 1, 18, 345 a 7, 
357 b 11, 364 b 32, 369 
a 24, 27, b 32, 370 b 5, 8, 
17, 29, 32, 371 a 10, 379 
b 8, 380 b 20, 381 b 2, 387 
a 26, 388 a 15 
jzKKpioiSi 342 afi5, 341 b 21, 
346 a 1, b 6, 361 b 18, 367 
b 15, 369 a 36, 370 b 3, 9, 
11, 378 a 12, 387 a 25, 28, 

ifCKpovco, 381 a 16 
e^Ae/7rco, 342 b 34, 347 b 29, 
367 b 4, 369 a 17, b 3, 374 
b 13, 384 b 28 
€kA c4ls 9 367 b 20, 25, 26, 27, 
30, 31 

€KV€(f>Las , 365 a 1, 3, 366 b 33, 
369 a 19, 370 b 8, 17, 29, 
^ 371 a 3, 4, 10, b 15 
e/cmySdcu, 369 a 23 
€KmpLTTp7)flL t 346 b 12, 367 
a 10 

€K7TL7n m o} i 342 b 17, 344 b 33, 
345 a 14, 369 b 7, 371 a 1, 
375 b 22 

starve o>, 37 1 a 13, b 5 
etcrrraiOLs , 370 a 5 
eWupooj, 338 b 23, 340 b 13, 
341 a 18, 32, 34, 342 b 2, 
22, 344 a 14, 369 b 5, 371 
a 15, 23, 378 a 21 
itarvptoais, 342 b 2 
etepeco, 356 a 16 
eKprjyvvp.L , 366 b 32, 368 b 5 
itcpim^ai, 316 a 9 
e/cpoi}, 351 a 1, 356 a 10 
expovs, 351 a 10 
eKpvoiSi 351 a 5 
eWm>, 374 b 11, 387 a 14 
eKrefivut, 362 a 35 
eKrfi7]fjL,a 9 362 b 5, 363 a 29 
envois, 354 a 26, 368 a 32 
eAcuov, 381 a 8, 382 b 16, 383 
b 14,21,28, 384 a 16, 385 
b 4, 387 b 7, 10, 22, 388 a 5 
s 9, 32, b 10 
eAcuaJS^?, 388 a 5 
eAaros’j 378 a 27, 385 a 16, 
b 10, 386 b 18, 19, 22, 23, 
24, 25 

lAa^os 1 , 384 a 27 
lAif, 371 a 12 



Pharos, 385 a 16, b 10, 386 
b 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, 387 
a 11 

eA/cw, 343 a 3, 9, 355 b 1 0, 359 
a 6, 360 a 7, 364 b 13, 365 
b 5, 379 a 25, 380 b 24, 386 
b 12 

‘EAAas, 351 a 7, 352 a 9, 34 
eAAaW, 319 b 18, 363 a 4, 382 
a 20 

v EAAi?v, 352 b 3 
'EAAqvt/cos’, 350 b 15, 352 a 33 
eAA^cwoimas, 36 1 b 19 
*EAA^o’7tovtos-, 366 a 26 
IA |ts, 390 b 7 

lAos, 350 b 20, 21, 351 b 31 
4\c*St)s, 351 b 24, 352 a 3, 10 
ifjLpdXXco, 344 a 27, 356 a 31, 
359 a 18, 34, b 2 
ilxfiGiyvvfu, 357 a 16 
iw4va>, 376 b 28 
’E/ATrcSo/cAifc, 357 a 26, 369 
b 12, 381 b 32, 387 b 4 , 
ifjL7T€pL\afjLf}dva), 358 a 23, 369 
a 25, b 13, 388 b 21 
€/j.7T€pLXrjipts^ 369 b 19 
€pL7TL7TTtQ, 344 a 16, 361 b 19, 
365 a 4, 5, 20, b 6, 8, 369 
a 36 

iptsirotectj, 372 b 8 
ip,<f)aivu), 345 b 26, 372 a 33, 
b 2, 4, 5,373 b 18, 377 b 21 
eudxLOis, 345 b 15, 18, 24, 
373 b 24, 31, 374 a 16, 377 
b 17 

epufavTos, 355 b 9 
evavTicoois, 344 b 36 
evavToXapfidvcot 366 b 10, 16, 
372 b 30 

ivarroXeLTrco, 352 b 35 
hxxTToXrpfjis, 370 a 1 
iva'rroafiivvvpu, 369 b 16 

evSeys, 379 a 19 
evSeia, 379 a 19, 380 a 6, 7, 32, 
} 381 a 14, 15, 16, b 17 
ivBeXexys, 347 a 5 
ivBdxofxa t, 339 b 10, 343 b 21, 
348 a 12, 358 a 26, 362 
b 16, 24, 363r a 22, 373 
b 29, 377 a 12, 390 b 3 
ivSdaj, 346 a 2 
ivSiarptfia), 348 a 8, 357 a js 
ev€Lfu 9 340 b 31, 347 b 25, 26, 
358 a 27, b 5, 359 b 9, 379 
b 35, 380 a 22, b 26, 383 
b 26, 30, 384 b 27, 389 b 5 
€vlclvt6$, 344 b 2#5 349 b 19, 
352 a 30, 355 a 27 
eviaxdco^ 362 a 25 
evoi TTpov, 342 b 12, 345 b 13, 
14, 15, 19, 26, 372 a 33, b 1, 
7, 373 a 19, 22, b 8, 16, 18, 
22, 25, 27, 374 a 25, 29, 
b 19, 377 b [8], 14, 17, 33, 
378 a 4, 11 
ivre Xexeia, 381 b 27 
ivTvyxdvco, 372 a 29 
ewypos , 351 a 19 
evvBpos, 351 a 34, 35, b 25, 
352 a 22, 353 a 21 
ivv7rdpxo) 9 357 a 8, 359 a 24, 
369 b 32, 370 a 7, 25, b 15, 
380 b 14, 381 b 2 
e£dya>, 383 a 16 
e^aipccu, 384 a 29, 31 
e^cupaj, 356 a 20 
€gal<f>vr)$ 9 368 a 6, 390 a 22 
i£arp.iCa> 9 347 b 27, 355 a 18, 
383 a 16, b 29, 384 a 14, 
387 a 24, 9T,8 a 29, b 1, 24 
egeipiL (cfju), 356 a 29, 357 
b 6, 379 a 23, 382 b 21, 383 
a 20, 384 b 9, 388 b 23, 29, 
389 a 22 



igepyofjLai, 36 1 b 29, 366 b 33, 
367 Si 5, 383 a 27, 381b 21 
e^ean, 358 b 8, 374 a 5 
egrjKoexTos, 353 a 4 
iitKtxdlo), 384 b 9, 385 b 8, 
388 b 18 
e^ior'qfu, €89 b 1 1 
i^LTrjAoSt 390 a 21 
igovcxCa, 3 59 a 27 
S-indio), 351 b 5 
loftca, 339 b 26, 342 a 2, 8, 
346 a 30, 351 b 19, 352 a 2, 
355 a 7, 17, 356 b 6, 12, 
357 b 19, 360 b 13, 369 
b 24, €88 b 21, 390 a 2 
irraya), 379 a 25 
enayajyrj, 378 b 11 
<Wpco, 377 a 9 
irrcLKoXovdea j, 37 1 b 7 
eVa/cro?, 382 b 11, 12 
indXXa^s, 387 a 12 
eVaAAarrct), 374 b 4 
iTTavapatvaj, 312 b 34 
eVavareAAtt), 376 b 29 
inavepyofMa^ 343 b 24, 348 
b 13,381 b II, 385 a 22 
€7T€l/u (elpu), 351 a 6, 353 a 22 
iirepxopai, 349 b 11, 14, 352 
a 24, 361 a 7, 367 a 17 
€7rdx<*>9 354 a 10, 355 b 18, 
369 a 1 

em/?A€7rw, 355 b 24 
eWSijAos, 357 a 20, 361 a 27, 

367 b 3 

emSiyAoaj, 373 a 31 
einBrjXtos, 344 b 28, 354 a 15, 

368 a 13, 374 b 21 
€7 nSiaTptfico, <87 1 a 23 
emBlBcopi, 353 a 2 
eiriSoais, 351 b 26 
im^evyvvfML, 373 a 10, 375 

b 23, 376 a 17, 27 (bis) 

em^reco, 3 62 a 16 
em/catco, 371 b 14 
em/caco, 371 a 19, 2 1 
imKpareco, 347 b 26 
imKpepapai, 350 a 8, 352 b 9 
imXavddvopai, 351 b 21 
emXeLTTco, 358 b 27 
imvdfaXos, 369 b 23 
imrreBov, 373 a 14, 375 b 31, 
376 a 1, 9, b 15, 382 a 12, 
14, 386 a 19, 21, 23, 31, 
^ b 12, 13, 21 
eVtTnVra), 364 b 3 
imirXeo), 348 a 9, 359 a 13, 18, 
384 b 17 

€7H7roAa£a>, 339 a 17, 341 b 1 1, 
358 b 33, 360 a 7, 368 b 29, 
383 b 25 

imTroXrjs, 3 62 a 27, 368 a 27 
£mTTp6odT)ais , 342 b 9 
imppico, 361 b 30 
i.7TLppvais, 3 56 a 3 
imcrrjpaivco, 368 a 1 
emrcXect), 381 a 28 
emreXXcu, 345 b 23, 361 b 31 
imToXij, 361 b 35 
im<f>av€ia, 372 a 31 
imxvcns, 3 66 a 6 
iTropifipLa, 360 b 6, 361 b 10, 
365 b 10, 366 b 3 
GTTOpippOSi 360 b 4 
imodL, 370 b 23 
4pyd£o]Acu, 353 b 29, 375 a 27, 
378 b 27, 379 a 10, b 11, 

383 a 32 

ipyaola, 353 a 4, 378 b 27, 

384 b 26 

epyov, 349 b 35, 352 b 22, 353 
a 6, 17, 360 a 15, 361 b 3, 
370 b 3, 378 a 12, b 29, 
381 a 30, 387 b 11, 389 
b 27, 390 a 10, 11, 14, 16 



Ipiov, 37 5 a 26, 382 b 12, 385 
b 14, 18, 386 a 28, b 16, 25, 
387 a 18 
*E pp/fjs, 342 b 33 
*E pvdtLa, 359 a 28 
ipvdpos, 352 b 23, 354 a 2, 
374 a 5 

ioirepa, 343 b 19, 344 b 34, 
345 a 3, 350 a 33 
*E<rua, 369 a 32 
ioX a t€vcq, 362 b 22 
eaxaros, 339 b 2, 14, 341 b 20, 
345 b 33, 350 a 36, b 7, 352 
a 5, 354 b 25, 369 a 17, 
390 a 5 

errjcriaL, 361 b 24, 35, 362 
a 12, 19, 23, 24, 30, 363 
a 15, 365 a 6 

ctos, 353 a 4, 360 b 4, 368 a 1, 
372 a 28 
EtfjSoia, 366 a 27 
etiSta, 346 b 34, 347 a 22, b 1 , 
2, 5, 372 b 19, 29, 33 
€vSl€lvot epos, 347 a 23, 348 a 3 
evepycos, 377 b 25 
evrjOrjs, 365 a 29 
evdcveoj, 352 a 6 
evOXaaros, 386 a 26, 27, 28 
€vOvv<ns, 386 a 7 
evdvmos, 385 b 27, 386 a 8 
evdvvci) , 385 b 32 
eMvrqs, 367 b 11, 385 b 30, 
31 32 

evQvupta, 371 a 13, 377 b 1, 
387 a 20 

evKatpcos , 341 b 22 
Ev/cA^s, 343 b 4 
evKparjs, 352 a 7 
cvk paros, 344 a 14, 20 
evXoyos, 341 a 24, 346 a 8, 354 
b 5, 357 a 2 

euAoycuff, 341 a 27, 361 a 20 

350 b 3, 354 a 17 
evoyKorepos, 380 a 5 
(■vopiaros, 360 a 23, 37$ b 24, 
381 b 29 

BvpLTTOs, 366 a 23 
tvpioKCQ, 350 b 19, 351 a 5, 13, 
352 a 24, b 27 
tvpovoTos, 363 b 22 
edpos (o), 363 a 7, b 21, 364 
a 17, b 3, 19, 20, 24, 26, 
373 b 11 
«5/>tfe, 370 b 18 
evpvxcupia, 367 a 18 
E vpaiin), 350 b 3 
evcrrjixaos, 363 a 27 
ev<l>vta, 344 a 28 
cvtohrjs, 385 a 2 
i(f>diTTa), 339 a 2, 376 a 6, b 9 
373 a 21 

"E^W, 371 a 31 
i<f>ij(iepos, 347 b 21 
i(f>$6s, 380 b 10, 21, 381 a 21, 
27, 29, 383 a 5 
€(f>o8os , 343 b 3 
ifiopdci), 343 b 1 1 
efoBpos, 347 a 31, 352 b 14 
Ity^CTtsr, 379 b 12, 380 b 13, 34, 
381 a 9, 12, 22, b 3, 7, 14,21 
iifrrjTds, 380 b 24, 381 a 7 
€0o), 379 b 28, 380 b 15, 19, 
22, 29, 31, 381 a 1,4, 8,18, 
24, 31, 382 b 25, 384 a 2, 4, 
20, 21, 387 b 7, 388 b 23 
€a>dev, 345 b 23, 371 b 25 
i$os, 367 b 27 

ecus (substantivum), 350 a 21, 
29, 33, 364 a 24, 365 a 10, 
367 a 25 

£aa >, 355 a 4 

tdtns* 340 b 23, 341 b 22, 370 
a 6, 8, 9 



Zeis, 343 b 30 
£e6vpiKQS, 364 a 20 
Uivpos, 363 a 7, b 12, 364 
a 18, b 3, 23, 365 a 8 (bis) 
lio>, 370 a 10, 379 a 31, 385 
b 3, 389 b 3 
fatuow, 359 all 
lyreai, 354 b 1 1, 355 b 20, 356 
b 17 

frfnjcus, 349 a 27 (bis) 
Xofepos, 375 a 19 
fctpSiov, 343 a 24, 345 a 20, 
‘346 a 12 
M, 351 b 10 
Ciivri, 34S<b24 
t,S>ov, 339 a 7, 351 a 28, 355 
‘b 6, 358 b 9, 11, 366 b 25, 
378 b 31, 379 b 6, 381 b 9, 
382 a 6, 384 b 31, 388 a 16, 
b 22, 389 b 5 

yytopai, 339 b 22 
ySvvai, 359 a 34 
rjSvtjpa, 381 b 30 
■ideal, 353 b 15, 357 a 31, b 1, 
359 b 13, 389 b 2 
rjdpos, 359 a 4 
i Km, 356 b 22 

rjkeKTpov, 388 b 18, 19, 20, 25, 
389 a 13 

7t\i, 350 a 31 
riAios, 341 a 13, 20, 23, 24, 35, 
b 7, 342 a 33, b 19, 343 a 4, 
10, 14, 15, 20, 34, 36, b 6, 
21, 344 b 3, 5, 15, 345 a 7, 
16, 22, 27, 29, 30, 34, 35, 
b 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, II, 20, 27, 

346 a 4, 1#, 14, b 21, 36, 

347 a 4, 348 b 33, 349 b 3, 
351 a 32, 353 b 7, 8, 12, 
354 a 29, b 27, 34, 355 a 6, 
8, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 23, 

b 19, 356 b 22, 28, 357 a 8, 
b 20, 359 b 34, 360 a 7, 16, 
b 14, 361 a 7, b 14, 36, 362 
a 6, 18, 25, 363 a 14, 364 
a 9, 11, 25, b 15, 17, 365 
b 25, 366 a 15, 18, 367 a 20, 
23, b 22, 368 b 20, 21, 369 
b 1 1, 370 a 3, 371 h 23, 372 
a 13, 20, b 13, 373 a 1,17, 
19, 21,28, b 12,21,30,33, 

374 a 7, 12, b 2 (bis), 25, 

375 a 3, b 5, 15, 376 b 22, 
28, 377 a 9, 28, 31,33, b 7, 
[7], 9, 19,21,22,30,31,34, 
378 a 1, [3], 4, 6, 7, 383 
b 34 

ypepa, 342 a 12, b 19, 344 
1) 33, 345 a 2, 347 a 13, 348 
b 9, 349 a 7, b 16, 28, 354 
b 14, 29, 355 b 22, 28, 360 
a 3, 4, 361 b 33, 362 a 1, 
366 a 14, 15, 18, 367 b 9, 
34, 370 a 20, 21, 371 b 25, 
31 (bis), 372 a 15, 21, 26, 
377 a 12, 13, 20, 25 
ypepy, 355 a 14 epos, 343 a 3, 345 b 11, 
351 b 10, 366 b 30 
yptKvxhov, 345 a 23, 346 a 24, 
371 b 27, 375 b 17,27,28, 

376 a 3, b 12, 13, 21, 377 
a 6, 7, 16 (bis) 

yp,o<f>aipiov, 375 b 1 9, 24 
yiretpos, 351 a 21, 353 a 24, 
369 a 4 (bis) 
r IJpa/rA«a» 367 a 1 
'HpaitAeioy, 354 a 12, 362 
b 31, 28 

'Hpct/fAeiros, 355 a 14 
'HpaxXys, 359 a 28 
ypipa, 343 b 14, 373 b 4, 375 
a 21 



rjpepai.irepov, 368 a 12 
rjpepew, 3 45 b 13, 16, 349 a 2, 
367 b 30 
TjTraopat, 368 b 4 
“Hfiaicrros, 369 a 32 
Vx^ 367 a 14 
rjwv, 353 a 10, 11 

OdXaTTa, 339 b 12, 3-12 a 11, 
349 a 13, 350 a 22, b 13, 
351 a 4, 9, 12, 22, 23, 24 
(bis), b 5, 352 a 19, 24, 
b 19, 23, 28, 30 (bis), 353 
a 31, 22, 23, 32, b 1, 9, 17, 

31, 35, 354 a 3, 5, 9, 19, 23, 

32, b 3, 13, 16, 22, 355 b 2, 
3, 4, 18, 23, 33, 356 a 7, 23, 
29, 32, 34, b 1, 9, 24, 31, 

357 a 8, 21, 25, b 6, 20, 27, 

358 a 14, b 7, 16, 24, 30, 

359 a 1, 2, 9, 15, b 22, 362 
b 18, 29, 363 a 5, 366 a 25, 
28, 31, 367 a 15, 17, b 12, 
16, 368 b 2, 9, 34, 369 a 6, 
370 a 13, 373 b 11, 374 
a 30, 379 b 4 

davpiaaTos, 342 a 5 
Bedopai, 350 a 15 
Betov, 378 a 23 
Bet os, 339 b 25 
BdXco, 362 a 30, 384 a 31 
BeoXoyCa, 353 a 35 
Bepivds, 343 a 15, b 1, 350 
a 29, 362 a 12, 19, 29, 31, 

363 a 10, b 4, 5, 18, 25, 364 
b 2, 3, 371 b 31, 377 a 20 

Beppatvoi, 341 b 6, 353 b 11, 
355 a 16, 18, 23, 357 b 11, 
' 360 a 8, 25, 362 a 10, 21, 

364 a 11, 365 b 26, 379 
b 29, 380 b 33, 381 a 32, 
382 b 8, 17, 23, 384 b 7 

Bepfiaaia, 380 b 21 
Beppos, 340 a 28, b 16, .23, 25, 

26, 27, 28, 341 a 6, 15, 27, 
32, 36, b 11, 11, 3’42 a 1, 
16, 21, 344 a 10, b 24, 345 
a 8, 346 b 30, 347 a 8, b 6, 

27, 348 a 20, b £, 14, 16, 
36, 349 a 3, 358 a 13, 31 
(bis), 34, b 7, 359 a 32, b 5, 
360 a 25, 27, b 31, 34, 361 
b 16, 364 a 23, 366 a fi8,' 
367 a 32, 33, b 2, 23, 28, 
369 a 17, 21, 370 a 3, 371 
a 1, 5, 372 b 31, 378 b 12, 
21, 379 a 1, 19, 2*, 28, 30, 

31, b 12, 19, 380 a 5, 22, 

32, b 1, 3, 18, 381 b 8, 382 
a 32, 33, b 9, 10, 17,20,24, 

33, 383 a 1, 2, 4, 9, 16, 18, 

27, 28, 29, 30, b 10, 15, 30, 

384 b 4, 9, 11, 13, 14, 24, 

385 a 3, 23, 24, 26 (bis), 27, 
31, 32, b 2, 387 a 25, 30, 
b 15, 16, 388 a 1, 24, 32, 
b 4, 5, 12, 14, 15, 16, 22, 

28, 29, 389 a 9, 23, 24, 27, 
28, b 9, 13, 14, 390 b 4, 8 

BeppoTCLTos, 358 b 10, 11, 389 
b 19 

Bepporepos, 347 a 24, 364 
a 21, 24, 373 a 28, 380 a 4, 
389 b 17 

Bepporqs, 340 a 21, 30, b 13, 
341 a 13, 19, 24, 30, 346 
b 25, 26, 347 a 32, b 4, 25, 
348 b 7, 351 a 31, 355 b 10, 
358 b 8, 359 b 35, 360 a 6, 
16, 362 a 1, 6#28, 369 a 25, 
b 25, 378 b 15, 379 a 17, 
18, 21, 26, 32, 35, b 7, 21, 
24, 34, 380 a 3, 7 (bis), 20, 
b 6, 10, 13, 23, 381 a 14, 



19, 23, 25, 28, b 8, 17, 382 
b 18, 21, 26, 383 d 31, 384 
b 27, 389 a 26, b 2, 3, 4, 6 
(bis), 7, 8, 19, 21, 390 b 3, 12 
6tpos, 348 a 18, b 26, 28, 349 
a 5, b 8, 361 a 13, b 32, 366 
b 4, 379 a 29 

eims, 339 a 33, 340 a 20, 341 
b 24, 342 a 22, 346 a 18, 
34, b 16, 356 a 10, 363 a 21, 
25, b 11, 372 a 3, 374 a 30, 
b 1, 375 a 31 
0ereov, 388 b 32 
deco, 339 b 25 

decopecoi 338 a 25, b 26, 339 
a 6, b 32, 35, 345 b 27, 346 
a 31, 353 b 18, 363 a 26, 
366 b 23, 371 a 30, 31, 372 
b 9, 374 b 15, 22, 27, 375 
b 18 

dea)py]p>a, 339 b 8, 37, 345 b 2 
deo)p7)Teov, 390 b 20 
©Tj/Jai, 351 b 34 
QrjKf], 390 a 23 
dr) [ mov, 344 a 26 
6i)pa 9 348 b 35 
drjpev a>, 348 b 35 
0tyyava>, 342 b 29 
0A dag, 386 a 18, 28 
QXaoroSi 38 5 a 15, 386 a 17, 
25, b 22, 23, 387 a t 
0Aaou, 386 a 26 
dXci/jis, 382 a 13 
9irijcn«t), 390 a 12 
dpaQKiast 363 b 29, 364 a 1, 
14, b 4, 22, 29, 365 a 3, 7 
Bpavois, 386 a 13, 390 b 7 
dpavaros , 3#5 a 14, 386 a 9, 
10, 11 (bis), 15, 387 a 1 
dpava >, 387 a 5 t 

dpt£, 38 6 b 1 4, 387 b 1, 4, 388 
a 17, 389 a 12, 390 b 5 

dvpLtacns, 387 a 30, 32, b 6, 13, 

388 a 3 

Oufuaros , 385 a 18, 387 a 23, 
26, b 7, 8,21,31,389 a 17 
dvfudco, 362 a 7, 9, 1 1, 387 b 9 

tarpoff, 384 a 2 1 
380 a 17, b 30 
thla, 378 b 5 
Ihiaharos, 382 a 3 
iSioj, 360 b 15, 374 b 16, 385 
a 1 

l8lco t 350 a 1, 357 b 14, 18, 2J 

IBlojs, 379 a 12 

i'Spwo), 339 b 1 1 

tSpcijj, 353 b 12, 13, 357 a 25, 

29, b 4, 14, 358 a 10 
'Iepa (vrjoos), 367 a 2 
IQayevrjS) 364 a 16, 18 
LKfxaSi 376 b 28 

*Atfe, 388 b 7 
ifias, 386 b 14 

i/acltiov, 359 a 22, 371 a 28, 
382 b 19 
"Iva^os , 350 b 16 
’IvSi/ctJ, 362 b 21, 28 
’IvSos, 350 a 25 
l£6s, 385 b 5, 386 b 14 
'hnroKpdT7)s, 312 b 36, 343 
a 28, 344 b 15 

tpis, 371 b 18, 26, 32, 372 a 9, 
21, 373 a 2, 32, b 32, 33, 
374 a 8, 15, 20, 21, 30, b 5, 
28, 375 a 1, 10, 11, 15, 18, 

30, b 6, 7, 9, 12, 16, 376 
b 24, 27, 377 a 13, 15 

ipiobhrjs, 374 a 28 

is, 384 a 28 (bis), 388 a 17, 

389 a 20, 21 
to-a£<o, 358 b 15 

icrnp-epta, 364 b 1, 371 b 30, 
377 a 12, 14 (bis) 


Icrnfiepivos (adiectivum), 343 
b 3, 345 a 3, 350 b 2, 363 
a 34, b 1, 12, 14 364 a IT 
larjiAepwos (substantivum), 37T 
a 18 

LaoTax&s, 345 b IT 
Io6tt)s , 3 40 a 4, 15 
Zcmwu, 374 b 4, 376 b 27 
’Icrrpos-, 350 b 2, 3, 9, 356 a 28 
ia X Lov , 343 b 1 1 
lo X vp6s t 362 b 27, 364 b 6, 
367 a 22, b 32 
bxvporaTost 366 a 24 
loyvporepoSi 366 a 23, 371 
b 4, 374 b 31, 387 a 21 
ioxvpcoSi 349 a 9, 366 b 14 
ta X vs 9 366 b 27, 370 b 10 
lo X d co, 361 a 35, 367 a 31, 379 
a 28 

to X co, 343 a 27, 30, 356 a 13 
’IraAta, 367 a 7 
’iToAt/coj, 342 b 30 
i X dvs , 348 b 35, 359 a 21, 26, 

l X (*>pi 389 a 10 
iX<Jt>po<zihris 9 384 a 32 

KaOapos, 339 b 30, 344 b 14, 
383 b 1 

Kadapo)T€pos 9 340 b 8 
KaOecnSt 356 all 
Katferos, 373 a 11, 376 b 19 
Kadtypu, 351 a 13 
KadoXov, 339 a 7, 359 b 31, 
378 b 28, 379 b 16, 381b 4, 
385 a 21 

KaiKias , 363 b 17, 30, 364 
a 15, b 1, 12, 14, 18, 24, 25 
Kaipos , 344 b 26, 358 b 23 
kcu'cu, 341 b 2, 26, 27, 30, 342 
b 3, 343 a 9, 371 a 24, 387 
b 10, 388 a 6, 389 b 22 

KaXapLV], 341 b 27 
Ka\afLos 9 349 a 1, 3, 359 b I, 

385 b 27 
xdpuvos, 383 a 25 
KapLTTToSi 385 a 6, 13, b 27, 

386 a 8 

KdfnTTO) 9 385 b 31, 386 a 1, 3, 
4 (bis) 

KapuftLSi 386 a 2, 7 (bis) 
Kavajf3cK6s t 351 b 33 
Kamos 9 341 b 21, 342 b 14, 
19, 359 b 32, 360 a 25, 361 
a 19, b 19, 371 a 33 (bis), 
374 a 6, 7, 387 b 1, 23, 24, 
388 a 2, 3, b 6, 389*b 22 
KaTTvaihriSi 341 b 10, 15, 360 
a 10, b 3, 374 a 26, 378 a 19 
Kapiros, 385 b 19, 389 a 15, 
390 a 23 
Kdomos, 354 a 3 
Karaj Satvco, 349 b 32, 355 a 26, 
356 b 26, 361 a 15 
tear afSoXijt 352 b 15 
Kara&vvco, 359 a 9 
KaraSvco , 359 a 19 
KaraKaicOi 358 a 14, 361 b 20, 
363 a 13, 371 a 28, 379 a 

#cara#cdfA7rTca, 386 a 1 
KardKapu/tLSi 386 a 5 
KaraKaco, 359 b 2 
KaraKXeicOi 366 a 16 
KaraKXvapLos^ 352 a 33, 368 b 5, 

KarcLKTos , 385 a 14, 386 a 9, 
10, 11 (bis), 16 
KaraXeCircOi 367 b 18 
KaTaXrjyu), 340 b 9r 
Karap.apaLvoi 9 344 a 30, 361 
b 27, ^ 368 a 7, 372 b 20 
KaTa£r}patva> 9 340 b 1 
Karal; is, 386 a 12 



Karaira-Vtoi 361 b £0, 22, 864 
b 14 

KCLTairiva), 351 a 1, 16 
KaTaTrXvva), 357 b 5 
KaraTrvKvoctii 316 a '29 
Karappoys, 380 b 5 
KaracTraats, 369 b 20 
Karacnrda), 371 a 15 
KaTCLT€<f>p6a), 367 a 7 
%aTa(f>av'qs, 375 a 22 
Ka,TCL<f)€p<jt)t 347 a 15, 348 all, 
354 b 31, 358 b 3, 369 b 15, 
373 a 13 

Karatjjv^a), 361 a 2, 368 b 34 
KareLfU, 350 a 9, 358 b 33, 
360 a 5 

KanEpxofJLcu, 348 b 15, 358 
b 26 

/care^co, 345 a 1, 355 b 2, 360 
b 33, 367 b 30 
/caTOt/ceoj, 350 a 34, 363 b 27 
KaroiKicrp-os, 351 b 22 
KarTirepos , 388 a 14, 389 a 8 
K auWos, 350 a 36, 28, 351 
a 8 

K avpa, 342 b 10, 362 b 17 
Kavp.arwB-rjs, 364 b 23 
kclvotikos, 387 a 25, 30 
Kavoros , 384 b 16, 385 a 18, 

387 a 17, 18, 19, b 13, 18 
/caco, 358 a 12, 14, 359 b 10, 

371 a 31, 33, b 3, 382 b 8, 

388 a 2, 9, 389 b 21 
/cet/xat, 342 a 22, 346 a 18, 28, 

347 a 10, 350 b 21, 354 b 9, 
12, 357 b 24, 360 b 14, 363 
a 3, 33, b 20, 26, 27, 364 
a 30, 37i?a 2, 375 a 32, 379 
b 15, 380 a 18, b 30, 387 b 2 
KeXruaj, 350 b 2 
K€v6s , 365 b 5, 386 b 2, 3, [4] 
K€voa), 349 a 35, b 15 

nivTpov, 362 b 1, 373 a 16, 
375 h 20, 376 b 20, 377 a 2, 
4, 11 

Kepafios , 380 b 8, 383 a 21, 
24, b 11,20, 384 a 34, b 2, 

19, 385 a 30, b 9, 28, 386 
a 11, 18, 23, b 26, 388 b 12, 

Kepavwpu , 346 a 6, 372 a 8 
Kepavvvci), 372 a 7 
Kepast 383 a 32, 384 b 1, 385 
b 11,388b 31, 389 all 
Kspavvos, 339 a 3, 342 a 13, 
369 a 11, 19, 371 a 19, b 8, 

KeppaTL^ 367 all 
KetfiaXy, 362 b 11, 390 b 11 
Krjpivosi 359 a 1, 3 
Kripos , 386 a 17, 21, b 8, 25, 
387 b 22, 388 a 3, 389 a 1 
Aft^wTos, 390 b 13 
uvea), 338 b 23, 339 a 32, 341 
a 34, b 23, 342 a 28, 344 
a 13, b 10, 345 b 15, 20, 
346 b 20, 349 a 17, 22, 32, 
352 a 27, 356 a 5, 360 a 20, 
28 (bis), 32, 361 a 28, 31, 
364 b 16, 17, 365 a 21, b 2, 

6, 366 b 14, 33, 367 a 34, 
b 31, 368 a 13, 21, 22, 28, 
b 23, 369 a 5, 371 a 13, 
b 10, 379 a 30, 33, 38 la 19, 
b 19, 385 b 33, 386 a 33, 
b 13 

KLVTjms-, 338 a 21, 339 a 1, 14, 
23, 25, 31, 340 b 13, 18, 
341 a 4, 17, 28, 31, b 20, 
35, 344 a 12, 17, 36, 345 a 

7, b 34, 346 a 8, 349 a 

20, 361 a 26, 32, 365 a 14, 
366 a 4, b 26, 28, 368 a 19, 
27, 371 a 14, 379 a 35, 381 



a 16, 382 a 29, 386 a 2, 33, 
390 b 3, 9, 12, 19 
KivTjTtKos, 366 a 1 
tavrjTLKMTaros , 365 b 30 
Kivvafiapi, 378 a 26 
KAa £o/xevtos, 365 a 17 
/cAao>, frango , 343 a 14, 373 
a 5, 6, 374 b 29, 377 b 

KAetS^os, 370 a 11 
Kvlcra 9 387 b 6, 388 a 5 
KotAi'a, 349 b 4, 10, 350 b 23, 
355 b 13, 358 b 11, 360 
b 23, 365 b 3, 366 b 12, 369 
b 2, 381 b 11, 12 
KolXoSt 347 a 30, 350 a 10, 351 
a 4, 354 a 23, 356 a 26, 365 
a 21, 368 a 23, 386 a 6 
kolXotcltos , 355 b 17 
KoiXorepos, 352 b 33 
kolXottjs , 354 a 12, 386 a 2 
/cotv#, 343 a 21, 365 a 12, 378 
b 5 

koivosi 338 a 24, b 24, 340 a 4, 
341 b 15, 343 b 8, 346 b 17, 
347 a 3, 364 a 15, 17, b 26, 
378 b 20, 379 a 3, 20, 383 
a 13, 26, 384 a 15, 17, b 30, 
387 a 30, b 2, 32, 388 a 26, 
30, 33, b 9, 389 a 1, 6, 19, 
b 7 ^ 

Koivcovea j, 354 a 2 
/co'AAa, 381 b 32 
/eoAAaco, 382 a 1 
koXitos , 344 b 36 
koXo)v6s 9 365 b 8 
/cd/xiy, 343 b 1, 17, 27, 28, 30, 
b 9, 12, 344 b 2, 6, 346 a 15, 
b 4, 6 

Ko^TTjs (adiectivum), 342 
b 28, 343 a 16, 24 (?), b 5, 
32, 344 a 21, 22, 32, 35, b X, 

16 (?), 33, 35, 345 b 12, 35, 
346 a 3 

Koixrjrris (substantivum), 338 
b 23, 339 a 35, 342 b 25, 
343 a 23, 24 (?), 34, 36, b 1, 
26, 344 b 10, 13, 16 (?), 
345 a 2, 6, 316 a *14, b 1, 
8, 13 

Ko/Lifu, 388 b 20 
KopLi/ievpia, 349 a 30 
Acovia, 357 b 1, 358 b 9, 359 
b 7, 12, 378 a 25, 381 a 13, 
389 a 10, 27 
KOTrpos 9 379 a 23 
kotttoj, 367 a 10 
KopatjoC, 351 a 11 
Kopiv$os , 345 a 4 
Kopv(j>rj , 350 a 36, 362 b 3 
Koop,4<jo 9 341 b 13 
KoarpLoSi 339 a 20, b 4, 18, 340 
b 10, 12, 344 a 9, b 12, 346 
b 11, 352 a 25, 355 a 23, 
356 b 7 

Kov(j>o$, 365 a 29 
kov</>6t7)$ 9 355 a 33, b 5 
Kpaais 9 359 b 21, 362 b 16 
Kparecu, 358 a 12, 366 a 16, 
17, b 13, 28, 369 a 1, 370 
a 9, 371 a 6, 7, 9, 372 b 30, 
376 b 22, 23, 26, 27, 379 a 1, 
2, 11, 30, 31, 32, b 4, 33, 
380 a 3, 23, b 6, 23 (bis), 
26, 387 b 16 
Kprjvatos , 353 b 28 
KpijvT), 350 a 5, b 34, 359 a 25, 
30, b 5, 8, 17 
Kplvo), 382 a 17 
Kpvos 9 367 a 22 
KpvoraXXos 9 347 b 36, 348 
a 32, b 34, 36, 349 a 2, 385 
a 32, b 7, 386 a 10, 387 
a 19, 22, 388 b 11, 16 



Kvadost 355 b 29 
Kvavovs , 342 b 15 
KvBepvaar, 339 a 23 
kJkXos, 343 a 7 ,12, 19, ill, 25, 
345 a 3, 16 20, 22, ‘25, 33, b 
19,346 a 16,23, 27,28,31, 
35, b 4, 8, 21, 36 (bis), 357 
a 1, 363 a 28, 370 b 22, 26, 
371 b 23, 26, 28, 29, 372 b 
13, 373 a 3, 4, 5, 16, 375 b 
1(5, 19,24,27, 32,376 a 18, 
b 8, 10,21, 24,31, 377 a 2, 
11, 26^ 

Kvi<\oTefri]& 362 b 13 
kvkXm, 340 b 11, 32, 34, 341 
a 2, 344 a 13, 347 a 2, 7, 
348 b 7, 354 a 4, 356 a 8, 
359 b 34, 360 b 8, 10, 361 
a 24, 362 b 15, 870 b 32, 
371 a 14, 373 a 22, 374 
a 17, 27, 375 a 13, 380 b 

Kvixa , 343 b «3, 344 b 35, 368 
a 29 (bis), 34, b 8, 

KVfjLalvu), 356 a 17, 367 b 13 
Kvpios (adiectivum), 346 b 20, 
361 a 34, 37 2 b 29 
KvpCoDSi 379 b 14, 380 b 14 
Kvpia>ra.Tos 9 361 a 20, 364 a 4, 

Kvpr6s , 350 a 11, 365 a 31, 
386 a 5 

KvpTQrrjs , 386 a 1 
kvotls , 357 a 33, 358 a 9 
kiW, 343 b 12, 361 b 35 
Acce>Atla>, 340 a 29, b 32, 33, 311 
a 4, 343 b 20, 345 a 29, 3 IS 
b 20, 361 b , 23, 362 b 1 8, 
364 a 30, 368 b 34, 370 
b 23, 24 

k&vos, 345 b 6, 363 b 2, 5, 
375 b 22, 376 a 12 

Kawn?, 369 b 10, 374 a 29, b 6 

KomrjXaxxia, 369 b 11 

Xappdrepos, 348 b 10 (bis), 23 
Xapfidwo, 339 b 4, 21, 340 
b 35, 341 a 10, 25, 343 a 2, 
17, b 9, S46 a 7, 347 b 34, 
349 a 34, 351 a S3, 354 
b 22, 355 a 8, 29, 356 b 30, 
357 b 23, 359 b 11, 27, 
360 b 8, 11, 362 b 24, 368 
b 21, 371 b 21, 372 a 32, 
b 23, 375 a 28, 388 a 25, 
389 a 29, 390 a 5 
Xapirpos, 361 b 5, 8, 370 a 19, 
371 b 24, 372 a21,b 6, 7, 
373 b 22, 23, 374 a 3, 7, 
b 10, 377 b 9 
Xapirporaros, 346 a 20 
Xap,npirqs, 370 a 15 
Xavdavai, 351 b 10, 15, 23, 354 
a 4, 360 a 4, 361 b 7, 362 
a 15, 372 a 23, 25, 374 b 24 
Aeioy, 372 a 31, 373 a 35, 377 
b 21 ' . 

Xmdrtpos, 374 b 19 
Aefoco, 340 b 2, 351 b 17, 353 
b 9, 357 b 12, 20, 358 a 19, 
359 b 3, 372 b 5, 384 a 8, 
385 a 29, 389 b 11 
Xeirropepdarepos, 368 a 19, 
370 b 6 

Asjitos, 359 a 32, 367 b 9, 15, 
18, 369 b 5, 370 b 8, 371 
a 18, 19, 373 b 8, 374 b 1, 
380 a 24, b 2 

AeTrroraroy, 351 b 28, 358 a 9, 
365 b 35 

Xeirrorepos, 371 a 16 
AewroTi)?, 368 a 21, S71 a 20, 



XeirrtivcOi 381 a 6 
XevKalvcti , 383 b 29 (bis) 
XevKovorost 363 a 14 
Xevtcos , 34#1 a 36, 343 b 9, 18, 
359 a 35, 373 a 31, 374 a 7, 
27, b 37, 30 (bis), 375 a 8, 
17 (bis), 16, 18,21 (bis), 25, 

377 b 9, 16, 23 (bis), 385 a 2 
XevKorepos, 374 a 3 
X€vk6tt)s 9 373 a 26 

Xqya) 9 340 a 31, 348 a 16, 366 
b 32 

XrjfiT), 379 b 32 

XrjTrreov, 339 a 21, 346 b 19, 

378 b 26, 390 b 15 
A Lpavos, 389 a 14 
XifiavcDTos , 387 b 26, 30, 388 

a 3, b 20, 31 

AiBvrj, 350 b 11, 352 b 32, 358 
b 3, 363 a 5 

A tyviis, 374 a 24, 26, 387 b 6, 
388 a 4 

AiyvarLtcn, 351 a 16 
AiyvcrriKos* 368 b 32 
XiOivos, 390 a 1, 13 
A t'0os, 344 b 32, 368 b 29, 378 
a 22, 25, 30, 380 b 25, 383 
b 5, 11, 20, 384 a 18, b 2, 
385 a 9, b 29, 386 a 10, 27, 
b 10, 15, 19, 387 a 18, b 17, 
388 a 14, b 25, 389 a 8, 18, 
b 22 

Xidtofys, 352 b 10 

XCkvov 9 368 b 29£a>, 340 b 37, 351 b 8, 

352 a 5, 14, b 35, 356 a 

A Ifivrj, 349 b 29, 350 a 25, 31, 
35, b 31, 351 a 8, 352 b 34, 

353 a 2, 5, 10, 12, 359 a 17, 

XipuvwB t]s, 353 b 24 

AmapaLOSi 367 a 6 
Xnrapos , 387 b 6, 388* a 8 
XLxjj, 363 b 19, 23, 364 a 16, 
b 2, 18, 25 
XoyllopLcu, 362 b 24 
Aoyos, 339 b 37, 340 a 11, 343 
b 32, 344 a 6, 350 b 8, 352 
b 33, 354 b 10, 356 a 15, 
357 a 4, b 22, 34, 360 a 22, 
362 b 14, 15, 363 a 26. 369 
b 27, 370 a 1, 6, 372 b 15, 
374 b 17, 375 b 9, 376 a 2, 
5, 9, 23, 24, 28, 31,32, b 3, 
11,378 b 20, 33^379 b 35, 
389 b 29, 390 a 6, 19, b 18 
Xol7tos 9 338 a 25, 340 a 19, 353 
b 4, 356 a 12, b 21, 379 
b 10, 384 a 30, 390 a 21 
Aofo's, 342 a 27, 361 a 23 
Aot u's, 387 b 5 
Xovrpov , 379 b 23 
A o(j>a)$7}s, 367 a 4 
A vyKos, 359 b 17 
Xvyost 385 b 28 
Averts, 354 b 22, 355 b 2 
Av-ros, 383 b 10, 13, 384 a 34 
Av>os, 342 a 3, 5, 9, 374 a 20, 
27, 32, 375 a 27 
Auo>, 375 a 15, 382 b 33, 383 
a 1, 2, 4, 7, 10, b 16, 384 
b 4, 11, 12, 13 
Ao ><£aco, 362 a 7 

ftd077jua, 339 b 33 
/xa^rrjs, 342 b 36 
MatcOrts, 350 a 25, 353 a 1, 
354 a 13, 17. 20, 362 b 22 
fiaKpav , 348 a 35, 356 a 25 
^ta/epds, 351 b 20, 367 b 10 
liaxporepos , 375 a 32, 377 a 13 
fjLaXaKOs , 382 a 11, 12, 13, 15, 
18, 21, 22, 25, 383 a 19, 



386 b 31, 32, 33, 387 a 4, 

12, 388 a 27, 28 
paXaKorqs, 38a a 9, 390 b 7 
aaXaKTOs, 384 b 1, 16, 387 

a 13, b 6, 11, 386 a 20, 388 
b 30, 389 a 17 

paXaKWTepos, 383 a 25, 385 
b 17, 386 b 6 

aaXdrrco, 378 b 17, 383 a 31 
,u.av6s, 377 b 5 
fiafoTTjs, 371 a 27 
papaivoj, 361 b 15, 383 b 30 
fidpavois, 361 b 21, 372 b 19 
papTvpdu), 350 b 28, 360 a 33 
paprvpiot, 350 b 19, 359 a 19 
p.ey€0o9, 339 b 7, 34, 340 a 8, 
9, 16, 343 b 35, 344 a 1, 
b 29, 31, 345 b 2, 346 a 29, 
348 a 27, 36, 349 b 9, 18, 
350 a 28, b 8, 352 a 27, b 6, 
7, 353 a 3, 354 b 13, 355 a 
21, b 23, 358 a 29, 361 b 
33, 362 b 23, 365 a 32, 366 
a 11, b 24, 368 a 2, 370 a 
6, 373 b 11, 26 (bis), 377 a 
20, 24 

fie6lcm]p.t, 344 b 4, 345 a 35 
(bis), 351 b 3, 365 a 31, 385 
b 32, 386 a 22, 31, b 12, 13, 

pedo 80s, 338 a 25 
p.e6vcrKui, 387 b 12 
peiyvvpi, 342 b 9, 353 b 16, 
354 b 7, 358 a 21, 359 a 12, 

13, 372 b 7, 374 a 6, 25, 

383 b 27, 390 b 9 
peuerds, 381 b 25, 383 a 21, 

384 a 3 -* 

petals, 357 a 18, 20, 358 b 34 
petpopai, 352 a 29 
peXalvoi, 371 a 23 
peXavCa, 374 a 26, 375 a 12 

peXavraros, 375 a 9 
peXavrepos, 373 a 26, 374 
b 14, 19, 20, 29 
pJXa s, 342 b 15, 18, 372 b 25, 
373 a 25, 374 a 1, 3, 4, 19, 

29, b 10 (bis), 12, 14, 28, 

30, 375 a 20 (bis), 26, 383 
b 8, 381 b 18 

p.&i, 383 a 5, 384 a 15, 385 
b 2, 388 b 10, 23 
fte'Aos, membrum, 387 b 5 
M epfas, 352 a 1 
pAvw, 342 b IS, 344 a 29, 345 
a 35, b 20, 24, 346 b 23, 
348 a 6, 14, 352 b 17, 355 
a 29, 356 b 18, 357 b 31, 
359 b 7, 360 b 21, 365 a 32, 
386 a 21, 26, 28 
peptfa, 354 b 7, 365 b 28 
pdpos, 338 a 25, b 25 (bis), 
341 a 6, 343 a 19, b 23, 344 
a 10, 345 b 14, 18, 350 a 25, 
32, 351 a 28, 30, 33, 36, 
354 a 24, 355 b 11, 357 
b 12, 29, 358 b 13, 29, 359 
a 30, b 3, 31, 360 b 7, 9, 15, 

363 a 25, 364 a 9, 368 b 12, 
14, 17, 373 a 4, 378 a 16, 
b 31, 379 a 2, 13, b 5, 386 
a 13, 19, 21, 25, b 21, 387 
b 29 

pe<rt)pj3pla, 361 a 6, 16, 22, 
362 a 34, b 8, 363 b 3, 16, 

364 a 7, 16, 366 a 14, 15, 
17, 371 b 25, 32, 377 a 10, 

pecnjpfipivos, 362 b 11, 375 
b 29, 377 a 22 

picrqs, 363 b 30, 34, 364 a 1 5, 
b 21, 31 

petrovvicnov, 367 b 27 
pcaovvKTtos, 367 b 26 



peaos, 339 a 15 (bis), 340 
b 19, 20, 345 b 22, 355 a 1, 
5, 11,15, 361 b 28, 362 b 3, 
363 b 29, 30, 377 a 21 
pevorrjs, 382 a 19 
fieaovpaveco, 372 a 14, 373 
b 13^ 

peoovpavios, 378 a 8, 9 
peoros, 377 b 2 
pLerapdWct), 347 a 1, 351 a 20, 
21, b 4, 24, 352 a 5, b 1, 
353 a 21, 24, 354 b 6, 355 
a 9, 357 a 3, b 28, 358 b 33, 
359 b 14, 23, 360 b 26, 362 
b 8, 365 b 5, 366 a 22, 370 
a 30, 374 b 23, 31, 375 a 17, 
377 b 27, 378 b 16, 379 b 1, 
380 b 9, 33, 381 a 24, 385 
b 31 

pcrd^aoris, 386 a 6, 388 a 6 
perapoA'j, 338 a 23, 351 b 12, 
36, 352 a 18, 26, b 16, 354 
b 27, 358 a 1, 361 b 31, 34, 
369 a 26, 374 b 35, 378 
b 29, 32, 379 a 33 
fjL€TaSia}KO), 389 a 25 
pcraXAevros, 378 a 21 
pcraX Actlcu, 378 a 27, 384 b 32, 
388 a 13 

pcravdoraais, 351 b 16 
pcromim-oi, 360 b 1 8 
pcrdppoia, 367 a 28 
peraararns, 364 b 15, 367 
b 12, 386 a 19 
p€ra<f>opa , 357 a 27, 380 a 18, 
b 30 

PL€t4x&i 358 a 26, 365 a 35, 
384 b 29 

pcrccapl^w, 346 b 28, 317 
a 13, 29, 32, 357 b 20 
pcT€u>poXoyi<x, 338 a 26 
pcrcoopoXoyos, 354 a 29 

perdcopos, 343 a 31, 348 a 6, 
b 20, 368 b 20, 378 ^a 18 
jx^roTTcxiptvos, 358 a 29, 364 
b 2, 371 b 30, 377 a 12 
p.€T07T(x>pov, 348 a 1, b 27, 28, 
358 b 4, 365 a 2, 366 b 2 
pdrpios, 360 b 10 
[xerpLOJSy 346 b 2, 359 a 9 
firjKos, 341 b 25, 27, 29, 32, 
344 a 23, 29, 351 b 32, 356 
a 27, 362 b 1 7, 20, 367 blO, 
368 b 27, 385 b 30, 386 a 2, 
387 a 2, 8, 10, 30 
prjvva>, 344 b 13 
piKpopepeia, 348 a9 l 
[xiKpopeprjs, 372 b 17 
lUKporrjs , 348 a 8, 369 a 5, 373 
a 19, [377 b 8] 

MtAiJ cuos-, 365 a 18 
piXros, 378 a 23 
pipdopat, 346 b 36, 381 b 6, 343 b 18 
pvela, 352 a 1 

pvrjpoveva), 351 b 12, 20, 26 
poAvfiSos, 349 a 2, 385 a 32, 

389 a 8 

poAvvms , 379 a 2, b 14, 381 
a 12, 22, b 9, 14 
MoAcov, 313 b 5 
p,ovT 7 , 344 a 24, 25 
povipos, 387 a 15, 17 
popiov , 340 a 6, 341 a 5, 345 
a 24, b 23, 347 a 12, 353 
b 3, 356 b 35, 357 b 28, 
360 b 11, 365 a 24, 369 a 4, 
370 b 20, 373 b 15, 374 
a 17, 385 b 25, 386 a 32, 

390 b 3 

popM, 359 b 1 1, 379 b 27 
pveXos, 389 b 10 
pvdoXoyeo), 356 b 12, 359 
a 17, 27 



fiSffos, 356 b 11, 17 
fjLvda)$T]s> 850 b 8 
/AVKaofAcu, ,368 a 25 
MvK7jvaLos% 352 a 9, 11 
fivXrj , 383 b 7 
f&vXiaSi 383 b 12 
fjivcoi 381 b 8 
IacdAvvo), 3S1 a 91 

vqcfe, 371 a 31 ^ 
vavcrLfrepcLTOs, 351 a 18 
NetAoff, 350 b 1 1, 351 b 30, 
353 a 16, 356 a 98 
vexpos, 389 b 31, 390 a 99 
veos , 355 a%4 (bis), 388 b 1, 3 
N eWos, 350 b 16 
vetJpov, 385 a 8, 386 h 14, 388 
a 17, 389 a 19, 390 a 19, b 5 
ve(j>i\rq, 346 b 33, 35, 348 a 90, 
367 b 19, 370 a 14, 375 a 16 
ve</>e\Lov, 367 b 9 
vefos, 340 a 95, 31, b 30, 33, 
311a 10, 346 b 33, 347 
b 19, 93, 96, 348 a 16, 93, 
96, b 8, 349 a 18, 350 b 95, 
358 a 93, 360 b 1, 361 a 1, 
9, 97, 364 b 9, 14, 94, 33, 
367 a 91, 369 a 15, 16, 97, 
98, 35, 36, b 9, 19, 96, 370 
a 97, 99, b 18, 28, 99, 31, 
32, 371 a 1, 10,12,18, 379 
b 17, 373 a 18, b 90, 29, 30, 
374 b 90, 91, 95, 375 a 9, 
13, 19, 377 a 33, 34, b 1, 9, 
3, 4, 5 

vrjvefiia , 347 a 96, 361 b 93, 
95, 366 a 5, 367 a 99, 96 
(bis), b 18, 93, 368 b 7 
vijv€fj,os, 361 b 6 
vTfvepuoraToSi 366 a 14 
v7}V€pLU)T€pos 9 366 a 18, 373 
a 94 

vrjoos, 356 b 14, 367 a 2, 3, 13, 
368 b 32 

Nt/copa^o?, 345 a 2 
vi7TTiKtos , 371 a 1 
virpov, 383 b 12, 19, 384a 18, 
34, 385 a 31, b 9, 16, 23 
(bis), 388 b 13, 389 a 18 
viferos, 349 a 9, 371 a 8 
vifeTibSys, 364 b 21 
voeo, 340 b 14, 94, 341 b 18, 
345 b 36, 347 a 2, 349 b 17, 
353 b 21, 358 a 18, 363 
a 98, 366 b 15, 99, 373 a 19, 
374 b 9 
vofiT), 363 a 14 

vo(j.%a>. 339 a 99, b 24, 25, 34, 
344 a 5, b 19, 348 b 5, 349 
b 91, 95, 350 b 22, 35, 351 
a 95, b 99, 359 a 16, b 4, 
355 b 12, 356 b 9, 359 b 5, 
365 a 27, 379 b 17 
vofiLcrreov, 339 a 24, b 14 
voaros , 351 b 14 
voaaiBrjs, 384 a 31 
vorlfa, 361 b 2 
vinos, 347 a 36, 37, b 9, 10, 
358 a 28, 363 a 6, 364 a 19, 
374 a 21, 377 b 26, 27 
von ?, 343 a 11, 350 b 29, 365 
b 25 

voros, 343 a 8, 10, b 3, 345 a 1, 
347 b 2, 5, 358 a 29, b 2, 
361 a 6, 22, b 11,362 a 12, 
31, 363 a 6, 8, 13, 17, b 15, 
22, 364 a 15, 21, b 23, 367 
a 13, 368 b 7 
WKrepLvis, 360 a 4 
vvktcop, 342 a 11, 34, 345 
b 25, 347 a 15, 360 a 3, 370 
a 20, 372 a 12, 21, 376 b 25 
w'i, 342 b 20, 345 a 23, b 8, 
22, 350 a 32, 354 a 31, 362 


a 1, 7, 9, 366 a 13, 17, 370 
a 14, 371 b 24, 375 a 20 
Ntlmjy, 350 b 12 

faMs, 372 a 10, 375 a 7, 11, 
17, b 11,377 b 11 
t-avdorepos, 375 a 10 
|ij paivia, 347 a 20, 349 b 14, 

351 a 34, b 7, 30, 352 a 6, 
20, b 14, 35, 353 all, b 8, 
10, 356 b 25, 28, 357 a 1, 
b 10, 13, 18, 360 a 8, b 31, 
361 b 17, 362 a 2, 5, 365 
b 4, 7, 11, 369 a 34, 378 
b 17, 381 a 39, 382 a 30, 
b 1, 10, 16, 19, 21, 22, 27, 
383 b 33, 34, 384 a 1, 5, 9, 
10, 26, 30, b 20, 385 a 25 

|ijpam'a, 384 all 
frp6s, 340 b 16, 27, 28, 341 
b 10, 14, 22, 344 a 10, b 27, 
35, 351 a 20, b 3, 6, 24, 

352 a 13, b 19, 353 a 7, 14, 

17, b 11, 355 a 9, 356 b 15, 
357 b 16, 25, 358 a 19, 22, 
31, 34, b 10, 359 b 29, 39 
(bis), 360 a 12, 25, b 3, 16, 
19, 23, 24, 361 a 2, 30, 362 
a 9, 10, 364 b 19, 20, 365 
b 22, 24, 366 b 6, 9, 369 
a 14, 26, 370 a 28, 371 a 5, 
372 b 33, 378 a 21, b 3, 13, 

18, 23, 379 a 9, 10, 380 
a 34, b 19, 381 a 23, 28, 
b 23, 95, 26, 29, 31, 382 a 3, 
10, b 2, 3, 4, 33, 383 a 2, 
12, 17, b 9, 15, 884 b 3, 13, 
29, 385 a 8, 387 a 27, 31, 
b 32, 388 a 1, 6, 7, 9, 22, 
389 a 30 

frpirepos, 344 b 22, 348 b 27, 
351 a 36, b 28, 356 b 32, 

379 a 22, 380 a 5, b 21, 381 
a 28, 29 

irjpoT-rjs, 361 b 22, 878 a 30 
fiJAivoy, 390 a 13 
|uAov, 361 a 19, 369 a 85, 371 
a 26, b 4, 374 a 5, 380 b 97, 

29, 384 b 15, 385 a 9, b 12, 

386 a 10, 27, b 19, 23, 26, 

387 a 7, 18, b 26, 27, 388 
a 2, 19, 31, b 32, 389 a ,12 

fuAtuSijr, 387 a 32 
frco, 388 b 7 

oyms, 339 b 6, 340 a 7, 9, 349 
b 18, 350 a 12", 352 a 27, 
354 b 6, 358 b 31, 359 a 12, 
367 a 4, 368 a 23, 385 a 30, 
b 20 

oSoy, 343 b 23, 345 a 14, b 28, 
356 a 27, 362 b 24, 370 
h 19 979 a 4, 

oZSo, 362 b 26, 365 a 30, 390 
b 17 

o'njTeov, 355 a 35, 357 b 25, 
367 a 9 

oiVetoy, 345 a 30, 355 a 34, 
360 a 24, b 19, 362 a 6, 379 
a 17, 21, 24, 26, b 3, 19, 
20, 22, 380 a 3, 7, 382 a 23, 
> 389 b 6 

otaetOTaroy, 346 a 30 
oi’/cetorepoy, 358 b 23, 385 a 4 
olkgicos, 347 a 10 
oiWto, 352 b 1, 362 a 33, b 5, 

30, 31, 363 a 29, 365 a 7, 25 
oi/ojoiy, 363 a 3 

oiKia, 371 b 7 
oLKL^aj, 352 a£! 
oiKovptvr], 362 b 13, 26, 363 
a 1, [2], 364 a 7, 365 a 30 
oTvos, 358 b 19, 382 b 13, 384 
a 4, 13, 387 b 9, 11, 12, 



388 a 33, b 2, 10, 389 a 9, 

olvwSrjs, 3S7 b 11 
oloij.(u 9 341 b 8, 349 a 25, 350 
b 33, 352 a 17, 25, b 11, 
353 b 10, 354 b 3, 356 b 6, 
357 a 25, 369 b 31, 371 b 7, 
372 a 22 
oLcovoSi 387 b 4 
ohkya-KiSi 339 b 28, 318 a 2, 
36ff b 24, 372 a 24, 376 b 25 
dXlyos, 345 a 2, 317 b 18, 20, 
350 a 6, b 28, 352 a 11, 354 
a 10, 358 a 31, 359 a 9, 361 
b 15, 18,^64 a 3, 366 b 13, 
374 a 28, b 22, 378 a 10, 
379 a 27, b 2, 380 b 1, 382 
b 21, 384 a 24, 388 a 6 
oAiyor^s, 347 a 14, b 16, 349 
b 13, 353 b 25, 367 a 19, 
b 3, 381 b 17 

BXov, 359 b 30, 380 b 13, 386 
a 20 

6Ao<r, 339 a 20, 34 L a 2, 343 
a 7, 346 a 7, 350 b 3, 351 
b 1 1 , 352 a 17, 18, 28, b 16, 
353 a 15, b 4, 35 la 25, 355 
a 24, b 27, 356 a 21, 357 
a 3, 358 a 17, 359 b 19, 
365 a 23, 33, 369 a 6, 371 
b 23, 372 a 15, 374 a 16, 
20, 375 a 13, 385 b 21, 24, 
387 b 28, 388 b 30, 389 b 27 
6XvfnTLas 9 363 b 24 
6Xco S , 342 b 18, 348 a 2, 352 
a 1,357 a 6, b 10, 361 b 24, 
364 a 19, b 1,365 b 16, 368 
b 2, 378 a 97380 a 2, 382 
b 13, 387 a 16, 389 b 30 
6{m iXys, 372 b 17 
dpaXos, 377 b 16 
6ju,aA6Tq?t 377 b 17 

ofxaXvva), 381 a 20 
ofjiaXctis, 381 a 31 
'O/jifipiKoS' 359 a 35 
ojjiPptos , 349 b 11, 365 b 2 
ojj,Ppos , 352 a 31, b 3, 360 b 8, 
27, 28, 361 b 11, 365 a 22, 
b 24, 370 b 16 
v O(j.7]pos i 351 b 35 
o(it X ^ 3^6 b 33, 35 
opipL a, 346 a 21, 349 b 1 6, 353 
a 8, 371 a 30 
opLoyevijs, 378 b 16 (bis) 
6pLoiop,epTjs> 384 b 30, 385 
a 10, 388 a 11, 13, 25, 389 
b 24, 25, 27, 390 b 5, 15 
ofxoXoyico, 350 a 20, 356 b 6 
o/jLoxpoia, 342 b 20 
ofjLcovvjjicas, 389 b 31, 32, 390 
a 12 

ovofxa, 341 b 17, 347 a 10, 379 
b 15, 380 a 19, b 14, 30, 
387 b 2, 11 
ovopid^co, 339 b 26 
ovv£, 389 a 12 
6£dX[irj 9 359 b 15 
S£os , 359 b 16, 384 a 13, 389 
a 10 

d£v, 37 3 b 4 
o£vs, 359 b 14, 18 
om£ a), 384 a 22 
ottos, 38* a 21, 389 b 10 
07 Trdcv, 379 b 28, 380 b 17, 
381 a 30, b 18, 383 a 21, 24 
orrrTjcnSn 379 b 13, 381 a 23, 
b 3, 14, 16,21 
QTTTost 380 b 22, 381 a 26 
orrdopa, 348 a I, b 30 
opdoot 339 b 8, 10, 340 a 8, 
341 a 17, b 26, 343 a 25, 
30, b 15, 20,21,26,30,345 
a 27, 30, 34, b 13 (bis), 15, 
16, 29, 346 a 17, 21, 347 


b 8, 348 a 22, 23, 25, 26, 
b 2, 350 a 30, 352 b 23, 353 
a 9, b 35, 355 a 26, b 2, l 1, 

25, 356 b 19, 358 b 8, 365 
a 29, 366 a 9, 369 b 7, 371 
b 9, 373 b 26, 374 a 4, b 23, 
375 a 33, 377 b 7, 11, 389 
b 13, 390 a 12 

opyavov , 381 a 10, 389 b 30, 
390 a 1 

opytt, cu, 356 b 16 
opeivos , 350 a 7, 351 a 3 
opdri, 363 b 2, 373 a 14 
opdos, 361 a 23, 35 
opOpios , 367 a 21 
op8pos , 366 a 20, 367 a 26 
Spdws, 339 b 25, 354 b 23 
o/otjw, 344 b 17, 346 b 6, 362 
b 15, 369 b 29, 375 b 19, 
377 a 2, 5, 378 b 15, 18,21, 
379 a 10, 11, 12, b 34, 3S0 
a 19, 22, b 1, 381 b 31, 382 
a 2, 4, 9, 19, 22, 24 (bis), 

26, 389 a 32, 390 a 10 
optf cov, 343 a 18, 32, b 16, 

363 a 27, 365 a 29, 375 
b 27, 376 b 22, 29, 32, 377 
a 8 

opfiaco , 366 a 8, 10, 368 b 1 0, 
19, 370 b 12 

opfiij, 364 b 5, 366 a 7, 368 a 9 
opviQLas, 362 a 23 
opos , 341 a 1, 347 a 29, 350 
a 3, 4, 5, 15, 19, 20, 29, b 1, 
5, 11, 14, 21, 27, 352 b 10, 
356 b 14 

opos, 381 a 7, 382 b 13, 384 
a 14, 20, 22, 23, 389 a 10 
opos, 382 a 23 
opvKTos , 378 a 20, 22, 24 
oct^, 388 a 12 

ovpavos , 340 a 6, 341 b 2, 342 

a 35, 343 b 23, 346 a 7, 34, 
349 b 1 4, 352 a 1*9, 28, 353 
b 4, 355 a 24, 357 a 3, 364 
b 24, 369 b 22, 374 a 31 
ovpTjoLs , 366 b 19 
ovpios , 364 a 31 
otipov, urina , 35 7" b 2, 380 a 1, 
b 5, 382 b 13, 384 a 13, 389 
a 10, 27 

ovcla, 365 a 11, 370 a 28, &79 
b 26, 389 b 29, 390 a 6 
6<j>Qa\p,6s , 374 a 22, 390 a 11 
o^ea), 348 a 7 

otpLalrepov, 364 a 27, 367 b 31, 

dipiatrepos, 363 a 24 

oijjts , 343 a 3, 13, 19, b 14, 

345 b 11, 27, 369 b 9, 370 
a 19, 372 a 29, 32, b 8, 16, 
373 a 2, 17, 18, 35, b 2, 7, 
33, 374 a 23, 28, b 11, 13, 
15, 22, 23, 28,31, 375 a 3, 
33, b 5, 377 a 31, 32, b 7, 
10, 18, 32, 378 a 2, 5, 8, 10 

ot/rov, 381 b 30 

Trayos, 313 b 19, 3 18 b 4, 361 
b 26, 366 b 5, 371 a 6 
rradrjpia, 352 a 18, 363 a 24, 
365 a 12, 382 a 8, 32, 388 
a 10 

rradTjriKOS, 378 b 13, 23, 25, 
28, 34, 379 b 19, 380 a 8, 
b 27, 381 b 23, 24, 382 b 4, 
5, 385 a 7, 389 a 30 
nddos , 338 b 24, 25, 339 a 5, 
21, 340 b 17, 341 a 15, b 32, 
344 b 5, 2$ 345 a 18, b 25, 

346 a 31, h 4, 14, 347 a 10, 
348 a 14, 356 b 34, 358 
b 20, 359 b 24, 360 b 13, 
365 a 15, 35, b 14, 367 b 7, 



368 a 8, 31, 369 a 31, 370 
a 12, '17, 25, 371 a 2, b 21, 
373 b-4, 375 a 22, 378 a 3 1, 
b 19, 379 a 21, 381 b 5, 382 
a 28, 29, 33, 383 b 32, 385 
a 5, 19, b 26, 389 a 4 
‘iraihiKOSi 3*39 b 33 
rraXaios, 339 b 21, 355 b 57, 
388 b 3 

iraXaioco , 390 a 55, b 1 
TLoXollotlpt), 359 a 17 
TrapLp/fiKr)s, 351 b 10 
TravosXyvos, 375 a 57 
‘* 369 b 54 
vapafiXsTrcv, 343 b 13 
-rrapaStSajjat, 345 b 30 
TrapciKoXovdea), 344 b 3, 3 16 a 3 
TTapaXap,^dvoj , 319 a 15, 365 
a 16 

TrapaXXdg , 385 b 55 
Trapa.XXd.TTcv, 345 a 33, 386 
a 15, 31 

TrapdXoyos, 347 b 35 
TrapaTrXrjGios, 344 a 25, 366 
b 17, 380 b 34 

TraparrXrjaLcvs, 345 b 35, 319 
a 55, 360 b 13, 361 a 18, 
388 b 31 

TrapaaK€va£a), 311 a 20, 355 
a 2 

irapsyxdco, 359 a 5 
Trap€LKa£a), 369 a 30, 370 a 19 
rraps KTTvpocv, 341 b 30 
Trapexo)* 341 a 13, 355 a 95, 
358 a 90, 378 a 12, 387 b 20 
7rapijXios> 371 b 19, 372 a 10, 
16, 377 a 29, 30, b 15, 23, 
24, 30 ** 

Tlapvaaaost 350 a 19 
TTapoijiia , 361 b 13 
irapopda , 366 a 20 j 

napovala, 382 a S3 I 

ndaxui. 339 a 30, 346 a 18, 23, 
318 b 14, 351 a 29, 352 a 21, 
363 b 34, 357 a 15, b 17, 
358 b 18, 359 b 25, 368 
a 33, 371 a 25, 26, 372 a 23, 
373 b 6, 378 b 19, 24, 379 
a 39, b 33, 380 b 18, 381 
a 9, b 30, 382 a 31, b 2, 383 
b 1, 384 b 29, 385 a 5, 24, 
26, 386 b 31, 387 b 14, 390 
a 18 

Trardcraoj. 371 b 9, 13 
rravco, 339 b 33, 352 b 29, 356 
b 28, 360 b 29, 33, 361 a 3, 
4, b 10, 14, 362 a 2, 8, 364 
a 29, b t, 8, 365 b 17, 367 
b 33, 368 a 7 

rrdxvr), 347 a 16 (bis), 23, 30, 
b 16, 23, 24, 30, 349 a 10, 
378 a 31, 388 b 12 
iraxos, 359 a 7 (bis) 
naxwoLS, 383 all 
naxvvw, 380 a 34, b 11, 381 
a 6, 383 a 11, 13, 14, 17, 
20, 22, b 18, 24, 27, 29, 30, 
32, 384 a 9, 10, 12, 14, 23, 
b 25, 387 b 7, 388 a 32, 
b 1, 4, 9 

ira X vs, 367 b 14, 383 a 23 
vaxvrepos, 359 a 1 2, 380 a 4, 
5, 25, 381 a 4, 383 b 28 
ireSiov, 350 a 6, 368 b 31 
velBa, 354 a 29, 356 b 12 
treipareov, 358 a 3 
7r6Lpdw 352 b 24, 358 b 18, 
366 b 27 

ireXayos, 354 a 7, 10, 15, 27 
TTe\oirdvvr]<ros, 351 a 2 
ireiratva). 380 a 25, 33 (bis) 
viiravms, 379 b 12, 380 a 11, 
12, 13, 16, 21, 26, 28, 30, 
b 4, 11, 381 b 20 



TreVcov, 380 a 17 
Trepaivu)) 339 a 26 
Trcpas (sub&tantivum), 344 
a 33, 350 a 22, 351 a 13, 
353 a 18,369 a 17 
Trepidyco, 356 a 8, 376 b 12 
Trepiheco , 359 a 1 
7T€pi€x<*>> 339 b 4, 7, 30, 340 
a 8, 341 a 30, 354 a 6, 369 
a 6, 28, 375 a 31, 379 a 12, 
18, 28 

irepidpavio, 348 a 35 
TT€puoTr}fML t 365 a 6, 10, 379 
b 4, 382 b 22 

Trept/fapmov, 380 a 11, 14, 16, 

TrepiXapL^dvco, 350 a 12 
TreptoSos, 346 b 9, 350 a 16, 
351 a 26, 352 a 30, b 15, 
362 b 12 

7repioiK€a>, 354 a 4 
TTGpiopda)^ 345 a 28, b 8 
7r€piaraaLS , 364 b 14 
7TepLT€iva), 341 b 19, 354 b 24, 
355 b 28 

7 reptTT<op.a, 346 b 33, 355 b 8, 
13, 356 b 2, 357 a 33, 358 
a 7, 380 a 2 
7repLTTtocns, 358 a 13 
iT€pi<f>€p€ia 9 340 b 35, 343 
a 18, 350 a 11, 372 a 3, 
373 a 18, 25, 375 a 2, b 4, 
6, 7, 25, 376 a 6, 7, 8, b 2, 
385 b 30, 31, 32 
7r€pL<f>€pT)Sf 348 a 36 
Trepiqiopdj 340 b 15, 341 a 2, 
b 23, 351 a 32, 356 b 29 
TT€pixe<*>i 348 b 36, 360 a 27 
ttcttw, 358 a 10, 379 b 20, 30, 
380 a 2, 4, 17, 381 a 1, 16, 
25, b 12, 20, 389 b 8 
Trtyts, 379 b 12 (bis), 18, 27, 

380 a 6, 9, 11, 12 (bis), 22, 
b 13, 16, 381 a 9, 23, b 7, 
10, 15, 20 

nyyaioS) 353 b 20, 25, 33, 35, 
360 a 31 

7T7?yiJ , 350 b 28, 30, 33, 351 
b I, 353 a 35, b 17, 20, 22, 
27, 31, 354 a 5, 32, 355 
b 35, 356 a 29, 360 a 33 
TTTiyvvpu , 347 a 17, 20, 26* 
b 1 1, 23, 25, 36, 348 a 4, 5, 

13, 14, 18, 34, b 17, 20 
(bis), 349 a 1, 362 a 5, 8, 9, 
27, 364 b 11, 27* 365 a 1, 
370 a 4, 378 a 30, b 2, 379 
a 29, 382 a 23, b 1, 29, 31 
(bis), 383 a 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 
9, 10, 11, 14, 20, 26, 28, 
29, 33, b 6, 7, 10, 15, 19, 
22, 23, 384 a 4, 10, 12, 25. 
26, 29, 32, b 3, 6, 8, 12, 13, 

14, 20, 22, 25, 385 a 23, 
b 6, 386 a 14, 387 b 10, 15, 

388 a 25, b 4, 11, 16, 21, 

389 a 3, 11,21,22 (bis), 24, 
b 14, 19, 390 b 2, 4 

TrrjKTos, 385 a 6, 12, 20, 33 
tttjXlkos, 339 b 6 
TrrjXos , 354 a 22, 359 a 14, 383 
a 29, b 9, 385 a 31, 386 b 25 
7 rij^LSt 339 a 4, 342 a 30, 348 
a 29, 31, b 1,18, 21, 23, 31, 
363 a 15, 382 a 25, 27, 
(bis), 29, b 31, 384 a 11, 
b 22, 388 a 28 
mSaa), 349 b 34 
mcf cu, 386 b 1 
mW, 387 a 16*, 17 
metros , 385 a 15, 386 a 29 
(bis), b 3, 7, 16 (bis), 17, 
24, 387 a 15 

mOavos , 357 b 33, 369 b 27 



mxpos, 355 b 8, 357 a 33, b 2, 
14, 358 a 6, 359 a 20, b 18, 

TTlKpOTTjSi 354 b 2 
TriAeo), 366 b 13 
.mXrjros, 385 a 17, 387 a 15 
IltvSor, 35(3 b 15 
7 riven, 357 a 34, 388 b 7 
ninTcn, 342 all, 14, 344 b 32, 

. 348 b 25, 376 b 19, 20 
mtrrevio, 343 b 10 
mans, 372 a 32, 378 b 14 
ninra, 382 b 16, <385 b 5), 
387 b 3?, 388 a 4 (bis), 9 
mW, 387 b 6, 9, 388 a 7 
nXd.yc.os, 342 a 24 (bis), 347 
a 1, 361 a 10, 370 b 24, 372 
a 11, 377 b 29, 378 a 3, 9, 
386 b 11 

■, 343 a 2, 22, 23, 345 
a 21, 346 a 2, 347 b 35 
nXavrjs, 342 b 28, 31, 343 b 29, 
344 a 36, 345 b 28 
nXavqrr)s, 346 a 12 
rrXaaros, 385 a 15, 386 a 27, 

nXdros, 341 b 25, 29, 34, 342 
a 23, 355 b 25, 362 b 15, 
18, 20, 25, 368 b 24, 386 
b 20, 387 a 3, 9, 10 
nXdrrin, 359 a 1 
nXanis, 355 b 31, 358 b 4, 15 
nXan 'rrepos, 358 a 28, b 12, 
359 a 25 

nXeovd£<o, 351 b 6 
nXevanK&s, 359 a 10 
nX-qyfi, 369 a 29, 30, b 8, 371 
b 13, 386 aho, b 1, 20 
nX-rjdos, 340 a 8, 341 b 25, 344 
a 26, b 23, 346 a 29, 347 
b 10, 16, 22, 349 b 7, 17, j 
32, 350 a 10, 27, 29, 33, I 

b 6, 31, 351 b 18, 22, 353 
a S3, b 24, 34, 854 a 9, IS, 
16, b 6, 8, 355 a 20, b 21, 
25, 356 a l,b 10, 357 a 11, 
19, b 10, 31, 358 a 21, 23, 
b 6, 359 a 15, b 4, 360 all, 
31,32, b 12, 361 a 30, b 33, 
362 b 18, 366 a 23, 31, 368 
a 2, b 29, 33, 370 b 12, 15, 
381 a 17, 18, b 18, 384 a 3, 
388 b 8 

nXrjSuco, 351 b 7 
nXrjpp.vpis, 366 a 20 
nXypeorepos, 365 b 5 
nXijprjs, 339 b 18, 23, 340 a 1, 
3, 5, 37, 341 a 8, 12, 346 
a 19, 36, 359 a 14, b 13, 
362 a 17, 365 b 1,367 a 34, 
376 b 26, 383 b 25, 386 b 5, 
6, 10 

nXrjpoco, 351 a 4, 366 b 12 
n X tjoiA^co, 341 a 26, 343 a 14, 
356 b 29, 359 b 35, 361 
b 36, 362 a 20, 364 a 26 
nXrjaaoj, 365 b 33, 371 b 10 
nXocov, 353 a 3, 359 a 8 
nXovs, 362 b 19, 24 
nXcnrds, 352 b 25, 353 a 26 
TTveipca, 338 b 26, 341 a 1, 
b 22, 344 b 20, 26, 31, 32, 
36, 345 a 4, 349 a 12, 19, 
28, 353 b 8, 355 a 25, 358 
a 30, 359 b 27, 360 a 13, 
28, b 1, 21, 29, 361 a 5, 21, 
26, 28, b 8, 14, 21, 362 b 32, 
363?a 1, b 9, 11, 28, S3, 364 
a 5, 13, 23, 32, b 8, 17, 365 
b 27, 35, 366 a 1, 2, 4, 8, 
11, 21, 31, b 1, 16, 17, 21, 
22, 26, 367 a 5, 12, 24, 28, 
b 1, 11, 17, 24, 31, 368 a 2, 
9, 15, 20, 28, 33, 35, b 1 




(bis), 4, 5, 10, 11, 23, 369 
a 1, 35, b 4, 7, 370 a 7, b 4, 
17, 22, 32, 371 a 1, 5, 13, 

16, 18, 27, 29, 33, b 2, 5, 8, 
11, 13, 372 b 20, 26, 27, 
373 a 24, 382 b 30, 383 
b 26, 384 b 21, 387 a 25, 
29 (bis), 388 a 2 

irvevfiaTLKos , 380 a 23, 29 
TTvevfjLaTcoS^oraros, 366 b 4 
TTvevtiaTixihioTepoSi 341 b 9 
irvevticiTcbfys, 341 b 11, 344 
b 27, 366 b 7, 380 b 16 
7tv4 a), 345 a 1, 347 a 28, 358 
a 30, 32, 361 a 23, 27, b 4, 
5, 35, 362 a 1, 17, 19, 23, 
24, 25, 26,29 (bis), 31 (bis), 
363 a [3], 4, 6, 8 (bis), 12, 
13, 22, b 16, 18,21,23,25, 
34, 364 a 1,3, 21, 22, 28, 31, 
33, b 6, 7, 31, 365 a 4, 5, 
366 a 10, 21, 367 a 13, 373 
b 12 

irvtyos , 361 b 27, 362 a 20 
TTOiea), 340 b 13, 342 a 21, 
b 7, 11, 15, 18, 23, 343 
b 35, 345 a 3, 346 a 9, 
347 b 2, 5, 348 b 8, 17, 
349 b 16, 35, 351 b 6, 352 
a 1, b 9, 12, 353 a 10, 35, 
b 6, 9, 354 a 15, 31, b 3, 
32, 355 a 1, 25, 356 a 3, 6, 
b 8, 14, 15, 357 a 6, 18, 20, 
358 a 11, b 22, 359 a 4, 13, 
24, b 19, 25, 360 a 17, b 22, 
361 b 19, 362 a 16, b 2, 5, 
363 a 15, 364 b 9, 18, 30, 
365 b 4, 366 a 23, b 5, 10, 

17, 25, 367 a 17, b 6, 15, 
16, 24, 368 a 10, 14, 33, b 5, 
11, 369 a 29, b 1, 33, 370 
a 6, 8, 10, 29, b 7, 9, 371 

a 29, b 13, 372 a 6, 373 b 3, 
374 b 4, 11, 29, 375 a 20, 
b 1, 2, 22, 376 a 17, b 10, 
15, 16, 377 b 17, 21, 378 
a 2, 16, 22, 28, 379 a 32, 
b 1, 380 b 18, 20, 381 a 1, 
24, 382 a 1, 28 (bis), 3L 
(bis), 32, 383 a 10, 34, b 2, 
27, 384 a i 1 , b 26, 28,385 
a 2, 4, 386 a 32, 3S7 b 10. 
30, 388 a 23, 390 a 11, 18 
TToirjcrLS , 357 a 26 
7rot^T€ov, 358 b 23 
rroirjrijs , 371 a 20 
rroLTjrtKos, 357 a 27, 378 b 12, 
22, 23, 25, 27, 379 all, 
382 b 6 

770i/aAt'a, 342 b 18, 373 b 35 
TToUtXfjLa , 375 a 23 
TroiKLXTrjs, 375 a 27 
TToXefios , 351 b L4 
TroAtff, 367 a 6, 7 
7roAo?, 362 a 33, b 4, 31, 363 
a 8, 376 a 18, b 8, 31, 377 
a 1, 10 

irofjia , 357 a 29 
irovrtos', 368 b 33, 369 a 5 
wovtos", 350 b 4 
ITovtos, 347 a 36, b 4, 348 
b 34, 351 a 12, 351 a 14, 
20, 367 a 1 

7 ropela, 344 b 5, 362 b 20 
vropeiJcnpLos, 362 b 19 
7 TopdpLevsi 356 b 16 
770 W 381 b 1, 3, 385 a 29, 
b 20, 24, 25, 386 a 15, b 2, 
4, 5, 6, 9, 387 a 2, 19, 21 
7Top<j>vpovS) 342*o 8, 37 4 a 27, 
32 375 a 25 

Trordfuos, 353 b 28, 357 a 22 
Trorapios (vide etiam Alyos 
TTorapLot ), 339 b 12, 347 a 2, 



4, 7, 349 a 12, 25, 26, b 2, 
7, 29, 34, 3 50 a 2, 4, 6, 14, 
20, 23, 26, b 4, 10, 19, 23, 
30, 33, 351 a 1, 9, 17, 18, 
20, b 2, 3, 6, 29, 34, 352 
b 5, 19, 22, 30, 353 a 2, 6, 
14, 19* (bis), 27, 354 a 13, 
16, 17, 24, b 13, 16, 355 
b 16, 22, 30, 33, 3 56 a 14, 

19, 22, 25, 26, 28, 30, 357 
a 17, 18, 23, 358 b 28, 359 
a 9, 10, 26, b 5, 8, 19, 360 
a 29, 361 b 2, 388 b 22 

7toti/xos s 351 a 14, 354 b 18, 

20, 355 a 32, b 5, 9, 12, 356 
a 34, b 25, 29, 357 b 29, 
358 b 16, 25, 27, 359 a 
3, 6 

7 tovs, 388 a 19, 390 b 11 
7Tpdyfia, 379 a 32, b 1, 15 
TTpaoivos, 372 a 8, 10, 374 
b 32, 375 a 8, 12, 16, b 10, 
377 b 10 
TTprjvrjs, 350 a 1 1 
TrpTjarrjp, 339 a 4, 369 a 11, 
371 a 16, b 15 
irpCcov, 390 a 13, b 13 
7rpoalp€orts, 339 a 9 
7rpoava\i<jKco, 349 b 11 
7rpoav€pxofiai, 356 b 26 
TTpoamroXeiirct), 352 b 11 
TTpofiXrjpa, 363 a 24 
irpoSUpxopLcu, 345 a 12 
TrpoBpopos, 361 b 24 
TrpoSvco, 343 b 20 
7Tpoufj.i (elp, t), 353 a 13, 358 
a 33, 361 b 4, 8, 367 ,b 34, 
370 b 23,^371 b 8, 380 b 8 
7 TpoelpTjKa, 352 a 12 
TTpoipxop^aL, 368 a 19 
'irpoTj’yhfjt.cUi 373 b 5, 386 b 29, 
387 a 5 

vpodepfjLalvaj, 348 b 32 
rrpoaayopevco, 339 a 30, 359 
b 31, 380 b 7 
7 Tpoaayo), 374 b 30 
TTpoaaycoyrj, 350 b 22, 351 b 9, 
368 a 7 

rrpoayeios , 368 b 33 
7 TpooexySi 340 b 12 
TTpooYjyopia, 339 b 22 
TTpoarjKovrcos, 3 55 a 35 
TTpocn/jKoj, 340 a 26, 341 a 14, 
349 a 31 

7Tpoar}fiaivu), 367 a 13 
rrpoadev, 370 b 23 
7rpoGK&[a), 381 a 27 
rrpoa7TL7rra), 366 b 14, 368 
a 23, 36‘9 a 28, 370 a 9, 371 
a 14, b 10, 375 a 3, 16, b 2, 
4, 25, 376 a 19, 377 a 32, 
b 19, 378 a 3 
Trpoo7ropL^co, 376 a 14 
7TpOOTrT€pit,OpuivtOV, 376 b 23 
TrpooTiQrjpu, 364 a 19 
7rp6o<f)(iTos, 351 b 35 
'npoG^ioco, 366 a 32 
7rpoa(/)LAov€LfC€aj, 343 b 25 
irpoo<f>vaj, 387 a 3 
7 rpoGxocj, 351 b 7, 353 a 8 
TTpoaxioGis, 351 b 30, 352 a 4, 
353 a 2 

7rp6Gco7rov, 388 a 18, 390 a 9 
irporepea), 369 b 9 
irpovirapxo), 379 b 1 , 383 a 23 
7rpo<f>av€GTaTos, 388 a 22 
TTpox^Lpila), 378 b 6 
Ttpox^pos, 3 56 b 19 
Trpox&ptDS, 369 b 24 
t TpoQ}B4a), 364 b 11, 29, 367 
a 15, 368 b 2 
7 TTCpov, 387 b 5 
TH-cSat?, 339 a 3, 360 a 33 
Trverla, 381 a 7 



366 a 4, b 1 1, 367 all, 368 
a 3; b 7, 21, 35, 370 a <28, 
b 21, 379 a 33, 383 b 6 
(bis), 7 (bis) 
fayfitv, 367 b 14, 19 
prjyvvpu, 365 b 7, 11, 367 a 4, 
369 a 34, 371 b 4 
prjreov, 389 a 97 
p7£a, 353 b 1, 388 a 90 
•Pfcnu, 350 b 7 
p'lwr&u, 319 a 9, 19, 39 
piifjis , 349 a 9, 6 , 7, 91 
ToSawfe, 351 a 16, 18 
'PoSoW 350 b 18 
pods* 3 53 a 10 
po(f><zto, 356 b 15 
pofacHs, 381 a 9 
poaiSjjSi 366 a 95 
pvnrraji 359 a 92 
piW, 353 b 27, 355 b 17, 366 
a 19, 387 a 29 
pvros , 353 b 19 (bis) 

aaXevco , 356 a 3 
aavhapaKV ) , 378 a 23 
c Ta7rpos, 389 b 5 
aa7Tp6rr)s , 379 a 6 
SapSoviKos, 351 a 91 
adp£, 355 b 10, 357 b 5, 379 
a 7, 385 a 8 , 386 b 8 , 388 
a 16, 389 b 24, 390 a 2, 8 , 
14, 16, 19, b 5, 16 
crarrco, 365 b 18 
<ra<f>€OT€pov, 344 b 25 
aa<j>rjs, 357 a 25 
apdvwfu, 346 b 28, 347 b 4, 
10, 370 a 10, 371 a 6 
crjSeW, 370 fl 24 
creicrpLOs, 388 b 26, 343 b 2, 

365 a 14, 34, b 4, 9, 17, 23, 

366 a 6 , 11, 13, 23, 24, 30, i 
b 18, 31, 367 a 18, 21, 29, I 

b 8 , 20, 25, 32, 368 all, 
15 (bis), 26, 34, b 8 , 11, 13, 
18, 28, 30, 33, 369 a 7, 370 
a 27 29 

cretco, 365 a 32, b 8, 18, 366 b 1, 
367 b 33, 368 a 4, 12, 31, 
b 1, 26, 35 

oeXrjvr), 340 b 6 , 341 a 22, 342 
a 30, 33, 344 b 3, 345 b 5, 

346 a 15, 353 b 9, 367 b 20, 
28, 371b 23, 372 a 92, b 13, 
373 a 2, 27, 375 a 18, 376 
b 25 

SeAAoV, 352 b 2 
aepivoTepos, 353 b 2 
Seo-^arptj, 352 b 26 
arjpi.aLvctii 339 b 23, 344 b 19, 
361 a 28 

crrjfxetov , 341 a 31, 342 a 30, 
345 b 14, 346 a 23, b 34, 

347 a 28, b 24, 348 a 33, 
350 a 30, 354 a 28, 358 a 4, 
9, 359 a 23, 364 a 2, 31, 366 
b 30, 367 a 22, b 8 , 372 
b 18, 22, 26, 28, 373 a 4, 5, 
6 , 15,375 a 9,17, b 21, 376 
a 3, 4, 8 , b 1 , 19, 377 a 1, 
b 24, 380 a 1 , 384 a 6 , 31 

or}/jL€uo&riSi 373 a 30 
< 77777 - 0 379 a 9, 14, 15, 22, 26, 
34, b 2, 5, 7, 28, 381 b 11, 

oijipiSi 379 a 3, 8 , 13, 16, 21, 
389 b 8 

oiSrjpos, 378 a 28, 383 a 31, 
32, b 4, 384 b 14, 385 b 11, 
386 b 10, 33, 388 a 14, b 31, 
389 a 11 
HiLKavrj^ 359 b 15 
St/ceAta, 359 b 15, 366 a 26 
HiLKeXiKos, 354 a 21 
aigts, 369 b 17, 370 a 8 , 9 



SwruAos, 368 b 31 
air os , 389 a 15 
oKewriov, 365 b 29, 378 b 5 
< 7K€vos , 368 a 5 
ck€i//ls , 349 a 31, 358 b 33 
cKTjvoTroteco , 348 b 35 
cr/aa, 345 b 7, 363 b 6, 8, 374 
b 5 

oKca^ct), 374 b 3 
OKipcuv, 363 b 35 
okXtjpos, 383 a 10, 11, 15, 18, 
30, 33, 35, 383 a 33, b 7, 
386 a 23, 33, b 33, 387 a 4, 
388 a 28 (bis) 

oKXrjporeposi 381 a 30, 385 
b 20, 386 b 9 

oKXrjpoTTjs , 382 a 9, 390 b 7 
okXtjpvvu ), 378 b 17, 385 a 23 
cr/coAtos, 367 b 14 
S/<opt/?pos, 350 b 1 7 
crKonea j, 352 a 24 
ctkotos (ro), 372 a 35 
S/o^a, 350 b 7, 362 b 21 
"2jKvQucq 9 359 b 18 
oKajpla, 383 b 1 
opivpva , 388 b 20, 389 a 13 
oop,<f>6s 9 352 b 10, 365 a 23, 
366 a 25, 33 
cro^ta, 353 b 6 
aolfrcos , 349 a 20 
aotfrcorcpos, 353 b 5 
oTravLos, 372 a 14, 23 
GTravtcoTepoSi 344 b 28 
GTraopLos, 366 b 26 
crract), 379 a 25 
arrepfia, 380 a 14, 390 b 16 
airrjXaiov , 388 b 26 
o-TrAayyvov, 388 a 17, 390 a 9 
o-TroTyos 1 , 350 a 7, 386 a 28, 
b 5, 7, 17 
GiropdhijVf 370 b 5 
Giropas, 344 a 15, 346 a 30, 32 


araSiov , 351 a 14 
ora£a>, 383 b 5 
GTadpLos, 383 b 3 
crrats 1 , 386 b 14 
GTaGifj,os<, 353 b 19, 23, 34, 
354 b 14 

Grdoi <r, 362 b 33, 37$ a 25 
CTTaT€i;<ns‘, 379 b 14, 381 b 16 
areyco, 352 b 9 
gt€vos , 370 b 19 
GT€VOT€pOS , 366 b 1 1 
orevorqs, 354 a 6, 9, 366 a 30, 
370 b 21 

Grepeos , 341 a 28, 3£8 a 33, 
384 a 28 
arepdco, 389 b 20 
orepediTcpos, 389 b 20 
GreprjGLSi 385 a 32, 388 b 14, 

oT€(f)avoS' 362 b 10 
arrj Acu, 350 b 3, 354 a 3, 12, 
22, 362 b 21, 28 
cm/Japo?, 387 b 5 
cmAjSaj, 370 a 18 
crrotyetov, 338 a 22, b 21, 339 
b 5, 17, 340 a 3, 5, b 11, 
34 1 a 3, 354 b 5, 12,355bl, 
378 b 10, 11, 382 a 3, 389 
b 1, 27 

arofL a, 351 b 32, 359 a 1, 367 
b 1 

crrop-cu/xa, 383 a 33, b 2 
orpitfxa, 370 b 32, 371 a 14, 
374 b 3 

GrpoyydXoSi 348 a 28, 33, 363 
a 28 

'Zrpvpi.cov, 350 b 16 
GTV7rrr)pLa 9 359 b r l2 
Gvyyevrjs , 339 a 28, 36, 386 

GvyKaLCD, 383 b 12 
GvyKaTafiatvoji 358 b 32 


ovyKOTafycO) 37 J a 12 
avyKarafiCayco , 357 b 7 
avyKara<f)€po) 9 357 a 17, b 2, 
358 a 24 

•avyK€ifxai 9 387 a 13 
crvyKpLvco , 341 a 4, 342 a 20, 
b 17, 346 b 22, 347 a 17, 
19, 350 a 13, 358 b 17, 370 
a 30, b 15 

avyKpLcns , 311 a 10, 314 b 9, 
316 a 4, 16, 23, b 34, 369 
a 14, b 33, 34 
avyKpiTu<6s 9 378 b 22 
av^vyLCLi 378 b 11 
avXXapLpdvaj, 340 a 7 
GvXXeyu), 317 b 20, 349 b 6, 
10, 357 a 33, 384 a 7 
GvXXeifico, 349 b 33, 350 a 9 
GvXXoyLpLCLLOS , 353 b 23 
Gvpipaivto, 338 b 20, 339 a 5, 
21, 27, 341 a 27, 342 b 33, 
344 a 8, 346 a 6, b 4, 18, 
347 b 34, 348 a 20, b 2, 17, 
349 b 20, 25, 350 a 17, 
b 21, 32, 351 a 1, 29, b 1, 
27, 352 a 2, 8, 15, 16, 353 
a 9, 12, 26, 354 a 16, 355 
a 3, 12, 21, b 30, 356 a 14, 
18, 32, 357 b 16, 358 a 2, 
b 11,29, 359 b 24, 360 a 14, 
b 5, 22, 30, 361 b 32, 363 
a 24, 365 a 12, 34, b 12, 
366 b 19, 367 a 27, 31, b 6, 
12, 20, 27, 369 a 8, 370 a 4, 
b 19, 371 a 8, b 21, 372 
a 17, 19, 373 a 34, b 4, 29, 
374 a 14, b ?6, 24, 375 a 10, I 
b 17, 377 b 25, 37S a 12, 
b 11, 379 b 22, 32, 380 
a 34, 381 a 18, b 17, 382 
b 7, 384 b 6, 8, 389 b 18 |\Xa> t 345 b 6, 348 b 30, 
358 b 3, 376 b 24 
avptfioXov, 360 a 26 
GvppLciyvv cj, 352 b 30, 354 a 1, 
357 a 10, 30, 358 b 22 
gvjaia€l£ls 9 358 a 5, b 21, 359 
a 5 

GvpLpieTpoSt 362 a 4 
GVixrrepi&yoj, 344 a 12 
GvinrepiXaiifiavct), 358 a 33 
GVfiTreTTcOi 379 b 23, 381 a 20 
Gvymirrroi) 9 343 a 21, 344 a 20, 
345 a 5, 349 a 22, 360 b 28, 

372 a 15, 25 
Gvp,7rXr}p6a) t 340 a 18 
Gv/j,<j>aais 9 342 b 28 
Gvp!(f>vrjs 9 382 b 11 
av[jL<f>vTos 9 382 b 12 
gv^vco, 348 a 12, 37S b 15 
Gvvdyo), 350 a 1, 354 a 7, 382 

b 9 

GvvaOpoi^o), 368 b 3 
avpcLKoXovOea), 370 b 10 
GvvaXetyco, 365 a 21 
Gvvavafiepco, 341 a 7 
Gvvav€x&i 372 a 15 
Gvva.'jTepxofjLai, 383 a 19 
otWttto), 345 a 24, 362 b 16, 

373 a 15 
Gvvai/fiSi 343 b 8 
GuvSea), 359 a 18 

Gvveipu (et/u), 342 a 19, 20, 
b 17, 361b 1,364 b 33, 367 
b 5, 369 a 27, 370 a 4, 30, 
381 b 1, 386 a 30, b 3, 7, 8, 
387 a 14 
Gvveipco, 362 b 29 
crvveKKpLvcot 357 b 4, 358 all, 
371 b 12 

Gvv€K7TLjj,iTpr)pa 9 371 a 17 

379 a 24, 382 
b 20, 24, 383 a 19, 30 



owegeipu, 888 b 14 
awe£, 888 b 28 
ovve£opfidw, 361 b 14 
ovvemreXeai, 379 b 23 
oweiropuu, 361 a 24 
uwepxofiai, 343 b 31, 344 a 1, 
348 a 10, 368 b 16, 27, 385 
a 28, 386 b 4 
ovve<f>4\i<eo, 341 a 2 
owexeta, 373 b 26 
ovvexySt 339 a 22, 341 a 3, 
344 a 11, 346 b 11, 351 
a 15, 352 b 31, 355 a 9, 

360 b 6, 362 a II, 15, 26, 
363 a 7, 365 b 27, 366 a 6, 
369 b 3, 370 b 10, 30 (bis), 
37 1 a 32, 372 b 23, 373 a 19, 
b 26, 28, 374 a 34, 386 b 13, 
387 a 29, b 28, 29 

ovvexcvs, 341 a 7, 346 a 22, 
b 8, 349 b 17, 27, 355 a 15, 
b 30, 359 b 23, 360 a 34, 
362 a 30, b 29, 369 b 23, 
373 a 92 

ovvrjBeia, 340 b 22 
ctwij&js, 370 a 16 
odvBeros, 382 a 26 
owB 378 a 30, 384 b 9 
ovvum)p.i, 339 a 12, 20, b 9, 
340 a 2, 25, 29, 34, b 30, 
33, 342 a 1, 17, 34, b 1, 5, 
344 a 36, b 11, 24, 345 a 8, 
346 a 16, b 29, 347 a 27, 
b 10, 13, 349 a 3, 18, b 23, 
31, 353 b 4, 354 b 20, 31, 
355 a 32, 358 a 10, 22, b 17, 
20, 360 a 1, 21, 26, b 35, 

361 a 10, 364 b 9, 27, 369 
a 15, 372 b 16, 17, 373 a 1, 
b 2, 16, 20, 374 a 18, 376 
a 2, 9,b2, 12, 18, 378 b 20, 
379 a 6, b 8. 11, 31, 380 

a 24, b 7, 9, 382 a 25, b 28, 
29, 383 a 12, 17, 884 a 7, 
19, 20, b 25, 31,. 387 a 4, 
388 a 18, 21, 24, b 10, 389 
a 6, b 7, 25, 890 b 10, 21 
awvoeoi, 345 a 19 
ovvoSos, 343 b 30 
ovvraBis, 355 b 10 
owtt/]kt6s, 389 b 8 
ctvvTLTpdco, 355 b 34 
ovviaBdw, 361 a 1 
ovppeiu, 350 b 28, 353 b 22 
overmens, 340 a 30, 341 b 23, 
342 b 14, 344 a 34, b 18, 
345 b 34, 346 a' 13, b 10, 
347 a 35, b 21, 352 b 10, 

369 a 16, 19, 372 b 18, 23, 
373 a 28, 31, b 3, 374 a 12, 
377 b 5, 32, 378 a 8, 26 

cruareAAcu, 368 b 3 
ovotoixos, 340 a 5 
avoTpdrfxu, 369 a 34 
o<f>alpa, 341 b 20, 346 a 33, 
354 b 94, 365 a 23, 375 b 33 
orfxupoeihr/s, 340 b 36, 365 
a 31 

oej>payis, 387 b 17 
oejivypos, 366 b 15, 18, 368 
a 6, b 25 

oxfjpo., 342 b 1 3, 348 a 28, 33, 
36, 362 a 35, 368 a 3, 24, 

370 b 26, 372 a 33, b 2, 3 
(bis), 12, 373 b 19, 24, 377 
b 7, 14, 390 a 21, 23 

crjCT^aTt£o>, 344 a 21 

340 a 31, 386 b 28 
oxiotos, 385 a 16, 386 b 26, 
27, 31, 387 aP7, 8, 10 
ox otvos, 359 b 1 
offa, 351 b 21, 356 a 21, 386 
a 2 

o&p.a, 338 b 21, 339 a 5, 12 


(bis), 13, 20, "26, b 6, II, 14, 
18, 25, 31, 340 a 1, 5, 20, 
b 1, 7, 11, 12, 15, 314 a 12, 
b 17, 342 a 7, 343 b 17, 347 
b 13, 350 a 12, b 35, 351 
a 27, 354 b 4, 9, 11,355 b 6, 
356 b 2, 357 b 5, 8, 358 a 6, 
11, 13, 359 a 24, 360 b 23, 
32, 365 a 28, b 30, 366 a 1, 
b 15, 20, 25, 368 a 6, 370 
b 21, 378 a 17, b 20, 380 
b 24, 27, 381 a 13, b 7, 8, 
24, 382 a 2, 4, 7, 23, 26, b 3, 
384 b 25, 31, 385 a 10, 19, 
23, b*27, 28, 29, 386 b 2, 
387 a 13, 23, 32, b 14, 388 
a 11, 26, 389 a 31, 32, 390 
a 22 

acvfxariKos , 338 a 23, 382 a 8 
oa)fjLa.T<b8r)s , 359 a 15 
ocoTrjpta , 355 a 20 

raXavrevaj, 354 a 8 
raXavrajoLS, 354 all 
rafuevo), 350 b 27, 353 b 21 
Tarats, 350 a 24, 353 a 1 6 
rdf is, 339 b 5, 347 a 6, 351 
a 25, 358 a 25, 26 
rai reivorepos, 352 b 32 
rapax^B'qSi 361 b 34 
raptyeia, 359 a 16 
Taprapos, 356 a 1, 18 
' Taprrjocros , 350 b 2 
rams, 390 b 7 

Tarrco, 340 a 19, 346 a 33, 
355 a 28, 364 a 5, 27 
ra^os, 342 a 33, 348 b 1 1, 36 1 
b 22, 36£ b 33, 370 b 9, 
371 a 22 

rcyyft), 385 b 22, 23 
reytcros , 385 a 13, b 13, 14, 
17, 18, 19 

TeKfxrjpiovy 344 b 19, 352 b 24, 
359 a 11, 367 a 11 
reAeidco, 379 b 20 
reAeicocrts, 379 b 18, 21, 380 
a 19 

reAeos, 380 a 13, 15 
reXevra lov t 353 a 6, 356 b 15 
reAeuraco, 356 a 23, 364 b 20, 
365 a 9, 389 b 32 
reXevnj, 344 a 31, 356 a 35 
TeXeco, 381 a 26 
re Xem, 377 a 22 
reXecticnSi 380 a 13, 30 
Tf-XfJLCLT LCLLOS , 353 b 24 
reXos (substantivum), 339 a 8, 
25, 26, 346 a 33, 349 b 12, 
351 b 13, 374 b 35, 379 
a 5, 8, b 25, 27, 381 a 1 
rifjLva), 363 b 2, 376 a 10 
reparoXoyi a>, 368 a 25 
reraypcVws, 358 a 2 
reravos , 366 b 26 
r^pa, 353 15, 357 a 31, 358 

a 14, b 9, 359 b 2, 7, 367 
a 5, 387 b 14, 389 a 28, b 2, 
3, 390 a 23 

T€xvr}> 353 b 28, 381 b 4, 6, 
390 b 14 

t€xvikos 9 381 a 10 
rf)yavov 9 380 b 17 
t vjktos, 381 b 28, 384 b 16, 
385 a 6, 12, 21, 33, b 12, 
13, 15 (bis), 16, 18,21,387 
b 25, 26, 31, 388 b 32, 389 
a 19 

rrjKo. >, 341 a 18, 362 a 5, 8, 18, 
364 a 10, 371 a 26, 382 
b 29, 383 a 28, 32, b 5, 7, 
9, 14 (bis), 384 b 14, 385 
a 30, 32, b 22, 23, 388 b 33, 
389 a 9, 21 

TqXiKovroSt 350 b 32, 352 a 1 


rrjviKavTa, 361 b 36, 366 a 20 
■njgts, 38 1 b 28, 383 b 30, 384 
b 22 

ri '.drjfu, 338 b 24, 342 a 4, 348 
b 34, 359 a 1, 30, 375 a 24, 
382 b 3 

TL)udn arcs, 353 b 5 
riravos, 383 b 8, 389 a 28 
rpijpua, 343 a 12, 362 a 32, 371 
b 27, 375 b 17, 377 a 6, 16, 
18 (bis), 21 (bis), 24, 25 
rprjms, 386 b 30 
Tiro's, 385 a 17, 387 a 3, 7, 
8 , 11 

ntx os, 359 a 3 
Tofirj, 375 b 32, 376 a 7 
rims, 338 b 22, 339 a 25, 27, 
b 16, 37, 340 a 6, 18, 22, 
25, 26, b 30, 33, 37, 341 
a 6, 11, 29, 32, 342 a 17, 
343 a 2, 8, 14, 16, 29, 36, 
b 16, 344 a 34, 345 a 17, 
35, b 25, 346 a 10, 19, b 9, 

14, 16, 18, 27,30, 347 a 18, 
21, 23, 31, 33, b 8, 12, 19, 
21, 348 a 3, 5, 16, b 1, 5, 

25, 319 a 24, b 31, 350 a 5, 
7, b 6, 15, 21, 24, 29, 31, 
351 a 5, 15, 17, 19, 35, 36, 
b 27, 28, 36, 352 a 2, 6, 15, 
16, 20, 32, 34, b 7, IS, 18, 

26, 353 a 17, 20, b 4, 7, 
354 a 1, 5, 10, 30, b 8, 9, 
30, 355 a 2, 34, b 1, 2, 12, 

15, 18, 32, 356 a 9, 27, 33, 
b 32, 357 a 23, 358 a 30, 34, 
35, b 28, 33, 359 b 1, 360 
b 20, 25, 28, 35, 361 a 8, 
11, 15, b 6, 362 a 17, b 7, 
10, 23, 30, 363 a 12, IS, 14, 
16, 31 (bis), 33, b 1, 8 (bis), 
11, 364 a 3, 6, 8, 12, 26, 

b 28, 365 b 5, 14, 366 a 24, 
27, 30, b 1, 11 (bis), 13, 31, 
33, 367 a 14, 18, b 6, 368 
a 1, 3, b 14, 15, 22, 24, 369 
a 2, 18, 95, 378 a 13 
rpayiKiurepos, 353 b 1 
TpaireCa, 355 b 28 * 
rpenai, 361 a 15, 367 a 32 
rpi<f> o>, 351 b 18, 352 a 11, 
354 b 34, 355 a 10, 12, 17, 

rpiyoivov, 373 a 10, 14, 315 
b 32, 34, 376 a 13, SO, b 17 
rpaj/n jr, 369 b 10 
Tptypojs, 371 b 33, 375 a 1, 5, 

rpi/Ms, 366 b 15, 18, 20, 368 
b 23 

rpoirp, 343 a 15, b 1, 6, 353 
b 8, 355 a 1, 95, 361 a 12, 
13, b 35, 362 a 12, 19, 22, 
29, 31, b 6, 363 a 9, 10, 364 
b 2 (bis), 377 a 20, 25 
TpomKos (adiectivum), 343 
a 14 ; 

Tpomms (substmitivuni), 3-43 
a 9, 345 a 6, 346 a 1 4, 18, 
362 b 2 

rpoms, 339 a 7, 340 a 15, 368 
b 1 8, 372 a 19, 374 b 5 
Tpo<f> 17, 355 a 2, 4, 5, b 7 (bio), 
12, 356 b 2, 357 a 34, b 8, 
358 a 8, 379 b 23, 380 a 12, 
28, 381 b 7 
rpSyos, 371 a 28 
TpojiKos, 359 a 10 
rvyxavco, S3 9 a 35, b 19, 341 
b 20, 342 a $i, 343 a 17, 
344 a 3, 14, 21, b 33, 346 
a 5, 11, 17,349 a 16,24, 353 
b 19, 356 a 14, 357 b IS, 
360 a 28, 363 a 23, 364 



b 10, 365 a 21, 85, 86(1 a 1, 
22, 369 a 6, 372 h 17, 373 
b 2, 386 a 13, 387 b 12 
ti jp.TTa.vov, 362 a 35 
rmrTta, 365 a 33, 368 a 17, 18 
(bis), 37p a 13, 18 
Tvpos, 384 a 22, 24, 30, 388 
b 12 

TvppvjviKos, 351 a 21 
~v<jjq), 362 a 7 

tv^joiv, 339 a 3, 369 a 10, 371 
a 2, 3, 9, b 15 

vaXos , 38^, a 8 
vyieia, 380 a 1 

vypaivco, 348 b 29, 357 b 16, 
378 b 17, 382 a 30, b 28, 

383 a 22 

iypos, 340 b 16, 25, 27, 341 
b 9, 344 b 23, 346 b 24, 
347 a 8, b 28, 348 a 13, 
b 28, 352 b 12, 18, 353 b 7, 
354 b 15, 34, 355 a 5, 6, 9, 
15, 22, b 7, 356 b 3, 357 
a 7, 34, b 6, 7, 16, 18, 20, 
21, 25, 358 a 8, 35, b 10, 
20, 359 a 31, b 29, 32, 33, 
35, 360 a 7, 11, 23, 24, 26, 
b 1, 20, 24, 361 a 11, 364 
b 18, 365 b 21, 366 b 9, 369 
a 13, 370 a 15, 371 a 8, 374 
a 22, 377 a 34, 378 b 13, 

18, 23, 379 a 8, 10, 17, 24, 
b 28, 380 a 22, 32, 33, 34, 
b 13, 14, 17, 18, 20, 21, 22, 
25, 28, 31, 32, 381 a 14, 17, 

19, 21, 25, b 2, 8, 23, 24, 
27, 29, 31, 582 a 3, 10, b 2, 
3, 4, 20, 21 (bis), 25, 383 
a 3, 11, 13, 16, 17, 18, 20 
(bis), 21, 33, b 10, IS, 15, 

384 a 18, b 4,9, 10,29, 385 

a 7, 25, 26, 27, 28 (bis), 30, 
b 8, 22,386 a 24, b 11,387 
a I, 6, 12, 26, 31, b2I,27, 
388 a 8 (bis), 22, 27, 29, 
33, b 14, 15, 24, 28, 389 
a 3, 21, 23, 24, 30 

vypoTcpos, 341 b 12, 342 
a 19 

vyponjs, 343 a 3, 352 b 13, 
357 b 14, 362 a 10, 367 b 5, 
374 a 24, 379 a 25, b 33, 
380 a 29, b 27, 385 b 1,387 
a 20, 23 

vSarwSeorepos, 377 b 6, 388 
b 33 

vSarcoSvs, 358 b 2, 364 b 21 , 
372 b 31, 380 a 23, 29, 
b 16, 385 b 1 

uSpayajyca, 349 b 35 

u&oip, 338 b 24, 339 a 16, 19, 
36, b 9, 340 a 8, 10, 12, 13, 
24 (bis), 33, 35, 37, b 3 
(bis), 21, 29, 341 a 4, 10, 
343 a 9, 344 b 24, 345 b 26, 

346 b 17, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 

347 a 3, 5, 15, 17, 19, 24, 
bll, 13, 37, 348 a 4, 6 (bis), 
9, 10, 13, 18, b 7, 10, 16, 

18, 23, 32, 33, 36, 349 a 3, 
5, 18, 19, b 3, 5, 10, 14, 16, 

19, 22, 24, 26, 28, 32, 350 
a 9, 10, 13, b 31, 35, 351 
a 7, 15, 352 b 8, 35, 353 
a 33, b 18, 30, 354 b 4, 11, 
16, 20, 21, 28, 355 a 16, 18, 
26, 31, 32, b 1, 3, 16, 17, 
21, 25, 29, 35, 356 a 1, 13, 
19, 33, b 1, 22, 34, 357 a 9, 
II, 20, 22, 32, b 1, 10, 30, 
32, 358 a 23, 27, 28, b 3, 4, 
90, 21, 359 a 3, 13, 19, 25, 
30, b 3 (bis), 13, 17,22, 360 



a a, 3, 5, 12, 19,21,24, 25, 

30, b 10, 11,29,35, 361 a 2, 
3, 12, 14, 15, 17, 362 a 5, 
17, 363 a 14, 364 a 8, 365 
b 1, 2, 11, 366 a 3, b 12, 
368 a 5, 26, 27, 31, 369 
b 31, 370 a 2, 4, 13, 18, 31, 
b 12, 372 a 30, b 18,22,24, 
373 b 1, 14,374 a 1, 14, 18, 
35, b 20, 27, 377 b 2, 3, 20 
(bis), 24, 26, 27, 378 a 32, 
33, 34, 379 a 15, 28, b 6, 
380 a 34, b 10, 381 b 18, 

382 a 1, 4, 5, 6, 13, b 3, 6, 
10, ll(bis), 13, 28, 32 (bis), 

383 a 2, 5, 6 (bis), 12, 13, 
27, b 14 (bis), 18, 21, 25, 
27 (bis), 30, 31, 384 a 1, 3, 
6 (bis), 7, 10, 11, 12, 15, 17, 
24, 25, 27, 30, 32, b 4, 5, 
12, 17, 21, 30, 385 a 27, 29, 
b 2, 3, 6, 7, 11, 15, 16, 20, 
21 (bis), 24, 386 a 18, 24 
(bis), 32, b 10, 15, [251, 387 
b 8, 388 a 22, 26, 30 (bis), 

31, b 8, 11, 23, 389 a l, 5, 
9, 10, 19, 22, 25, 31, b 2, 
12, 16, 21,22, 390 a 3, 8 

itris, 347 a 12, b 17, 18, 31, 
349 a 9, 370 b 12 
uAr ?, 339 a 29, 340 b 15, 342 
a 28, 361 a 32, 364 b 28, 
368 a 10, 33, 370 b 13, 15, 
371 b 3, 378 a 33, b 33, 379 
a 1, 16, b 20, 33, 380 a 9, 
382 a 8, 28, 388 a 21, 389 
a 29, 30, b 12, 16, 27, 28, 
390 a 4, 5, b 18 
vTravrpos, 366 a 25 
mtdpx<t ), 339 a 37, 340 a 16, 
17, 349 b 27, 353 b 17, 357 
b 9, 358 b 24, 360 a 5, 365 

b 23, 24, 370 b 13, 372 
b 11, 377 b 20, 378 b 31, 

382 a 9, 384 b 28, 390 a 20 
wreiKco, 370 b 21, 382 a 1 1, 12, 

13, 23, 386 a 23, 24 
v7r€KKavfxa t 341 b 19, 24, 25, 
29, 344 a 29, 31^ b 14, 361 
b 19 

virepflaivto, 350 a 2 1 
V7r€p/3dAAo>, 340 a 4, 36, 341 
a 1, 346 a 18, 349 b 17, '350 
a 28, 362 b 16, 382 a 20, 

383 a 31 

iireppo\r h 340 b 23. 342 b 32, 
344 b 30, 352 a Si, b 3, 356 
b 33, 365 b 15, 381 a 27 
vTrep^Tjpatva), 352 a 7 
iirepopfipia, 366 b 9, 368 b 17 
wrepoxrf, 340 a 9, 359 b 31 
VTrepvypaiva), 365 b 11 
t mepxdco, 367 a 19 
mroypa^T), 346 a 32, 363 a 26 
vmSo X rj, 319 b 7, 13, 16 
viro^vyiov, 359 a 18 
vnoicdui, 355 a 17 
vvoKeifiat* 339 a 29, b 2, 314 
a 8, 345 b 32, 363 a 30, 364 
a 7, 378 b 33, 379 b 11, 26, 
382 b 6 

v7roXap.pd.voj, 339 b 26, 342 
b 23, 344 a 7, 346 a 30, 353 
b 2, 354 b 33, 355 a 8, 18, 
b 14, 357 a 2, 358 b 31, 
360 a 29, 365 b 16, 366 
b 24, 369 a 12, 379 b 14 
inroXeimv, 343 a 4, 6, 7, 17, 
24, 29, b 17, 22, 344 b 11, 
353 a 15, 355b 19, 356 b 5, 
11, 23, 357 a 8, 362 b 8 
v7ToXrj7rreov, 340 b 30, 346 b 3, 
352 a 29, 356 b 9, 369 b 35, 
377 a 29 



vTroXiji/iis, 339 b 20, 343 b 10, 
354 b-23 

imoXoaros, 347 b 27, 368 a 1 1, 
370 b 3 

inouiv co, 331 b 17, 21, 353 
, a 34, b 4, 14, 356 a 35 
virovouos , 350 a 1 
vTTovocrr^to, 365 b 12, 367 a 94 
vTToGTaaiSi 353 b 23, 355 b 8, 
357 b 8, 358 a 8, b 9, 12, 
368 b 12, 382 b 14 
viroTeivoi , 376 a 13 
v7roT^fjLvco t 356 a 27 
vTroriSijfiL ^ 340 a 23, 374 b 9 
v7rox<*>priais, 380 a 1 , b 5 
vm-ios, 350 all 
'Tpxavto?, 354 a 3 
vtfxMjfic t, 375 a 23 
vdrnyeopai,, 339 a 6, 370 b 4 
Marriiu, 339 a 17, 341 b 12, 
357 b 3, 358 b 27, 382 b 15, 
383 a 34 

vifjYiXost 341 a 1, 347 a 3a, 348 
a 21, 23, 350 a 2, 5, 7, b 22, 
352 b 7, 354 a 24, 28, 31 
vi/rqXorepos, 352 b 27, 354 a 25 
vifjos, 347 a 33, 350 a 30 (bis), 
b 5 

vco, 349 b 4, 32, 358 a 25, 
b 14, 25,360 a 12, 19,bS0, 
373 b 20, 21, 374 a 13 

®ae#aiv, 345 a 15 
(DcuSojy, 355 b 32 
jalvui, 339 b 20, 35, 340 b 36, 
341 a 18, 36, b 2, 342 a 11, 
31, 34, b 9, 11, 21, 35, 343 
a 5, 6, 28, 52, 33, 34, b 18, 
33, 36, 344 a 1, 7, 27, 35, 
b 3, 8, 9, 11, 27, 345 a 24, 
28, 33, 36, b 14, 846 a 3, 5, 
17, 29, bl, 14, 350 a 3, 15, 

19, 21, 351 b 29, 32, 352 
a 20, b 21, 32, 354 a 2, 6, 

11, 19, 24, 33, b 11, 14, 
355 b 4, 8, 21, 356 a 23, 
b 32, 357 a 32, b 3, 15, 22, 
362 b 10, 14, 19, 29, 363 
a 11, b 32, 365 b 13, 367 
b 10, 369 b 8, 17, 370 a 12, 
13, 17, 20, 371 b 3, 6, 22, 
372 a 10, b 6, 373 a 2, 21, 
22, 35, b 10,27,31, 374 a 3, 
8, 9,19, 27, 33, b 5, 13, 14, 
18, 26, 29, 33, 375 a 1, 7 
(bis), 8, 13, 18, 19, 21, 29, 
b 3, 11, 377 a 34, b 9, 10, 

12, 16, 23, 378 b 14, 382 
a 6, 387 b 16, 388 b 22, 
390 b 1 

<f>avep6s, 339 b 12, 340 a 18, 
342 b 1, 343 a 32, b 32, 345 
a 23, 31, b 30, 346 a 21, 34, 
349 b 15, 350 a 36, b 24, 
33, 351 a 10, 352 b 30, 353 
a 14, 23, 355 a 4, 356 a 31, 
b 14, 357 b 32, 358 a 4, 360 
a 18, 362 b 3, 365 b 21, 
371 a 33, 373 a 25, b 33, 
378 b 26, 384 b 24 
<f>avepci>s, 346 b 1, 21, 354 
b 10, 355 a 25, 361 a 29, 
366 b S3, 371 b 2 
<f>avr aala, 339 a 35, 342 b 23, 
32, 372 b 8, 374 b 8, 375 
a 5, 24 

fdvrams, 370 a 15 
ifapayf, 350 b 36 
pdppaKoy, 381 a 3 
if dais, appantio, 342 b 34 
®6c ns, 350 a 28 
fdiXKco, 355 a 22, 365 a 33 
<fdap,a, 338 b 23, 342 a 35, 
b 22 



<j>dyyos, 348 b 13, 22, 346 a 26, 
370 a 21 

d>ip<a, 339 a 12, b 31, 35, 340 
b 10, 341 a 6, 18, 26, 31, 

342 a 16, 23, 25, 26, b 3, 

343 a 10, 13, 344 a 13, b 10, 
345 a 16, 21, 27, b 19, 846 
b 25, 31, 347 a 9, 11, 31, 
348 a 24, 34, 35, b 19, 24, 
354 a 29, b 26, 29, 358 b 
5, 359 b 34, 361 a 9, 362 
b 9, 365 a 20, 28, b 33, 366 
a 3, 367 a 30, 368 b 1, 369 
a 20, 21, 24, 28, 34, b 21, 
370 b 24, S3, 371 a 11, 22, 
32, b 6 (bis), 378 a 5, 6, 10, 
383 b 26 

<f>4ifiaAos, 367 a 5 
<j>0ava3, 349 b 14, 356 b 26, 
361 b 17, 19, 362 a 2, 364 
b 11, 371 a 22, 24, 27 
<j>BapnK6s, 382 b 7 
.jWeipco, 353 a 20, 355 a 3, 31, 
379 a 6, 13, 389 b 6, 10 
tfidivo), 351 a 30, 31 
$dopd, 338 a 24, 345 a 16, 346 
b 23, 351 b 12, 13,352b 17, 
354 b 28, 358 a 1,378 b 30, 
379 a 4, 8, 1 1, 16, b 9, 890 
b 19 

390 b 13 

<f> Xeypa, 380 a 21, 3S4 a 32, 
386 b 16 

(t>\eypaios, 368 b 31 
388 a 17 

oyioris, 387 b 18, 19, 21, 
23, 25, 26, 31 

<f,\oios, 385 a 9, 388 a 19, 389 
a 13 

^Ao'£, 341 b 2, 21, 26, 342 a 4, 
b 3, 19, 346 b 12, 355 a 7, 
9, 357 b 32, 366 a 3, 369 

a 31,33, 371 a 32, b 6, 374 
a 6, 24, 387 b 13; 20, 29, 
388 a 2 

<j>of3epos, 348 a 24 
q>o lvikios, 364 a 4, 17 
ij>oLVLKLos, 372 a 4 
<, toiviKovs , 342 b 7,11, 20, 372 
a 7, 9, 874 a 4, 8, 28, 32, 
b 11, 31, 375 a 2, 8, 11, 12, 
13, 15, 22, b 8, 10, 377 b 10, 

ifioirdui, 347 b 12 
</>opa, 338 a 21, b 22, 339 a 22, 
b 18, 340 b 32, 341 a 20, 
b 14, 342 a 2, 25, 27, 29, 
343 a 10, 344 a 9, 12, 23, 
24, 31, b 10, 12, 345 a 18, 
346 a 4, 8, 12, 27, b 11, 
22, 348 a 29, b 18, 22, 
352 b 12, 356 a 12, b 28, 
361 a 12, 22, 25, 34, b 12, 
364 a 10, 367 b 29, 368 
b 21, 370 b 26, 386 b 1 
<f>opTLov, 347 a 31 
ijipdap, 347 b 9 
</>peanatos, 353 b 26 
<f>povri£a>, 355 a 19 
tftpovhos, 340 a 2, 353 a 1 
^uAAov, 387 b 4, 388 a 20, 389 
a 13 

<f,S/ia, 379 b 31, 380 a 21 
fvcrdui, 367 b 1 
i/>voe i, 342 a 25, 365 a 22, 367 
a 32, 379 a 6, b 11, 380 a 9, 

381 b 5 

<j>vaiKos, 338 a 21, 351 b 8, 
378 b 29, 32, 379 b 7, 18, 
380 a 20, 22fS2, 381 a 11, 

382 a 1, 385 a 10 
</>vcnKcos, 390 a 16 

< pdms , 338 a 20, b 20, 339 
a 13, b 4, 9, IS, 26, 340 



a 36, b 27, 311 a 16, b 18, 
342 a 16, 349 a II, 19, 353 
a 32, 354 b 32, 357 a 28, 

358 a 18, 359 b 23, 24, 
360 a 13, 19, 24, 361 b 9, 
365 b 18, 366 a 1, 369 a 7, 
370 a* 26, 32, 372 b 21, 374 
a 3, 376 b 26, 378 b 21, 25, 

30, 34, 379 a 4, 8, 14, 17, 
24, b 25 (bis), 34, 35, 380 
a 26, 381 b 6, 26, 383 b 21, 
384 a S3, 389 b 9, 11, 14, 
25,28,390 b 14 

tftvToVj 339 a 7, 351 a 27, 378 
b 31* 384 b 31, 388 a 16, 
19, 390 a 17, b 21 
cf>va>, 340 a 32, 341 b 16, 342 
a 16, 355 b 11, 358 a 10, 17, 

359 b 1, 360 b 2, 365 a 20, 
b 31, 34, 366 a 21, 33, 369 
a 20, b 21, 378 a 17, 386 
b 7, 8 

< fuovrj , 368 a 2 1* 

<l>ois, 342 b 6, 15, 345 a 26, 28, 

31, b 29, 3 16 a 24, 367 b 22. 
374 a 27 

xdXala, 317 b 14, 28, 31, 32, 
36, 37, 348 a 3, 12, 19, 21, 
26, 31, 32, b 17, 24, 30, 349 
a 10, 369 b 32, 388 b 12 
XaAa£to8i)S, 364 b 22, 365 a 1 
XaXems, 355 b 25, 361 b 30, 
381 a 31 

XoAkos, 377 b 21, 378 a 28, 
b 1,385 a 33, b 13, 14,386 
a 17, 22, b 18, 387 b 25, 28, 
388 a 14*389 a 7, 390 a 17, 
b 11 

XahKtafM, 371 a 26 
Xaovia, 359 a 25 
Xaptv, 350 b 19, 353 b 5 

XapujSSt;, 356 b 13 
X<iap.a, 342 a 35, b 14, 17, 352 
b 6 

Xavvos, 35 9 a 32 
Xe&pojra, 389 a 15 
xeip epivos, 343 b 6, 347 a 18, 
350 a 21, 362 a 13, 22, 363 
a 9, b 5, 6, 19, 21, 364 b 3, 
377 a 24 

Xeiptuv, 343 b 19, 344 b 35, 

347 a 18, b 2, 3 (bis), 37, 

348 a 1, b 9, 27, 349 a 6, 
b 6, 8, 12, 352 a 30, 31, 360 
a 2, 361 a 12, 13, b 6, 32, 
366 b 5, 374 a 21, 379 a 27 

Xelp, 369 b 33, 374 b 6, 386 
a 26, 388 a 18, 389 b 32, 
390 a 9, b 1 1 

xeipoK/Mjros, 353 b 25, 381 
a 30 

Xeiponoimos, 351 b 33, 353 
b 33 

Xelpwv, 352 a 8 
Xepaevoi, 352 a 23, 353 a 25 
Xepaos, 351 a 24, 352 b 34 
Xtos, 342 b 36 

Xi<!>v, 347 b 13, 16, 23 (bis), 
30, 348 a 3, 22, 359 a 33, 
362 a 18, 364 a 8,369 b 31, 
388 b 11 

xA capos, 361 a 19, 374 a 5, 
387 a 22 

Xocimrijs, 350 a 2 4 
Xovhpos, 359 a 32 
Xpaopai, 341 b 17, 349 a 1, 
359 b 16, 31, 360 b 10, 372 
b 11,374 b 7,376 b 8,382 
a 19 

Xpeia, 381 a 3 
XpepJrrjS, 350 b 12 
Xptfmp.os, 352 a 1 4, 379 b 29 
Xpoa, 342 b 5, 344 b 7, 356 



a 13, 359 b 11, 372 b 25, 
374 a 9, 33, b 5, 375 a 31, 
377 b 12, 17 
xpoui, 359 a 34 
Xpivos, 342 b 13, 32, 35, 343 
a 5 (bis), 344 b 31, 347 b 19, 
348 a 6, 28, b 19, 21, 351 
a 23, b 9, 20, 21, 28, 31, 

352 a 4, 29, b 4, 13, 34, 

353 a 13, IS, 18, 24, 355 
a 11, 28, b 26, 356 b 21, 33, 
362 a 21, 364 a 25, 365 
a 16, 374 a 14, 383 b 28, 
387 a 26 

Xpvaos, 348 a 9, 378 a 28, b 1 , 
4, 380 b 29, 384 b 32, 388 
a 14, 389 a 7 
X pt ofa>,371 a 24, 375 a 6 
XpcopLa, 342 a 36, b 7, 13, 344 
b 8, 372 a 1, 6, 9, 25, 34, 
b 5, 6, 8, 373 b 18, 24, 27, 
28,35, 374 a 11,31, b 7, 8, 

11, 27, 31, 375 a 5, 6, 11, 

12, 25, 29, 31, b 2, 8, 10, 

377 b 3, 8, 15, 21, 22, 383 
b 8, 388 a 13 

Xp<api.ari£w, 342 b 4, 369 b 7, 
371 a 17, 374 a IS, b 26, 

378 a 25, 387 a 31 
xv/ios, 354 b 1, 356 a 13, 357 

a 9, 16, 358 a 5, 11, b 19, 
22, 359 b 9, 12, 20, 378 b 1, 
380 b 2, 32, 387 b 12, 388 
a 12 

X vt6s, 378 a 27, 385 b 5 
X wpa, 345 a 10, 347 b 24, 348 
a 19, 319 a 4, 9, 351 b 17, 
18, 29, 352 a 9, 16, b 21, 
22, 32, 33, 354 a 18, 355 
a 27, 360 b 7, 8, 13, 18, 19, 
362 a 33, 365 a 35, 366 a 25, 
33, 368 b 32 

Xtupeo), 371 b 1, 5 
Xtopliw, 339 b 10, 354 a 3, 379 
a 14, 382 b 19, 384 a 19, 22, 

23, 389 b 14 
Xuipiov, 374 b 1 
X<upuns, 386 a 13 

0 advpis , 385 a 17, 387 a 15 
i/iaKas, 347 a 11, 348 a 7, 11, 
b 8, 23, 25, 373 b 16, 20 
ipev&rfs, 344 a 3 
ipfOSos, 349 a 31 
>/io\6eis, 371 a 21 
i/iotfninKos, 385 a 3 
tpopos, 348 a 24, 26, 367 a 4, 
18, 368 a 14, 17, 19,20, 369 
a 29, 31, b 1, 11, 16, 370 
a 8, 10, 371 b 12, 13 

341 b 36, 347 a 9, b 13, 
351 a 31, 354 b 31, 360 a 1, 
361 a 2, 382 b 18, 383 a 29, 
388 b 13, 19, 389 a 17, 18, 

ipvxos, 347 a 20, b 26, 348 a 2, 
361 b 25, 362 b 9, 17, 27, 
367 a 26, 31, b 6, 371 a 6, 
379 a 26, 383 b 34, 387 
b 10, 389 a 20 

hxP°s, 340 b 16, 347 b 3, 25, 
348 a 16, b 1,3, 4, 6, 13, 16, 
358 a 33, 35, 360 a 23, 24, 
b 25, 364 a 23, b 9, 11,27, 
32 (bis), 366 b 6, 367 a 34, 
b 3, 378 b 13, 22, 379 a 1, 
20, 30, b 3, 380 b 2, 382 
a 33, b 1, 4, 6 (bis), 9, 22, 
30, 383 a 1, 3 (bis), 6, 10, 
14, 18, 23, 26, 0*13, 15, 22, 
26, 384 a 8, 9, 12, 27, b 3, 
6, 8, 10, 11, 13, 24, 385 a 3, 

24, 25, 387 b 16, 388 a 24, 
b 5, 9, 11, 27, 389 a 6, 11, 


l 24i 9 26, b J, 13, 16, 20, 
390 b 4, 9 

ijjvxporaros, 340 b 20, 364 
b 22, 389 b 18 
ijjvxparepos, 340 a 27, 348 a 4, 
364 a 20, 369 a 18 
i/wxporijs, 347 a 25, b 6, 348 
b 19, 349 b 23, 24, 352 b 8, 
362 a 8, 371 a 9, 378 b 15, 
379 a 21, b 13, 380 a 8, 20, 
381 a 15, 17, 384 b 27, 389 
a 29, 31, 390 b 3, 12 
xjjv X o>, 342 a 19, 346 b 29, 347 
a 15, b 18, 348 b 32, 33, 
349 £ 7, 350 a 13, 359 a 31, 
b 3, 360 b 35, 369 a 26, 370 
a 4, 382 b 17, 23, 30, 384 
a 26, b 14 

co Bico, 344 a 26, 368 b 4, 386 
a 30 

uiKeav6s, 347 a 6 

diptis, 380 b 2, 5, 7, 8 (bih), 


o>Ixot V s, 379 b 13, 380 a 27, 
SO, 31, b 4, 12,381 b21 
4>6v, 359 a 14 

4 opa, 347 a 22, b 21, 348 b 6, 
349 a 4, 352 a 30, 360 b 2, 
361 b 28, 31, 362 a 15, 364 
a 33, 365 a 35, 366 b 4, 

_ 371 b 31 
cbpaios, 360 b 8 
’Qpicuv, 343 b 24, 361 b 23, 

to^e'Aeta, 352 b 25 
u>XP a > 378 a 23 

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Aristotle • De Mundo, etc. D. Furley and E. S. Forster. 
Aristotle: History op Animals. A. L. Peck. r 
Plotinus A. H. Armstrong. 


St. Augustine • City of God, 

[Cicero :] Ad Herennium. H. Caplan. 

Cicero : Pro Sestio, In Vatinium, Pro Caelio, De Pro- 
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Gardnei . 

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